Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.TriglyceridesFatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Fatty Acids, Essential: Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Fatty Acid Desaturases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Orotic AcidLiver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Trans Fatty Acids: UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Ketosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.HELLP Syndrome: A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.Mice, Inbred C57BLFasting: Abstaining from all food.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Parturient Paresis: A disease of pregnant and lactating cows and ewes leading to generalized paresis and death. The disease, which is characterized by hypocalcemia, occurs at or shortly after parturition in cows and within weeks before or after parturition in ewes.Fructokinases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose in the presence of ATP. EC 2.7.1.-.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Vitamin B Deficiency: A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.Hypobetalipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL) in the blood. It is defined as LDL values equal to or less than the 5th percentile for the population. They include the autosomal dominant form involving mutation of the APOLIPOPROTEINS B gene, and the autosomal recessive form involving mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. All are characterized by low LDL and dietary fat malabsorption.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Acyl-CoA Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.EstersCytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Receptors, Adiponectin: Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Rats, Inbred F344Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningMalondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Ilex: A plant genus of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. The common name of 'holly' usually refers to this genus but may sometimes refer to similar looking plants of the MAHONIA or QUERCUS genus.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Myelin P2 Protein: A positively charged protein found in peripheral nervous system MYELIN. Sensitive immunological techniques have demonstrated that P2 is expressed in small amounts of central nervous system myelin sheaths of some species. It is an antigen for experimental allergic neuritis (NEURITIS, EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC), the peripheral nervous system counterpart of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 5th ed, p133)Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.

*  A "systems medicine" approach to the study of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. | Università degli Studi della Campania 'Luigi...

DIGESTIVE AND LIVER DISEASE Abstract: The prevalence of fatty liver (steatosis) in the general population is rapidly increasing ... The prevalence of fatty liver (steatosis) in the general population is rapidly increasing worldwide. The progress of knowledge ... A new data set is proposed for studying the impairments of different physiological systems that have an impact on fatty liver ... A new data set is proposed for studying the impairments of different physiological systems that have an impact on fatty liver ...

*  Sugary drinks may increase non-alcoholic fatty liver disease risk - Lifestyle

NAFLD is characterised by an accumulation of fat in the liver cells that is unrelated to alcohol consumption. ... Drinking sugar-sweetened beverage daily may increase the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), says a study. ... Sugary drinks may increase non-alcoholic fatty liver disease risk. 07 Jun 2015, 15:42Jagran Post News Desk Jagran Post ... New York: Drinking sugar-sweetened beverage daily may increase the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), says a ...

*  Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance: importance of risk factors and histological spectrum.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been associated with several metabolic conditions (MC) and secondary causes, but ... Fatty Liver / blood, pathology, physiopathology*. Female. Humans. Insulin Resistance / physiology*. Liver Cirrhosis / blood, ... BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been associated with several metabolic conditions (MC) and secondary ...

*  A novel cause for abnormal liver function tests in pregnancy and the puerperium: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

... non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03070.x. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAF ... A novel cause for abnormal liver function tests in pregnancy and the puerperium: ... non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03070.x. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ... Please cite this paper as: Page L, Girling J. A novel cause for abnormal liver function tests in pregnancy and the puerperium: ...

*  Gene Mutation Linked to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

It also provides a new approach for studying the development of fatty liver disease in humans.. Nonalcoholic fatty liver ... β-hydroxybutyrate is a ketone body, a compound that is produced in the liver when blood glucose is low and fatty acids are ... which developed abnormal lipid accumulation in liver cells, without evidence of associated liver inflammation or liver damage, ... Public Affairs / News & Announcements / News Archive / 2012 / Gene Mutation Linked to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease ...

*  Cytokeratin-18 and hyaluronic acid levels predict liver fibrosis in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Acta...

There is a need to replace liver biopsy with non-invasive markers that predict the degree of liver fibrosis in fatty liver ... Cytokeratin-18 and hyaluronic acid levels predict liver fibrosis in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ... Lavine JE, Schwimmer JB (2004) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the pediatric population. Clin Liver Dis 8: 549-558. ... 2005) Sampling variability of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 128: 1898-1906. ...

*  Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in common endocrine disorders. - Radcliffe Department of Medicine

Its prevalence is rising rapidly and is developing into the leading indication for liver transplantation worldwide. ... Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of disease spanning from simple benign steatosis to steatohepatitis ... Cushing Syndrome, Dwarfism, Pituitary, Fatty Liver, Humans, Hypogonadism, Hypothyroidism, Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease ... Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of disease spanning from simple benign steatosis to steatohepatitis ...

