Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.TriglyceridesFatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Fatty Acids, Essential: Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC Acid Desaturases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Orotic AcidLiver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Trans Fatty Acids: UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Ketosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.HELLP Syndrome: A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.Mice, Inbred C57BLFasting: Abstaining from all food.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Parturient Paresis: A disease of pregnant and lactating cows and ewes leading to generalized paresis and death. The disease, which is characterized by hypocalcemia, occurs at or shortly after parturition in cows and within weeks before or after parturition in ewes.Fructokinases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose in the presence of ATP. EC 2.7.1.-.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Vitamin B Deficiency: A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.Hypobetalipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL) in the blood. It is defined as LDL values equal to or less than the 5th percentile for the population. They include the autosomal dominant form involving mutation of the APOLIPOPROTEINS B gene, and the autosomal recessive form involving mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. All are characterized by low LDL and dietary fat malabsorption.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Acyl-CoA Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.EstersCytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Receptors, Adiponectin: Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Rats, Inbred F344Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningMalondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Ilex: A plant genus of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. The common name of 'holly' usually refers to this genus but may sometimes refer to similar looking plants of the MAHONIA or QUERCUS genus.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Myelin P2 Protein: A positively charged protein found in peripheral nervous system MYELIN. Sensitive immunological techniques have demonstrated that P2 is expressed in small amounts of central nervous system myelin sheaths of some species. It is an antigen for experimental allergic neuritis (NEURITIS, EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC), the peripheral nervous system counterpart of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 5th ed, p133)Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.

*  Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH | NIDDK

Overview of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) including causes, symptoms, ... Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH. View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD ... You may be able to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis fatty liver disease (NASH ... Usually, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cause few or no symptoms. Certain ...

*  Fatty liver: What to know about nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Learn all about nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This article looks at the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and outlook ... Links to fatty liver. Not everyone who is obese develops fatty liver, and not everyone who has fatty liver is obese. These ... Fatty liver: What to know about nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Last reviewed Thu 25 August 2016 Last reviewed Thu 25 Aug ... "Fatty liver: What to know about nonalcoholic fatty liver disease." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 25 Aug. 2016. Web. ...

*  Fatty liver disease prevented in mice

In mice, blocking GLUT8 stops fructose from entering the liver and protects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The liver ... Fatty liver disease prevented in mice. 04.06.2014. Studying mice, researchers have found a way to prevent nonalcoholic fatty ... Further reports about: , Development , Fatty , Health , Medicine , burn , deficiency , evidence , hospitals , liver , metabolic ... Development »Fatty »Health »Medicine »burn »deficiency »evidence »hospitals »liver »metabolic »whole-body ...

*  Contact Information | UPMC Fatty Liver Disease Program

Find contact information and learn how to schedule your appointment with the UPMC Fatty Liver Program. ... Contact the UPMC Fatty Liver Disease Program. For more information or to schedule an appointment at the UPMC Fatty Liver ...

*  HealthBoards - View Single Post - Fatty Infiltration of Liver?

Re: Fatty Infiltration of Liver? Hi - when you mentioned sleep disorder a red flag went up. I have been researching the liver ... Anyway, when I was ******ing problems about the liver I did read about sleep apnea and liver problems. You might try ******ing ... since our son had elevated liver enzymes and an ultra sound done, but so far no results yet. ...

*  Researchers Estimate Significant Fatty Liver Disease in Children

Fatty Liver Disease: A Growing Health Problem in India. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of liver ... Living Donor Liver Transplant: What Are the Risks?. The risk of dying as a result of a living donor liver segment removal is ... Previous estimates of fatty liver disease in U.S. children ranged from 0-3%. Schwimmer stated that fatty liver disease is ... They discovered that the major risk factors for fatty liver in children are: Age: They found that fatty liver prevalence ...

*  Cellular Stress Leads to Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

... researchers at University of Iowa and University of Michigan have found that disrupted protein folding may lead to fatty liver ... The results of the study may pave the way for understanding and perhaps treating fatty liver disease. While fatty liver itself ... The result suggested that the UPR is able to protect the liver against ER stress to a certain degree, but that fatty liver will ... Liver Cancer Treatment - Animation. Liver Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the liver. The present section provides ...

*  Birth weight is risk factor for fatty liver disease in children | EurekAlert! Science News

... have demonstrated the impact of low and high birth weights in developing Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), a chronic ... However, children with high-birth weight were more likely to develop the hepatitis form of fatty liver disease." ... Birth weight is risk factor for fatty liver disease in children. University of California - San Diego ... According to the American Liver Foundation, NAFLD is a spectrum of diseases that begins with excess fat deposits in the liver. ...

*  Fatty Liver Disease Program in Los Angeles, CA | Cedars-Sinai

The Fatty Liver Disease Program is working to bridge the gap between scientific discovery and clinical care for patients with ... Fatty Liver Program experts are exploring the role of S-adenosylmethione in liver health, and seeking new ways to treat and ... Fatty liver disease affects as much as 30 percent of the U.S. population, and can lead to a life-threatening condition, ... The Fatty Liver Program at Cedars-Sinai is working to bridge the gap between scientific discovery and clinical care for ...

*  Fatty Liver in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Prevalence of Fatty Liver in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Patients and Mechanisms Related to Inflammation and Fatty Liver. ... Fatty liver is known to be one of the most frequent liver pathologies in IBD patients (35-40%). Despite this fact, there are ... Assessment of Fatty liver [ Time Frame: first visit ]. Biospecimen Retention: Samples Without DNA. Blood count and biochemistry ... Fatty Liver in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Patients. The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00855907?recr=Open&cond="Inflammatory Bowel Diseases"&rank=13

*  A new index for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - HealthyTalk

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become a global epidemic. There is not only a great interest worldwide to understand the causes and consequences of fatty liver disease, but also to diagnose fatty liver disease at an early stage. Researchers have now generated a new index from clinical data which can predict the presence of fatty liver disease with high accuracy ...

*  Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - UK Transplant Center | UK HealthCare

When it is not due to alcohol, it is called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The fat cells may just exist inside the liver, or they may cause damage to the liver itself. For some people NAFLD is not a dangerous condition, but for others it can be. When there is little damage or risk to the liver, the condition is caused non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD).

*  UCSF Liver Disease Trial: De Novo Lipogenesis, Lipid and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver ailment in developed countries. Fatty liver - steatosis - affects up to one third of the population. Its prevalence is rising and seems to parallel the global increase in obesity and type-2 diabetes. The etiology of NAFLD in humans is not well understood. We propose that the hepatic conversion of carbohydrates (CHO) to lipids (de novo lipogenesis, DNL) is a key factor in the accumulation of excess liver fat and the accompanying dyslipidemia and hepatic insulin resistance; and that suppressing DNL by diet will reduce liver fat and improve both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in patients with steatosis. These hypotheses are based on studies in which we and others have established that fractional hepatic DNL can vary dramatically depending on the diet and/or health status of a subject; and, in particular, that dietary fructose ...

*  Cytokeratin-18 and hyaluronic acid levels predict liver fibrosis in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Acta...

Objectives: There is a need to replace liver biopsy with non-invasive markers that predict the degree of liver fibrosis in fatty liver disease related to obesity. Therefore, we studied four potential serum markers of liver fibrosis and compared them with histopathological findings in liver biopsy in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: We determined fasting serum level of hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin, YKL-40 and cytokeratin-18 M30 in 52 children (age range 4-19, mean 12 years, 80 % of them were overweight or obese) with biopsy-verified NAFLD. Viral hepatitis, autoimmune and metabolic liver diseases (Wilson's disease, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, cystic fibrosis) were excluded. Fibrosis stage was assessed in a blinded fashion by one pathologist according to Kleiner. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was ...

*  Risk of severe liver disease in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with normal aminotransferase levels: A role for insulin...

It is uncertain whether patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) have a milder disease and should undergo liver biopsy. We reviewed the histological data of 458 Italian patients with NAFLD in whom liver biopsy was indicated by altered liver enzymes (395 cases, 86%), or persistently elevated ferritin or long-lasting severe steatosis (63 cases). Factors associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis ≥ 2 were identified by multivariate analysis. Patients with normal ALT were significantly older, had lower body mass index, fasting triglycerides, insulin resistance according to homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), ALT, and gamma-glutamyltransferase, but a higher prevalence of hypertension. NASH was diagnosed in 59% and 74% of the patients with normal and increased ALT, respectively (P = 0.01). In the overall series of patients, NASH was independently ...

*  UC San Diego Launches New Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Research Center | Superfund Research Center

Dr. Rohit Loomba, a new investigator of the UC San Diego Superfund Researcher Center (UCSD-SRC), has developed a research center focusing on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The NAFLD Research Center will bring together multiple specialties and specialists from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and elsewhere. This Center will include the efforts of other UCSD-SRC investigators, Drs. David A. Brenner, Michael Karin, and Robert H. Tukey.

*  Sugary drinks may increase non-alcoholic fatty liver disease risk - Lifestyle

New York: Drinking sugar-sweetened beverage daily may increase the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), says a study. NAFLD is characterised by an accumulation of fat in the liver cells that is unrelated to alcohol consumption.

*  Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Not Caused by Fructose

Fructose in an itself is not to blame for the increase in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a new analysis of human trials has found

*  What is a fatty liver and how can it be treated? | Center for Young Women's Health

The liver is an organ that is made up of a small amount of fat. In teens, too much fat or a "fatty liver" is most often caused by being overweight. Drinking large amounts of alcohol can also lead to fatty liver disease and serious complications. Other causes of (non-alcoholic) fatty liver disease include Hepatitis C and certain medications.. Your health care provider may tell you that you have a "fatty liver" if your blood tests show a higher than normal level of liver enzymes or if you have symptoms such as pain in the right upper portion of your stomach. If your health care provider is concerned, he/she may order an abdominal ultrasound. The only way to confirm fatty liver disease is to look at liver cells by examining a piece of liver tissue. This procedure is called a ...

*  Orlistat for overweight subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis - Dogru - 2009 - Hepatology - Wiley Online Library

We read with great interest the article by Harrison et al. reporting the effect of Orlistat, an inhibitor of fat absorption, on the metabolic abnormalities, histopathologic findings, and cytokine levels in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).1 They showed that when compared to controls, Orlistat did not enhance weight loss or improve liver enzymes, measures of insulin resistance, and histopathology. Certainly, this study is important because it provides scientific information on this clinically relevant condition. However, we think that some points should be discussed.. First, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver abnormality in the Western world and is strongly associated with the features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance.2 The pathogenesis of NAFLD is a multiple-hit process resulting from hepatic fat deposition that is related to several conditions, including insulin ...

*  Automated method for accurate abdominal fat quantification on water-saturated magnetic resonance images - Peng - 2007 - Journal...

It has been demonstrated that the proposed fat quantification method based on a more accurate fat distribution model offers an easy and accurate way for fat quantification. This method takes advantage of the superior image quality obtained using WS b-SSFP (9). Therefore, fat quantification difficulties due to lowfat-to-nonfat contrast are minimized. Furthermore, very accurate fat quantification can be achieved since the partial-volume effect inherent in any imaging modality is also incorporated.. This method is therefore superior to the traditional methods for fat quantification. Most of those approaches were developed for non-water-suppressed T1W images which suffer from low contrast, motion and flow artifacts. Despite the difficulties, several automated or semiautomated approaches have been proposed. Lancaster et al (11) proposed a threshold method based on the image histogram and studied two adaptive procedures to seek a threshold signal intensity to separate fat and nonfat pixels. However, ...

*  Genetic variant in PNPLA3 is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in China - Li - 2011 - Hepatology - Wiley Online...