*  "NRF2 AS A NUTRIENT SENSITIVE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR" by Supriya Kulkarni

... dynamic parameters of drugs and environmental toxicants in models of NAFLD and cause drug induced liver injury (DILI) which can ... Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) has also been referred to as hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance. NAFLD or ... Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) has also been referred to as hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance. NAFLD or ... Various miRNAs such as miR34a, miR122, miR370, miR221, miR33a, let-7 have been proven to be important regulators of fatty acid ...

*  Efficacy of rosuvastatin for the treatment of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with hyperlipidaemia - AdisInsight

This trial will investigate the efficacy of rosuvastatin in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hyperlipidaemia ... Efficacy of rosuvastatin for the treatment of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with hyperlipidaemia Next Previous ... Efficacy of rosuvastatin for the treatment of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with hyperlipidaemia Recruiting ...

*  Metabolic syndrome and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

... has been considered the most common liver disease nowadays, which is also the most frequent cause of elevated transaminases and ... Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, ... CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, has been considered the most ... The greatest input of fatty acids into the liver and consequent increased beta-oxidation contribute to the formation of free ...

*  Placebo Controlled Study Using Lovaza as Treatment for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Genetics Home Reference related topics: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease MedlinePlus related topics: Fatty Liver Disease Liver ... Liver Diseases. Fatty Liver. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Digestive System Diseases. ... Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Drug: Lovaza Drug: placebo control Phase 4 ... The thought behind using Lovaza as a treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is two fold. It would help in the ...

*  Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Multimedia - Mayo Clinic

... diagnosis and treatment of the most common chronic liver disease. ... Rinella M. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic ... Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In: Zakim & Boyer's Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ... Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In: Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, ... Recommendations for diagnosis, referral for liver biopsy, and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic ...

*  Wellness Overview: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Can Fatty Liver Disease Cause Peripheral Neuropathy?. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD, is considered to be the most ... Symptoms of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. NAFLD is referred to as a silent disease. People with non-alcoholic fatty liver ... When the proper function of the liver is impaired due to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and/or due to other liver conditions ... Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Diagnosis. Utilizing an abdominal ultrasound or a biopsy is the best way to diagnose fatty ...

*  Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Doctors and departments - Mayo Clinic

... diagnosis and treatment of the most common chronic liver disease. ... Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease care at Mayo Clinic Request an ... Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In: Zakim & Boyer's Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ... Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In: Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, ... Recommendations for diagnosis, referral for liver biopsy, and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic ...

*  Immunopathogenesis of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - Senad Divanovic

Obesity is a primary risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a spectrum of disorders ... Giles, Daniel A; Moreno-Fernandez, Maria E; Divanovic, Senad (2015) IL-17 Axis Driven Inflammation in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver ... 2016) Regulation of Inflammation by IL-17A and IL-17F Modulates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Pathogenesis. PLoS One 11: ... Obesity is a primary risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a spectrum of disorders ...

*  Birth weight is risk factor for fatty liver disease in children | EurekAlert! Science News

... have demonstrated the impact of low and high birth weights in developing Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), a chronic ... However, children with high-birth weight were more likely to develop the hepatitis form of fatty liver disease." ... Birth weight is risk factor for fatty liver disease in children. University of California - San Diego ... According to the American Liver Foundation, NAFLD is a spectrum of diseases that begins with excess fat deposits in the liver. ...

*  Obesity: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rising In U.S. | Time.com

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is on the rise in the United States, and raises the risk for heart disease, diabetes, and ...

*  UC San Diego Launches New Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Research Center

... have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a chronic condition that can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. ... have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a chronic condition that can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. ... A micrograph of an inflamed fatty liver. White indicates areas of fat; red are hepatocytes or liver cells. Bluish areas are ... Home ▶ Newsroom ▶ Releases ▶ UC San Diego Launches New Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Research Center ...

*  Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children: Focus on Nutritional Interventions

Recent advances have been focused on limitation of dietary fructose and supplementation of antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, ... there has been a growing body of evidence to implicate altered gut microbiota in the development of NAFLD through the gut-liver ... has emerged as the most common cause of liver disease among children and adolescents in industrialized countries. It is ... omega-3 fatty acids, and prebiotics/probiotics improve NAFLD. ... Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children: Focus on ...

*  Non-alcoholic Fatty liver disease: the bile Acid-activated farnesoid x receptor as an emerging treatment target.

It may progress to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer and is poised to represent the most common indication for liver ... is currently evolving as the most common liver disease worldwide. ... Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently evolving as the most common liver disease worldwide. It may progress to ... Arias IM,Alter HJ,Boyer JL,et al.Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pathophysiological perspectiveThe liver. Biology and ...