After obtaining institutional review board approval and written informed consent from patients, fasting blood samples were collected. A higher proportion of cases were men (60% versus 49%; nominal P = 0.04) and their mean age was greater than that of controls (46.6 versus 41.9 years of age; P = 1.8 × 10−4). Levels of circulating liver enzymes, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride, and glucose were significantly higher and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly lower in cases than in controls (Table 1).. The frequency of the I148M variant was significantly higher in cases (0.45) than in controls (0.31) (P = 1.5 × 10−4), and the association remained robust after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (P = 3.7 × 10−3) (Fig. 1). The odds ratio for hepatic steatosis was 1.73 for each copy of the G allele (95% confidence interval: 1.49, 1.99). The I148M variant was also associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels ...

*  Study of the prebiotic-like effects of tomato juice consumption in rats with diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ...

Gut microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. We investigated whether tomato juice consumption for 5 weeks could ameliorate high-fat diet-induced alterations in certain intestinal bacterial groups and products arising from their metabolism (short-chain fatty acids and microbial phenolic catabo

*  Aerobic Exercise in Postmenopausal Women With Fatty Liver Disease

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and adult-onset diabetes and is characterized by fat in the liver.

*  The value of serum adipokine measurement in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Arrese - 2009 - Liver International - Wiley...

By continuing to browse this site you agree to us using cookies as described in About Cookies Notice: Wiley Online Library will be unavailable on Saturday 7th Oct from 03.00 EDT / 08:00 BST / 12:30 IST / 15.00 SGT to 08.00 EDT / 13.00 BST / 17:30 IST / 20.00 SGT and Sunday 8th Oct from 03.00 EDT / 08:00 BST / 12:30 IST / 15.00 SGT to 06.00 EDT / 11.00 BST / 15:30 IST / 18.00 SGT for essential maintenance. Apologies for the inconvenience. Remove maintenance message ...

*  Serum protein N-glycosylation in paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Blomme - 2012 - Pediatric Obesity - Wiley...

Wiley Online Library will be unavailable on Saturday 7th Oct from 03.00 EDT / 08:00 BST / 12:30 IST / 15.00 SGT to 08.00 EDT / 13.00 BST / 17:30 IST / 20.00 SGT and Sunday 8th Oct from 03.00 EDT / 08:00 BST / 12:30 IST / 15.00 SGT to 06.00 EDT / 11.00 BST / 15:30 IST / 18.00 SGT for essential maintenance. Apologies for the inconvenience caused ...

*  Intestinal bacterial metagenome in pediatric NAFLD - Nita Salzman

The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its severe phenotype, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are increasing significantly in the...

*  Dr. Gabe Mirkin on Health, Fitness and Nutrition. | Testing for a Fatty Liver

A sonogram of your liver will show how much fat you store in your liver. This simple and safe test will show if you have diabetes or are headed for diabetes. A study of 12,454 North Americans showed that 22 percent had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which means that they have too much fat stored in their liver.

*  Plus it

The term "NAFLD" describes a clinicopathological spectrum of alcohol-like conditions spanning simple steatosis (ectopic, intrahepatocytic accumulation of triglycerides) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (steatosis plus hepatocyte degeneration and lobular inflammation) with or without fibrosis, cirrhosis and primary liver cancer [2]. The NAFLD spectrum is observed in individuals who have no further reasons to develop chronic liver disease (i.e. alcohol, viral hepatitis, etc.) other than the full-blown metabolic syndrome (MetS) or its individual traits [3, 4].. The prevalence of NAFLD, paralleling that of obesity and type 2 diabetes, has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and NAFLD is projected to become the leading cause of end-stage liver disease necessitating transplantation by 2020 [5-8]. These impressive data, together with an excess of health-related expenditures [2, 9], easily explain why NAFLD is a major public health issue worldwide.. ...

*  Plus it

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is independently linked to cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. Low-grade inflammation, oxidative stress and ectopic fat, common features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), might contribute to the development of NAFLD.. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD and to evaluate the relationship between various types of liver damage and COPD severity, comorbidities and circulating inflammatory cytokines. Validated noninvasive tests (FibroMax: SteatoTest, NashTest and FibroTest) were used to assess steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis. Patients underwent an objective assessment of COPD comorbidities, including sleep studies. Biological parameters included a complete lipid profile and inflammatory markers.. In COPD patients the prevalence of steatosis, NASH and fibrosis were 41.4%, 36.9% and 61.3%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, SteatoTest and ...

*  Nutrition in the Management of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver : Bariatric Times

According to the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease clinical practice guidelines, "There are no published controlled trials of treatment modalities for NAFLD. It is, therefore, not possible to make any statements on relative risk of improvement with any modality. In the absence of treatment modalities of proven efficacy, therapy is directed toward correction of the risk factors for NASH (i.e., insulin resistance, decreasing delivery of fatty acids to the liver, and decreasing use of drugs with potentially hepatotoxic effects).". It is important to keep in mind that in relation to WLS the intent of treating NAFLD is not for lifelong management of the condition itself but rather is to reduce liver volume such that the surgery itself is easier for the surgeon, with a lower risk of complications for the patient. The fact is that most emerging data on NAFLD in obesity point to surgery itself an important option ...

*  Is it possible to have fatty liver and cirrhosis at the same time ? - Cirrhosis of the Liver - MedHelp

I was diagnosed with fatty liver on ultrasound some time back .. I want to know if it is possible to misdiagnose cirrhosis as fatty liver on an ultrasound ?

*  Liver Cleanse | Fatty Liver Disease

Fatty liver cleanse is an information resource for anything related to the liver. Learn about liver cleansing, how to protect your liver, liver diets and more.

Fatty liverLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIHeptadecanoic acidAmerican Association for the Study of Liver Diseases: The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) is the leading organization of scientists and health care professionals committed to preventing and curing liver disease. AASLD was founded in 1950 by a small group of leading liver specialists (including Hans Popper, Leon Schiff, Fred Hoffbauer, Cecil Watson, Jesse Bollman, and Sheila Sherlock, to name a few) to bring together those who had contributed to the field of hepatology.Mir-652 microRNA precursor family: In molecular biology mir-652 microRNA is a short RNA molecule. MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms, with expression levels of miRNAs and respective target mRNAs negatively correlated.Jean Emond: Jean C. Emond is the current Thomas S.Metastatic liver disease: A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply (the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein).Alanine transaminase: Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme (). It is also called alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and was formerly called serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) or serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT).Liver biopsyMicrosome: In cell biology, microsomes are vesicle-like artifacts re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in healthy, living cells.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.TriglycerideCannabidiolic acid synthase: Cannabidiolic acid synthase (, CBDA synthase) is an enzyme with system name cannabigerolate:oxygen oxidoreductase (cyclizing, cannabidiolate-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionHeart-type fatty acid binding protein: Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (hFABP) also known as mammary-derived growth inhibitor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FABP3 gene.FibroTest: FibroTest, known as FibroSure in the US, is a patented biomarker test that uses the results of six blood serum tests to generate a score that is correlated with the degree of liver damage in people with a variety of liver diseases. FibroTest has the same prognostic value as a liver biopsy.Animal fatEssential fatty acid: Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.TransaminaseDelta11-fatty-acid desaturase: Delta11-fatty-acid desaturase (, Delta11 desaturase, fatty acid Delta11-desaturase, TpDESN, Cro-PG, Delta11 fatty acid desaturase, Z/E11-desaturase, Delta11-palmitoyl-CoA desaturase) is an enzyme with system name acyl-CoA,hydrogen donor:oxygen Delta11-oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionLiver function tests: LFT}}National Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.Lipokine: A lipokine is a lipid-controlling hormone. The term "lipokine" was first used by Haiming Cao in 2008 to classify fatty acids which modulate lipid metabolism by what he called a "chaperone effect".PhospholipidList of MeSH codes (D12.776.930): This is a sub-part (transcription factors only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Orotic acidKing's College Criteria: The King's College Criteria or the King's College Hospital criteria were devised in 1989 to determine if there were any early indices of poor prognosis in patients with acute liver failure. Acute liver failure is defined as the onset of encephalopathy (altered mental status) or coagulopathy (altered bleeding tendencies) within 26 weeks of a patient diagnosed with liver disease.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Ethanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.Liver abscessAdipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.CholesterolTransport protein: A transport protein (variously referred to as a transmembrane pump, transporter protein, escort protein, acid transport protein, cation transport protein, or anion transport protein) is a protein that serves the function of moving other materials within an organism. Transport proteins are vital to the growth and life of all living things.TripalmitinMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Fluorotelomer alcohol: Fluorotelomer alcohols, or FTOHs, are fluorotelomers with an alcohol functional group. They are volatile precursors to perfluorinated carboxylic acids, such as PFOA and PFNA, and other compounds.Ethyl oleateVistive: Vistive is the brand name for a type of soybeans developed by Monsanto. Currently the only Vistive seed on the market is a low-linolenic soybean that reduces or eliminates the need for addition of trans-fatty acids.Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomaShort-chain fatty acid: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs),"Role of Volatile Fatty Acids in Development of the Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens during Growth" at asm.org are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail of less than six carbon atoms.Brain biopsyQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Fructose malabsorptionTriacylglycerol lipase: Triacylglycerol lipase (, lipase, butyrinase, tributyrinase, Tween hydrolase, steapsin, triacetinase, tributyrin esterase, Tweenase, amno N-AP, Takedo 1969-4-9, Meito MY 30, Tweenesterase, GA 56, capalase L, triglyceride hydrolase, triolein hydrolase, tween-hydrolyzing esterase, amano CE, cacordase, triglyceridase, triacylglycerol ester hydrolase, amano P, amano AP, PPL, glycerol-ester hydrolase, GEH, meito Sangyo OF lipase, hepatic lipase, lipazin, post-heparin plasma protamine-resistant lipase, salt-resistant post-heparin lipase, heparin releasable hepatic lipase, amano CES, amano B, tributyrase, triglyceride lipase, liver lipase, hepatic monoacylglycerol acyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name triacylglycerol acylhydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionElectron-capture mass spectrometry: Electron-capture mass spectrometry (EC-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that uses electron capture ionization (ECI) to form negative ions from chemical compounds with positive electron affinities. The approach is particularly effective for electrophiles.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGlucose transporterPhosphoserine transaminase: Phosphoserine transaminase (, PSAT, phosphoserine aminotransferase, 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase, hydroxypyruvic phosphate-glutamic transaminase, L-phosphoserine aminotransferase, phosphohydroxypyruvate transaminase, phosphohydroxypyruvic-glutamic transaminase, 3-O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, SerC, PdxC, 3PHP transaminase) is an enzyme with system name O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionInsulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.ATC code H04: ==H04A Glycogenolytic hormones==Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Kupffer cell: Kupffer cells, also known as Browicz-Kupffer cells and stellate macrophages, are specialized macrophages located in the liver lining the walls of the sinusoids that form part of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) (or mononuclear phagocyte system).HepatosplenomegalyFlow focusingACACB: Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 also known as ACC-beta or ACC2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACACB gene.Lipid peroxidationKetosisLithium 12-hydroxystearateArtificial extracorporeal liver support: Artificial extracorporeal liver support is a term that is used to describe measures that are used to carry out liver function and are outside the body. The Molecular Adsorbent Recirculation System (MARS) is an example of artificial extracorporeal liver support.

(1/3223) Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease.

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF.  (+info)

(2/3223) Preventive effects of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate on the fatty liver induced by orotic acid in male rats.