*  Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

... (NAFLD) is commonly diagnosed in outpatient hepatology and gastroenterology practices in North ... An echogenic liver on ultrasound suggesting fat infiltration further supports the diagnosis. Finally, liver biopsy showing ... NAFLD is diagnosed by excluding a history of significant alcohol intake and by ruling out viral, autoimmune and other liver ... Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) refers to NAFLD accompanied by evidence of fibrosis or inflammation in the liver biopsy in ...

*  Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH | NIDDK

Overview of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) including causes, symptoms, ... Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH. View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD ... You may be able to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis fatty liver disease (NASH ... Usually, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cause few or no symptoms. Certain ...

*  The Effect of a Silybin-Vitamin E-Phospholipid Complex on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Pilot Study | SpringerLink

Ramesh S, Sanyal AJ (2004) Hepatitis C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Semin Liver Dis 24:399-413PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Dixon JB, Bhathal PS, Hughes NR, O'Brien PE (2004) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: improvement in liver histological analysis ... Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a multicentre clinical study by the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver. Dig ... 2003) Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome. Hepatology 37:917-923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...

*  Fatty Liver - Hepatitis C - MedHelp

How does one know if they have fatty liver? What test, or tests, are done to determine that? It's not something that I think I ... Fatty Liver. This may be a stupid question, but, here goes..... How does one know if they have fatty liver? What test, or tests ... The 1rst two in 99 and 2004 showed o fibrosis and no fatty liver. the last one in 2010 showed late stage 2 and fatty liver, ... The 1rst two in 99 and 2004 showed o fibrosis and no fatty liver. the last one in 2010 showed late stage 2 and fatty liver, ...

*  Monosodium glutamate, obesity and fatty liver disease

... has been linked to obesity and disorders associated with metabolic syndrome including progressive liver disease. ... "Monosodium glutamate, obesity and fatty liver disease." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 29 May. 2014. Web.. 18 Oct. ... Liebert, M. (2014, May 29). "Monosodium glutamate, obesity and fatty liver disease." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. https ... and Italy monitored the weight gain and development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its progression to nonalcoholic ...

Fatty liverLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIHeptadecanoic acidAmerican Association for the Study of Liver Diseases: The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) is the leading organization of scientists and health care professionals committed to preventing and curing liver disease. AASLD was founded in 1950 by a small group of leading liver specialists (including Hans Popper, Leon Schiff, Fred Hoffbauer, Cecil Watson, Jesse Bollman, and Sheila Sherlock, to name a few) to bring together those who had contributed to the field of hepatology.Mir-652 microRNA precursor family: In molecular biology mir-652 microRNA is a short RNA molecule. MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms, with expression levels of miRNAs and respective target mRNAs negatively correlated.Jean Emond: Jean C. Emond is the current Thomas S.Metastatic liver disease: A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply (the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein).Alanine transaminase: Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme (). It is also called alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and was formerly called serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) or serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT).Liver biopsyMicrosome: In cell biology, microsomes are vesicle-like artifacts re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in healthy, living cells.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.TriglycerideCannabidiolic acid synthase: Cannabidiolic acid synthase (, CBDA synthase) is an enzyme with system name cannabigerolate:oxygen oxidoreductase (cyclizing, cannabidiolate-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionHeart-type fatty acid binding protein: Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (hFABP) also known as mammary-derived growth inhibitor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FABP3 gene.FibroTest: FibroTest, known as FibroSure in the US, is a patented biomarker test that uses the results of six blood serum tests to generate a score that is correlated with the degree of liver damage in people with a variety of liver diseases. FibroTest has the same prognostic value as a liver biopsy.Animal fatEssential fatty acid: Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.TransaminaseDelta11-fatty-acid desaturase: Delta11-fatty-acid desaturase (, Delta11 desaturase, fatty acid Delta11-desaturase, TpDESN, Cro-PG, Delta11 fatty acid desaturase, Z/E11-desaturase, Delta11-palmitoyl-CoA desaturase) is an enzyme with system name acyl-CoA,hydrogen donor:oxygen Delta11-oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionLiver function tests: LFT}}National Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.Lipokine: A lipokine is a lipid-controlling hormone. The term "lipokine" was first used by Haiming Cao in 2008 to classify fatty acids which modulate lipid metabolism by what he called a "chaperone effect".PhospholipidList of MeSH codes (D12.776.930): This is a sub-part (transcription factors only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Orotic acidKing's College Criteria: The King's College Criteria or the King's College Hospital criteria were devised in 1989 to determine if there were any early indices of poor prognosis in patients with acute liver failure. Acute liver failure is defined as the onset of encephalopathy (altered mental status) or coagulopathy (altered bleeding tendencies) within 26 weeks of a patient diagnosed with liver disease.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Ethanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.Liver abscessAdipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.CholesterolTransport protein: A transport protein (variously referred to as a transmembrane pump, transporter protein, escort protein, acid transport protein, cation transport protein, or anion transport protein) is a protein that serves the function of moving other materials within an organism. Transport proteins are vital to the growth and life of all living things.TripalmitinMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Fluorotelomer alcohol: Fluorotelomer alcohols, or FTOHs, are fluorotelomers with an alcohol functional group. They are volatile precursors to perfluorinated carboxylic acids, such as PFOA and PFNA, and other compounds.Ethyl oleateVistive: Vistive is the brand name for a type of soybeans developed by Monsanto. Currently the only Vistive seed on the market is a low-linolenic soybean that reduces or eliminates the need for addition of trans-fatty acids.Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomaShort-chain fatty acid: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs),"Role of Volatile Fatty Acids in Development of the Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens during Growth" at asm.org are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail of less than six carbon atoms.Brain biopsyQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Fructose malabsorptionTriacylglycerol lipase: Triacylglycerol lipase (, lipase, butyrinase, tributyrinase, Tween hydrolase, steapsin, triacetinase, tributyrin esterase, Tweenase, amno N-AP, Takedo 1969-4-9, Meito MY 30, Tweenesterase, GA 56, capalase L, triglyceride hydrolase, triolein hydrolase, tween-hydrolyzing esterase, amano CE, cacordase, triglyceridase, triacylglycerol ester hydrolase, amano P, amano AP, PPL, glycerol-ester hydrolase, GEH, meito Sangyo OF lipase, hepatic lipase, lipazin, post-heparin plasma protamine-resistant lipase, salt-resistant post-heparin lipase, heparin releasable hepatic lipase, amano CES, amano B, tributyrase, triglyceride lipase, liver lipase, hepatic monoacylglycerol acyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name triacylglycerol acylhydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionElectron-capture mass spectrometry: Electron-capture mass spectrometry (EC-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that uses electron capture ionization (ECI) to form negative ions from chemical compounds with positive electron affinities. The approach is particularly effective for electrophiles.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGlucose transporterPhosphoserine transaminase: Phosphoserine transaminase (, PSAT, phosphoserine aminotransferase, 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase, hydroxypyruvic phosphate-glutamic transaminase, L-phosphoserine aminotransferase, phosphohydroxypyruvate transaminase, phosphohydroxypyruvic-glutamic transaminase, 3-O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, SerC, PdxC, 3PHP transaminase) is an enzyme with system name O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionInsulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.ATC code H04: ==H04A Glycogenolytic hormones==Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Kupffer cell: Kupffer cells, also known as Browicz-Kupffer cells and stellate macrophages, are specialized macrophages located in the liver lining the walls of the sinusoids that form part of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) (or mononuclear phagocyte system).HepatosplenomegalyFlow focusingACACB: Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 also known as ACC-beta or ACC2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACACB gene.Lipid peroxidationKetosisLithium 12-hydroxystearateArtificial extracorporeal liver support: Artificial extracorporeal liver support is a term that is used to describe measures that are used to carry out liver function and are outside the body. The Molecular Adsorbent Recirculation System (MARS) is an example of artificial extracorporeal liver support.

(1/3223) Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease.

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF.  (+info)

(2/3223) Preventive effects of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate on the fatty liver induced by orotic acid in male rats.

Preventive effects of dehydroepiandrosteone acetate (DHEA-A) and clofibrate (positive control substance) on the fatty liver induced by orotic acid (OA) were examined on the male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high sucrose based diet containing 1% OA and this diet further mixed with 0.5% DHEA-A or 0.5% clofibrate for 2 weeks. Numerous lipid droplets were observed in the hepatocytes of the rats treated with OA alone, but not in those treated with DHEA-A or clofibrate. In comparison to the group with OA alone, the DHEA-A or clofibrate treated rats showed a larger relative liver weight (to body weight) which was accompanied by increased peroxisomes in the hepatocytes. These results indicate that DHEA-A, as well as clofibrate, may prevent OA-induced fatty liver.  (+info)

(3/3223) Liver disease in pregnancy.