Preventive effects of dehydroepiandrosteone acetate (DHEA-A) and clofibrate (positive control substance) on the fatty liver induced by orotic acid (OA) were examined on the male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high sucrose based diet containing 1% OA and this diet further mixed with 0.5% DHEA-A or 0.5% clofibrate for 2 weeks. Numerous lipid droplets were observed in the hepatocytes of the rats treated with OA alone, but not in those treated with DHEA-A or clofibrate. In comparison to the group with OA alone, the DHEA-A or clofibrate treated rats showed a larger relative liver weight (to body weight) which was accompanied by increased peroxisomes in the hepatocytes. These results indicate that DHEA-A, as well as clofibrate, may prevent OA-induced fatty liver.  (+info)

(3/3223) Liver disease in pregnancy.

Acute viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy. The course of acute hepatitis is unaffected by pregnancy, except in patients with hepatitis E and disseminated herpes simplex infections, in which maternal and fetal mortality rates are significantly increased. Chronic hepatitis B or C infections may be transmitted to neonates; however, hepatitis B virus transmission is effectively prevented with perinatal hepatitis B vaccination and prophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin. Cholelithiasis occurs in 6 percent of pregnancies; complications can safely be treated with surgery. Women with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis exhibit a higher risk of fetal loss during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is associated with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count) syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and hepatic infarction and rupture. These rare diseases result in increased maternal and fetal mortality. Treatment involves prompt delivery, whereupon the liver disease quickly reverses. Therapy with penicillamine, trientine, prednisone or azathioprine can be safely continued during pregnancy.  (+info)

(4/3223) Molecular heterogeneity in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency causing pediatric cardiomyopathy and sudden death.

BACKGROUND: Genetic defects are being increasingly recognized in the etiology of primary cardiomyopathy (CM). Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the first step in the beta-oxidation spiral of fatty acid metabolism, the crucial pathway for cardiac energy production. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 37 patients with CM, nonketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic dysfunction, skeletal myopathy, or sudden death in infancy with hepatic steatosis, features suggestive of fatty acid oxidation disorders. Single-stranded conformational variance was used to screen genomic DNA. DNA sequencing and mutational analysis revealed 21 different mutations on the VLCAD gene in 18 patients. Of the mutations, 80% were associated with CM. Severe CM in infancy was recognized in most patients (67%) at presentation. Hepatic dysfunction was common (33%). RNA blot analysis and VLCAD enzyme assays showed a severe reduction in VLCAD mRNA in patients with frame-shift or splice-site mutations and absent or severe reduction in enzyme activity in all. CONCLUSIONS: Infantile CM is the most common clinical phenotype of VLCAD deficiency. Mutations in the human VLCAD gene are heterogeneous. Although mortality at presentation is high, both the metabolic disorder and cardiomyopathy are reversible.  (+info)

(5/3223) Detection of haptoglobin in the high-density lipoprotein and the very high-density lipoprotein fractions from sera of calves with experimental pneumonia and cows with naturally occurring fatty liver.

In addition to the lipoprotein-deficient d > 1.25 fraction, haptoglobin was detected in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and the very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) fractions from sera of calves with experimental pneumonia and cows with naturally occurring fatty liver. It was not found in the chylomicrons, very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein fractions. Washing of the HDL fraction did not decrease the haptoglobin concentration. Transferrin and immunoglobulin G were immunoblotted to examine the possibility of contamination of the lipoprotein fractions by the d > 1.25 fraction. The two serum proteins were detected only in the d > 1.25 fraction, not in any lipoprotein fractions. The distribution pattern of haptoglobin in the lipoprotein fractions was distinct from that of serum albumin. Concentrations of haptoglobin in the HDL fractions from pneumonic sera were largely proportional to those in whole sera. Cholesteryl ester concentrations were decreased in sera from calves with pneumonia, as in cows with fatty liver. A protein immunologically related to hemoglobin was also detected in particular in the VHDL fractions from sera of both groups. These results suggest that haptoglobin or a complex with the hemoglobin-like protein may have a role or roles related to the lipid metabolism.  (+info)

(6/3223) Protection by short-chain fatty acids against 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine-induced intestinal lesions in germfree mice.

In germfree mice, the administration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) protected the intestinal mucosa from damage produced by 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C). Animals receiving SCFA and Ara-C had intestinal morphologies closer to normal than the control animals, which had severe intestinal lesions. We concluded that orally administrated SCFA reduce intestinal lesions, improving the mucosa pattern of the small intestine and colon.  (+info)

(7/3223) Fatty liver--an additional and treatable feature of the insulin resistance syndrome.

To test the hypothesis that fatty liver coexists with other metabolic abnormalities of the insulin resistance syndrome, and responds to their amelioration, we prospectively studied 48 consecutive patients with chronically elevated liver enzymes and clinical, ultrasound and histological findings consistent with fatty infiltration of the liver. Most of the patients were overweight or obese (64%) with increased waist circumference which closely relates to visceral fat. Only 10% of the patients had normal glucose tolerance: 44% had diabetes mellitus, 29% impaired glucose tolerance, and 17% were hyperinsulinaemic. The most common dyslipidaemia found was hypertriglyceridaemia and/or low HDL-C (86%). Dietary intervention and follow-up (median 24 months), supplemented by oral hypoglycaemic or lipid-lowering drugs as needed, resulted not only in weight loss (mean 3.7 kg), decreased fasting blood glucose (p < 0.005) and improvement in serum lipid profile (p < 0.02 for both triglycerides or HDL-C) but also in an improvement of serum liver enzymes in 96%, which became normal in more than half of the patients. Thus, fatty liver was strongly associated with many features of the insulin resistance syndrome, and follow-up revealed a high potential for reversibility and a benign course.  (+info)

(8/3223) A fetal fatty-acid oxidation disorder as a cause of liver disease in pregnant women.