Acute viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy. The course of acute hepatitis is unaffected by pregnancy, except in patients with hepatitis E and disseminated herpes simplex infections, in which maternal and fetal mortality rates are significantly increased. Chronic hepatitis B or C infections may be transmitted to neonates; however, hepatitis B virus transmission is effectively prevented with perinatal hepatitis B vaccination and prophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin. Cholelithiasis occurs in 6 percent of pregnancies; complications can safely be treated with surgery. Women with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis exhibit a higher risk of fetal loss during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is associated with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count) syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and hepatic infarction and rupture. These rare diseases result in increased maternal and fetal mortality. Treatment involves prompt delivery, whereupon the liver disease quickly reverses. Therapy with penicillamine, trientine, prednisone or azathioprine can be safely continued during pregnancy.  (+info)

(4/3223) Molecular heterogeneity in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency causing pediatric cardiomyopathy and sudden death.

BACKGROUND: Genetic defects are being increasingly recognized in the etiology of primary cardiomyopathy (CM). Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the first step in the beta-oxidation spiral of fatty acid metabolism, the crucial pathway for cardiac energy production. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 37 patients with CM, nonketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic dysfunction, skeletal myopathy, or sudden death in infancy with hepatic steatosis, features suggestive of fatty acid oxidation disorders. Single-stranded conformational variance was used to screen genomic DNA. DNA sequencing and mutational analysis revealed 21 different mutations on the VLCAD gene in 18 patients. Of the mutations, 80% were associated with CM. Severe CM in infancy was recognized in most patients (67%) at presentation. Hepatic dysfunction was common (33%). RNA blot analysis and VLCAD enzyme assays showed a severe reduction in VLCAD mRNA in patients with frame-shift or splice-site mutations and absent or severe reduction in enzyme activity in all. CONCLUSIONS: Infantile CM is the most common clinical phenotype of VLCAD deficiency. Mutations in the human VLCAD gene are heterogeneous. Although mortality at presentation is high, both the metabolic disorder and cardiomyopathy are reversible.  (+info)

(5/3223) Detection of haptoglobin in the high-density lipoprotein and the very high-density lipoprotein fractions from sera of calves with experimental pneumonia and cows with naturally occurring fatty liver.

In addition to the lipoprotein-deficient d > 1.25 fraction, haptoglobin was detected in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and the very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) fractions from sera of calves with experimental pneumonia and cows with naturally occurring fatty liver. It was not found in the chylomicrons, very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein fractions. Washing of the HDL fraction did not decrease the haptoglobin concentration. Transferrin and immunoglobulin G were immunoblotted to examine the possibility of contamination of the lipoprotein fractions by the d > 1.25 fraction. The two serum proteins were detected only in the d > 1.25 fraction, not in any lipoprotein fractions. The distribution pattern of haptoglobin in the lipoprotein fractions was distinct from that of serum albumin. Concentrations of haptoglobin in the HDL fractions from pneumonic sera were largely proportional to those in whole sera. Cholesteryl ester concentrations were decreased in sera from calves with pneumonia, as in cows with fatty liver. A protein immunologically related to hemoglobin was also detected in particular in the VHDL fractions from sera of both groups. These results suggest that haptoglobin or a complex with the hemoglobin-like protein may have a role or roles related to the lipid metabolism.  (+info)

(6/3223) Protection by short-chain fatty acids against 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine-induced intestinal lesions in germfree mice.

In germfree mice, the administration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) protected the intestinal mucosa from damage produced by 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C). Animals receiving SCFA and Ara-C had intestinal morphologies closer to normal than the control animals, which had severe intestinal lesions. We concluded that orally administrated SCFA reduce intestinal lesions, improving the mucosa pattern of the small intestine and colon.  (+info)

(7/3223) Fatty liver--an additional and treatable feature of the insulin resistance syndrome.

To test the hypothesis that fatty liver coexists with other metabolic abnormalities of the insulin resistance syndrome, and responds to their amelioration, we prospectively studied 48 consecutive patients with chronically elevated liver enzymes and clinical, ultrasound and histological findings consistent with fatty infiltration of the liver. Most of the patients were overweight or obese (64%) with increased waist circumference which closely relates to visceral fat. Only 10% of the patients had normal glucose tolerance: 44% had diabetes mellitus, 29% impaired glucose tolerance, and 17% were hyperinsulinaemic. The most common dyslipidaemia found was hypertriglyceridaemia and/or low HDL-C (86%). Dietary intervention and follow-up (median 24 months), supplemented by oral hypoglycaemic or lipid-lowering drugs as needed, resulted not only in weight loss (mean 3.7 kg), decreased fasting blood glucose (p < 0.005) and improvement in serum lipid profile (p < 0.02 for both triglycerides or HDL-C) but also in an improvement of serum liver enzymes in 96%, which became normal in more than half of the patients. Thus, fatty liver was strongly associated with many features of the insulin resistance syndrome, and follow-up revealed a high potential for reversibility and a benign course.  (+info)

(8/3223) A fetal fatty-acid oxidation disorder as a cause of liver disease in pregnant women.

BACKGROUND: Acute fatty liver of pregnancy and the HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver-enzyme levels, and a low platelet count) are serious hepatic disorders that may occur during pregnancy in women whose fetuses are later found to have a deficiency of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial trifunctional protein, which also contains the active site of long-chain 2,3-enoyl-CoA hydratase and long-chain 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. We undertook this study to determine the relation between mutations in the trifunctional protein in infants with defects in fatty-acid oxidation and acute liver disease during pregnancy in their mothers. METHODS: In 24 children with 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, we used DNA amplification and nucleotide-sequence analyses to identify mutations in the alpha subunit of the trifunctional protein. We then correlated the results with the presence of liver disease during pregnancy in the mothers. RESULTS: Nineteen children had a deficiency only of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and presented with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and fatty liver. In eight children, we identified a homozygous mutation in which glutamic acid at residue 474 was changed to glutamine. Eleven other children were compound heterozygotes, with this mutation in one allele of the alpha-subunit gene and a different mutation in the other allele. While carrying fetuses with the Glu474Gln mutation, 79 percent of the heterozygous mothers had fatty liver of pregnancy or the HELLP syndrome. Five other children, who presented with neonatal dilated cardiomyopathy or progressive neuromyopathy, had complete deficiency of the trifunctional protein (loss of activity of all three enzymes). None had the Glu474Gln mutation, and none of their mothers had liver disease during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Women with acute liver disease during pregnancy may have a Glu474Gln mutation in long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Their infants are at risk for hypoketotic hypoglycemia and fatty liver.  (+info)



Nonalcoholic

  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), or abnormally high accumulation of lipids in the liver, is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. (utah.edu)
  • Feldstein AE, Charatcharoenwitthaya P, Treeprasertsuk S, Benson JT, Enders FB, Angulo P (2009) The natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children: a follow-up study for up to 20-years. (edu.pl)
  • 2005) Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (edu.pl)
  • Lavine JE, Schwimmer JB (2004) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the pediatric population. (edu.pl)
  • Rinella M. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Recommendations for diagnosis, referral for liver biopsy, and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Advanced fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Noninvasive assessment with MR elastography. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Natural history and management. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Association of coffee and caffeine consumption with fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and degree of hepatic fibrosis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver: Optimizing pretransplant selection and posttransplant care to maximize survival. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Mayo Clinic investigators are making new discoveries in the areas of cause, prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and are translating their findings into improved patient care. (mayoclinic.org)
  • See a list of publications on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by Mayo Clinic doctors on PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Mayo Clinic researchers seek greater understanding of why some people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease develop cirrhosis but others do not. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is commonly diagnosed in outpatient hepatology and gastroenterology practices in North America. (anesthesiaprogress.com)
  • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) refers to NAFLD accompanied by evidence of fibrosis or inflammation in the liver biopsy in addition to steatosis. (anesthesiaprogress.com)
  • Eighty-five patients were divided into 2 groups: those affected by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (group A) and those with HCV-related chronic hepatitis associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (group B), nonresponders to treatment. (springer.com)
  • Ramesh S, Sanyal AJ (2004) Hepatitis C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (springer.com)