BACKGROUND: Acute fatty liver of pregnancy and the HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver-enzyme levels, and a low platelet count) are serious hepatic disorders that may occur during pregnancy in women whose fetuses are later found to have a deficiency of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial trifunctional protein, which also contains the active site of long-chain 2,3-enoyl-CoA hydratase and long-chain 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. We undertook this study to determine the relation between mutations in the trifunctional protein in infants with defects in fatty-acid oxidation and acute liver disease during pregnancy in their mothers. METHODS: In 24 children with 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, we used DNA amplification and nucleotide-sequence analyses to identify mutations in the alpha subunit of the trifunctional protein. We then correlated the results with the presence of liver disease during pregnancy in the mothers. RESULTS: Nineteen children had a deficiency only of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and presented with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and fatty liver. In eight children, we identified a homozygous mutation in which glutamic acid at residue 474 was changed to glutamine. Eleven other children were compound heterozygotes, with this mutation in one allele of the alpha-subunit gene and a different mutation in the other allele. While carrying fetuses with the Glu474Gln mutation, 79 percent of the heterozygous mothers had fatty liver of pregnancy or the HELLP syndrome. Five other children, who presented with neonatal dilated cardiomyopathy or progressive neuromyopathy, had complete deficiency of the trifunctional protein (loss of activity of all three enzymes). None had the Glu474Gln mutation, and none of their mothers had liver disease during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Women with acute liver disease during pregnancy may have a Glu474Gln mutation in long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Their infants are at risk for hypoketotic hypoglycemia and fatty liver.  (+info)


  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which fat builds up in your liver. (nih.gov)
  • Usually, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cause few or no symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Doctors use your medical history, a physical exam, and tests to diagnose nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). (nih.gov)
  • Doctors recommend weight loss to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). (nih.gov)
  • You may be able to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis fatty liver disease (NASH) by eating a healthy diet and maintaining a healthy weight. (nih.gov)
  • Also shortened to NAFLD, it is called "nonalcoholic" to separate it from a similar liver disease caused by too much alcohol. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although the fatty liver disease caused by alcohol has the same effect on the liver as NAFLD, it is considered separately. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Simple NAFLD is fat building up in the liver, which is called steatosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Until now little was known about the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children. (medindia.net)
  • Utilizing rigorous standardization methods that narrowed the study population to represent children in the community, and adjusted for age, gender, race and ethnicity, the team estimated that NAFLD is present in 9.6% of the children and adolescents living in San Diego County. (medindia.net)
  • NAFLD is defined by an accumulation of fat in the liver cells. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with a cohort of clinical collaborators from across the United States, have demonstrated the impact of low and high birth weights in developing Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), a chronic disease that often leads to a need for organ transplantation. (eurekalert.org)
  • The children had a diagnosis of NAFLD as confirmed by liver biopsy. (eurekalert.org)
  • According to the American Liver Foundation, NAFLD is a spectrum of diseases that begins with excess fat deposits in the liver. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) involves the build-up of fat in the liver of people who drink little or no alcohol. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116915/Nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-NAFLD. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • 1/31/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116915/Nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-NAFLD: Zaman A. Promote weight loss in patients with NAFLD. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • 10/8/2014 1/31/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116915/Nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-NAFLD: Musso G, Gambino R, Tabibian JH, et al. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • The development and application of these techniques is starting to reduce the clinical need for liver biopsy, to produce surrogate end-points for interventional and observational clinical studies, and through this, to provide new insights into the natural history of NAFLD. (wiley.com)

having fatty liver disease

  • The researchers noted that fatty liver disease is most prevalent among children and adolescents of Hispanic origin adding that the odds of a Hispanic child having fatty liver disease is five times higher than that for a black child. (medindia.net)


  • Tests may include blood tests, imaging tests, and sometimes liver biopsy. (nih.gov)
  • Schwimmer stated that fatty liver disease is usually diagnosed through biopsy tissue samples and that presented the first obstacle of determining the rate of the disease in a pediatric population. (medindia.net)
  • Conventional imaging and clinical blood tests are frequently unable to determine disease activity (the degree of inflammatory change) and fibrotic severity, while the applicability of histological examination of liver biopsy is limited. (wiley.com)


  • What is clear is that obesity raises the risk of fatty liver considerably. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Fatty liver has become more recognized, and overweight and obesity are rising problems. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In people, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease often accompanies obesity, elevated blood sugar, high blood pressure and other markers of metabolic syndrome. (innovations-report.com)
  • Obesity: Overweight and obese children accounted for 81% of all cases of fatty liver. (medindia.net)
  • The next step is to investigate whether real physiological stresses like chronic alcohol consumption, obesity and viral infection also lead to fatty liver disease through protein folding problems in the ER," said Rutkowski. (medindia.net)
  • Children who are born with low birth weight or high birth weight may merit closer attention to their metabolic health to help prevent obesity, liver disease, and diabetes. (eurekalert.org)

chronic liver d

  • Studying mice, researchers have found a way to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. (innovations-report.com)
  • These results, combined with studies in rodents, suggest the drug may be a safe new treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is now the commonest cause of chronic liver disease in the western world, estimated to affect one in five adults in the UK and four in five adults who are obese, and for which there are currently no safe and effective therapies. (birmingham.ac.uk)


  • If you have NASH, you have inflammation and liver cell damage, along with fat in your liver. (nih.gov)
  • Weight loss can reduce fat in the liver, inflammation, and fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • The team found that in 23% of those children with fatty liver, the liver injury was severe enough to produce steatohepatitis, an inflammation caused by fat buildup in the liver. (medindia.net)
  • In some cases, it can cause inflammation and scarring in the liver. (medicalcityhospital.com)


  • As the disease progresses, fibrosis increases, which may become cirrhosis, a permanent form of scarring that can lead to liver failure and need for transplantation. (eurekalert.org)


  • In a study on mice, researchers at University of Iowa and University of Michigan have found that disrupted protein folding may lead to fatty liver disease, a condition that causes fat to accumulate in the liver. (medindia.net)
  • The paradox of lean patients and fatty liver can be explained by high use of steroids, by rapid weight loss, and by the abundance of TNFα cytokine in IBD patients that causes insulin resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The LEAN study, for which Dr Newsome is the Chief Investigator, is investigating whether 48 weeks' treatment with the injectable drug Liraglutide can reduce liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which is an aggressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that causes scarring in the liver, risking cirrhosis and irreversible liver damage. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Excess calories stored as fat in the liver causes people to become diabetic or pre-diabetic. (drmirkin.com)
  • Excess fat in your liver prevents the sugar from entering your liver and instead, the extra fat in your liver causes the liver to release sugar from its cells to drive blood sugar levels even higher. (drmirkin.com)
  • Other causes of (non-alcoholic) fatty liver disease include Hepatitis C and certain medications. (youngwomenshealth.org)

cirrhosis of th

  • The conclusions are significant because the disease can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, end-stage liver disease requiring a liver transplant, and liver cancer. (medindia.net)
  • While fatty liver itself does not necessarily cause illness, it is associated with serious conditions like diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cirrhosis of the liver and liver failure. (medindia.net)


  • Fatty Infiltration of Liver? (healthboards.com)
  • Hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cows with fatty infiltration of the liver. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The objective of the present study was to analyse the apoptotic process of liver cells in dairy cows with fatty infiltration of the liver using indicators of DNA damage and immunohistochemistry. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to document accelerated apoptosis of hepatocytes in dairy cows with fatty infiltration of the liver. (biomedsearch.com)

nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

  • Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/liver-disease/nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis/Pages/facts.aspx. (medicalcityhospital.com)


  • Over time steatohepatitis can cause progressive liver damage and has important implications for the long term health of children and young adults. (medindia.net)
  • The LEAN (Liraglutide's Effect and Actions in Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis) study is funded by the Wellcome Trust and NIHR with industrial support from Novo Nordisk, to investigate the potential of a new anti-diabetes drug known as Liraglutide in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (birmingham.ac.uk)


  • Age: They found that fatty liver prevalence increased with age, ranging from 0.7% in children 2-4 years of age, up to 17.3% for ages 15-19. (medindia.net)
  • Despite this fact, there are only few publications that evaluated the prevalence of fatty liver in IBD patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)


  • Not everyone who is obese develops fatty liver, and not everyone who has fatty liver is obese. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The overweight and obese children accounted for 81% of the fatty liver cases. (medindia.net)


  • Fatty liver disease is a major topic of research right now," said first author Brian J. DeBosch, MD, PhD, clinical fellow in pediatric gastroenterology. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Fatty Liver Program at Cedars-Sinai is working to bridge the gap between scientific discovery and clinical care for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which is caused by fat buildup in the liver. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Patients are seen in the liver out-patients department in the Queen Elizabeth Hospital and in the Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NALFD) is a burgeoning global health problem, and the assessment of disease severity remains a clinical challenge. (wiley.com)


  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease usually gives no symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Possible symptoms of nonalcohoic fatty liver disease include tiredness and discomfort high up in the belly. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The programme examines the nature of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its associated symptoms. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • If fatty build-up is causing the liver not to function well, you may have symptoms. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Your health care provider may tell you that you have a "fatty liver" if your blood tests show a higher than normal level of liver enzymes or if you have symptoms such as pain in the right upper portion of your stomach. (youngwomenshealth.org)


  • Daniela Catalano , Guglielmo M. Trovato , Giuseppe Fabio Martines , Clara Pirri , Francesca M. Trovato , Renal function and severity of bright liver. (wiley.com)


  • Fatty liver disease is a very common problem that has gone largely unnoticed," said Jeffrey Schwimmer, UCSD Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Director of the Fatty Liver and Weight and Wellness Clinics at Rady Children's Hospital, who led the study. (medindia.net)
  • Schwimmer said the most surprising finding was learning that nearly 20% of the children with fatty liver were in the healthy weight range. (medindia.net)
  • What our research found is that low-birth weight and high-birth weight were both associated with the severity of liver disease, but in different ways," said Jeffrey Schwimmer, MD, professor of pediatrics at UC San Diego School of Medicine and director of the Fatty Liver Clinic at Rady Children's Hospital-San Diego. (eurekalert.org)


  • Within the next 10 years, it is expected to become the leading cause of liver pathology, liver failure, and indication for liver transplantation in childhood and adolescence in the Western world. (medicalnewstoday.com)


  • In teens, too much fat or a "fatty liver" is most often caused by being overweight. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • Treatment for a fatty liver includes losing weight if you are overweight, stopping all alcohol, eating healthy foods and avoiding refined grains, exercising more, and not taking medicine unless it's prescribed by your health care provider. (youngwomenshealth.org)


  • Laboratory results included neutrophilia, hypochloraemia, decreased concentrations of total bilirubin and increased concentrations of β-hydroxy butyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids and insulin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study, we have developed and validated a simple, accurate and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simultaneous quantification of 18 fatty acids in rat serum, including both non-esterified (NEFA) and esterified (EFA) fatty acids, and subsequent analysis of fatty acid metabolic profiles. (wiley.com)
  • This novel method was used to evaluate the serum levels of fatty acids from vehicle- and acetaminophen (APAP)-treated rats. (wiley.com)
  • These results suggest that a novel targeted metabolomics method based on the metabolic profiling of fatty acids analyzed by GC-MS provides exact serum concentrations of fatty acids as well as a prospective methodology to evaluate chemically induced hepatotoxicity. (wiley.com)

elevated liver enzymes

  • I have been researching the liver since our son had elevated liver enzymes and an ultra sound done, but so far no results yet. (healthboards.com)


  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease can become more severe as it advances through stages. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The result suggested that the UPR is able to protect the liver against ER stress to a certain degree, but that fatty liver will result when the stress is too severe. (medindia.net)
  • Children with low-birth weight were more likely to develop severe scarring of the liver. (eurekalert.org)
  • If this is severe, it can cause liver failure. (medicalcityhospital.com)