NAFLD

  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest liver disease in the western world, but has never been reported in pregnancy before. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We suggest that NAFLD should also be considered as a cause for abnormal liver function tests during pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Obstetricians have a vital role in optimising maternal health during and after pregnancy and therefore we need to include NAFLD in the differential diagnosis for abnormal liver function tests and recommend lifestyle modifications that may prevent progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In some people, NAFLD causes no complications, but in others, excess fat in the liver can lead to inflammation or development of scar tissue, resulting in permanent liver damage or even liver failure. (utah.edu)
  • The increasing prevalence of NAFLD in the United States is due, in large part, to the obesity epidemic and it is estimated that more than 6 million U.S. children already have fatty liver disease. (utah.edu)
  • Currently, there are a limited number of treatment options for decreasing excess fat in the liver and there are no methods for reversing damage to liver tissue due to NAFLD," says Amnon Schlegel , M.D., Ph.D., investigator in the Molecular Medicine program at the Univerity of Utah , assistant professor of internal medicine at the U of U School of Medicine, and senior author on the study. (utah.edu)
  • By identifying and characterizing novel genes that regulate accumulation of lipids in the liver, we may be able to gain new insight into the physiological processes that lead to NAFLD. (utah.edu)
  • We still don't know whether altered fasting liver metabolism influences the development of NAFLD, but knowing that Slc16a6a is required for secretion of ketone bodies from liver cells during fasting may have implications for our understanding and treatment of other medical conditions where ketone bodies play a role, including uncontrolled type 1 diabetes, obesity, and childhood metabolic disorders caused by defects in fatty acid metabolism. (utah.edu)
  • Therefore, we studied four potential serum markers of liver fibrosis and compared them with histopathological findings in liver biopsy in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). (edu.pl)
  • Conclusions: Cytokeratin-18 and hyaluronic acid are suitable serum markers predicting liver fibrosis in children with NAFLD. (edu.pl)
  • CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, has been considered the most common liver disease nowadays, which is also the most frequent cause of elevated transaminases and cryptogenic cirrhosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) imposes a high and increasing burden on the NHS, yet there is presently no licensed treatment or validated approach to management. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • NAFLD predisposes to increased risk of type 2 diabetes, increased risk of cardiovascular disease and may progress to chronic irreversible liver disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In NAFLD patients, the investigators will test the hypothesis that treatment with long chain n-3 fatty acid supplementation for 18 months favourably influences bio-markers for NAFLD and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients with NAFLD have steatosis, which closely resembles alcoholic liver disease, but without a significant history of alcohol consumption. (anesthesiaprogress.com)
  • NAFLD is diagnosed by excluding a history of significant alcohol intake and by ruling out viral, autoimmune and other liver diseases. (anesthesiaprogress.com)
  • Recently, Matteoni et al described a heterogeneous cohort of patients with NAFLD, and showed a positive correlation between the severity of changes in the liver and clinical outcomes, including mortality. (anesthesiaprogress.com)
  • We elected to further characterize patients with NAFLD by studying patients who were referred exclusively for raised liver enzymes. (anesthesiaprogress.com)

acids

  • β-hydroxybutyrate is a ketone body, a compound that is produced in the liver when blood glucose is low and fatty acids are broken down for energy. (utah.edu)
  • During periods of fasting, most body tissues can use fatty acids as an energy source, but the brain relies on β-hydroxybutyrate and other ketone bodies for fuel. (utah.edu)
  • The greatest input of fatty acids into the liver and consequent increased beta-oxidation contribute to the formation of free radicals, release of inflammatory cytokines and varying degrees of hepatocytic aggression, whose histological expression may vary from steatosis (HS) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). (biomedsearch.com)
  • We are asking the research question ' Does treatment with purified long chain n-3 fatty acids (purified fish oil) improve non alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk factors for heart disease and type 2 (adult) diabetes that are strongly linked to this liver condition? (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Research evidence suggests that purified long chain n-3 fatty acids might be beneficial for this condition. (clinicaltrials.gov)

biopsy

  • Objectives: There is a need to replace liver biopsy with non-invasive markers that predict the degree of liver fibrosis in fatty liver disease related to obesity. (edu.pl)
  • Afdhal NH (2004) Biopsy or biomarkers: is there a gold standard for diagnosis of liver fibrosis? (edu.pl)
  • The primary end-points of the study are: a) to assess change in serum biomarkers with treatment b) to validate changes in biomarkers with changes in Kleiner liver biopsy score in a sub-group of volunteers who opt for a follow-up liver biopsy and c) to validate changes in biomarkers with changes in liver fat measured by MR scan of liver for the whole study population. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To address this research question we want to undertake a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial recruiting people who have been diagnosed with a liver biopsy as having the liver condition. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the protocol, we have deleted information regarding liver biopsy that was to be offered at the end of the study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Finally, liver biopsy showing steatosis with or without inflammation and fibrosis is considered the gold standard for diagnosis, but in practice it is often omitted because clinicians lack treatments that are proven to alter the natural history of this condition. (anesthesiaprogress.com)

obesity

  • 2010) Relationship between insulin resistance, inflammation and liver cell apoptosis in patients with severe obesity. (edu.pl)
  • Combined liver transplantation and gastric sleeve resection for patients with medically complicated obesity and end-stage liver disease. (mayoclinic.org)

fibrosis

  • Viral hepatitis, autoimmune and metabolic liver diseases (Wilson's disease, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, cystic fibrosis) were excluded. (edu.pl)
  • Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to calculate the power of the assays to detect liver fibrosis (AccuROC, Canada). (edu.pl)
  • Lebensztejn DM, Kaczmarski M, Sobaniec-Lotowska M, Bauer M, Voelker M, Schuppan D (2004) Serum laminin-2 and hyaluronan predict severe liver fibrosis in children with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 39: 868-869. (edu.pl)
  • Liver enzyme levels, hyperinsulinemia, and indexes of liver fibrosis showed an improvement in treated individuals. (springer.com)

pediatric

abnormal liver

  • A novel cause for abnormal liver function tests in pregnancy and the puerperium: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (biomedsearch.com)

Hepatology

  • In: Zakim & Boyer's Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease. (mayoclinic.org)

alcoholic

  • Metabolic syndrome and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A combination of descriptors was used, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, metabolic syndrome and risk factors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice guideline by the American Gastroenterological Association, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and American College of Gastroenterology. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Loguercio C, De Simone T, D'Auria MV, de Sio I, Federico A, Tuccillo C, Abbatecola AM, Del Vecchio Blanco C, Italian AISF Clinical Group (2004) Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a multicentre clinical study by the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver. (springer.com)

chronic

  • Oxidative stress leads to chronic liver damage. (springer.com)
  • Our data suggest that silybin conjugated with vitamin E and phospholipids could be used as a complementary approach to the treatment of patients with chronic liver damage. (springer.com)

steatosis

  • After treatment, group A showed a significant reduction in ultrasonographic scores for liver steatosis. (springer.com)

metabolism

  • This discovery, published in the Feb. 1, 2012, issue of Genes & Development, reveals that transport of ketone bodies out of the liver is a critical step in energy metabolism during fasting. (utah.edu)

disease

  • It also provides a new approach for studying the development of fatty liver disease in humans. (utah.edu)
  • In: Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. (mayoclinic.org)
  • however, it is estimated that up to 20% of patients with NASH progress to end-stage liver disease. (anesthesiaprogress.com)

inflammation

  • Schlegel and his colleagues began by identifying a zebrafish mutant known as red moon (rmn), which developed abnormal lipid accumulation in liver cells, without evidence of associated liver inflammation or liver damage, when exposed to fasting conditions. (utah.edu)

clinical

  • Magnetic resonance elastography of liver: Technique, analysis and clinical applications. (mayoclinic.org)

diagnosis

  • An echogenic liver on ultrasound suggesting fat infiltration further supports the diagnosis. (anesthesiaprogress.com)

assessment

  • More recently, investigators have described NASH in patients who were referred to outpatient clinics for an assessment of elevated liver enzymes. (anesthesiaprogress.com)

commonly

  • Also known as Milk Thistle, Carduus m. has been used medicinally for over 2,000 years, most commonly to treat ailments associated with the liver and gallbladder. (herbalous.com)

natural

  • Our LiverActive Liver Detox formula contains several natural ingredients to help maintain a healthy liver. (herbalous.com)
  • Just healthy, natural support that your liver will thank you for! (herbalous.com)
  • 1. Take LiverActive Homeopathic Spray-a natural liver detox you can count on. (herbalous.com)

treatment

function

  • Schlegel and his colleagues discovered that, in rmn mutants deprived of nutrition, loss of Slc16a6a function disabled secretion of ketone bodies from liver cells and increased lipid accumulation in the liver. (utah.edu)
  • This yellow-flowered poppy relative has been used as a detoxifying agent as far back as the 1st century AD, and is helpful in supporting liver, kidney and spleen function. (herbalous.com)
  • Every toxin absorbed by the small intestine, stomach, pancreas, and spleen hits the liver through the venous blood supply first, so a healthy, balanced diet is key to good liver function. (herbalous.com)

body

  • SALT LAKE CITY)-A team of scientists from the University of Utah School of Medicine and the University of California at San Francisco has discovered that the mutation of a gene encoding a ketone body transporter triggers accumulation of fat and other lipids in the livers of zebrafish. (utah.edu)
  • They also found that introducing the human form of the SLC16A6 protein into rmn mutant livers restored ketone body secretion. (utah.edu)
  • Our formula works safely and gently to help detoxify your your body and support liver health but you can do more. (herbalous.com)

research

  • Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (mayoclinic.org)

people

  • Instead of complaining bitterly, an overworked liver just gets sluggish about doing its various jobs, and people often go years enduring fatigue and other health issues that may actually be signs that the liver isn't functioning optimally. (herbalous.com)