  • Drinking large amounts of alcohol can also lead to fatty liver disease and serious complications. (youngwomenshealth.org)


  • In this study, researchers showed that blocking or eliminating GLUT8 in mice reduced the amount of fructose entering the organ and appeared to prevent the development of fatty livers. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers also saw differences between male and female mice in the degree to which they were protected from fatty livers and in whole-body metabolism. (innovations-report.com)
  • Ethnicity: The researchers found that the Hispanic Americans were at a particularly high risk with an 11.8% rate of fatty liver. (medindia.net)
  • hence, until now, physicians and researchers did not have real data on how many children suffer from fatty liver. (medindia.net)
  • Following up on the result, the researchers found that mice also developed fatty liver if their ability to fold proteins in the ER was genetically impaired, even when the UPR was functionally intact. (medindia.net)
  • Professor David Mutimer is also leading work on new treatments for hepatitis, and Other work at the BRU is looking at how the immune system can sometimes attack the liver, while researchers are also examining the use of biomarkers to diagnose liver disease and liver cancer. (birmingham.ac.uk)


  • When the liver is unable to break down fats, they build up in liver tissue. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Imaging platforms provide liver-specific structural information, while newer applications of these technologies non-invasively exploit the physical and chemical characteristics of liver tissue in health and disease. (wiley.com)
  • The only way to confirm fatty liver disease is to look at liver cells by examining a piece of liver tissue. (youngwomenshealth.org)

metabolic syndrome

  • Females fed fructose while lacking GLUT8, in contrast, had healthy looking livers but exhibited more evidence of whole-body metabolic syndrome. (innovations-report.com)
  • So the liver is healthier in female rodents, but you could argue that the whole body has worse overall metabolic syndrome," he said. (innovations-report.com)

diagnose liver disease

  • Fatty Liver Program experts are exploring the role of S-adenosylmethione in liver health, and seeking new ways to treat and diagnose liver disease. (cedars-sinai.edu)


  • If you take away or block this transporter in mice, they no longer get diet-induced fatty liver disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • Male mice fed a high-fructose diet while deficient in GLUT8 still had evidence of fatty liver disease, but whole-body metabolism was healthy. (innovations-report.com)
  • Diet For Fatty Liver Disease. (newswiretoday.com)


  • More importantly, we identified the following NEFAs as potential biomarkers of APAP-induced liver injury: oleic acid (C18:1n9), linoleic acid (C18:2n6), docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n6). (wiley.com)


  • The research team, led by Kelle H. Moley , MD, the James P. Crane Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, showed that a molecule called GLUT8 carries large amounts of fructose into liver cells. (innovations-report.com)


  • Besides, the team found that protein misfolding caused fatty liver in mice with the mutation. (medindia.net)

insulin resistance

  • One of these hypotheses is that insulin resistance begins to develop in the liver first. (innovations-report.com)


  • He added: "When we realized that our experiments to investigate protein folding abnormalities were producing fatty liver disease as a consequence, it tied in with previous circumstantial evidence suggesting that ER stress might be involved in the liver's role in fat metabolism. (medindia.net)
  • After further analysis of the mice models, scientists could identify some of the genes that connect prolonged ER stress with faulty fat metabolism in the liver. (medindia.net)


  • To evaluate the frequency of fatty liver in a cohort of IBD patients and to learn its risk factors. (clinicaltrials.gov)


  • Jurgen J.H. Runge , W.J.M. van der Kemp , D.W.J. Klomp , P.R. Luijten , A.J. Nederveen , J. Stoker , 2D AMESING multi-echo 31P-MRSI of the liver at 7T allows transverse relaxation assessment and T2-weighted averaging for improved SNR. (wiley.com)


  • Data from Birmingham indicates that Liraglutide can improve liver blood tests in diabetic patients. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Among the ground-breaking work underway is the world's largest randomised trial of stem cell treatment in patients with liver cirrhosis, led by Dr Newsome. (birmingham.ac.uk)


  • Blocking a path that delivers dietary fructose to the liver prevented mice from developing the condition, according to investigators at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. (innovations-report.com)
  • In mice, blocking GLUT8 stops fructose from entering the liver and protects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • Mice with GLUT8 deficiency also appeared to burn liver fat at a faster rate than control mice. (innovations-report.com)
  • Mice with no CHOP were partially protected from fatty liver. (medindia.net)


  • A threshold level is used to mean there is fatty liver but the buildup is mild enough not to cause any problems. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This level is when there is fat buildup in more than 5 percent of the liver cells without any sign of further liver injury or disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)


  • The thought is if we can prevent the liver from becoming unhealthy to begin with, maybe we can block the entire process from moving forward. (innovations-report.com)

excess fat

  • In the liver, excess fat prevents the liver from responding to insulin to cause diabetes. (drmirkin.com)


  • Birth weight involves both maternal and in utero factors, which may have long-lasting consequences for liver health. (eurekalert.org)
  • BBC presenter Dr Mark Porter visits the hospital and the University's Liver Biomedical Research Unit, a dedicated liver research facility on the hospital site which is funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • He meets liver consultants Dr Philip Newsome and Dr Gideon Hirschfield as well as pathologist Prof Stefan Hubscher, for the Radio 4 Inside Health programme, in which he is given an insight into the difficulties of detecting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (birmingham.ac.uk)


  • The digestive system is made up of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract-also called the digestive tract-and the liver, pancreas, and the gallbladder. (nih.gov)
  • Postmortem examination, in seven cases, revealed enlarged liver (18-33kg), icteric carcasses and distended gallbladder. (biomedsearch.com)




  • Our study does prove that perturbing protein folding can lead to fatty liver. (medindia.net)
  • If untreated, it can lead to liver scarring and death. (birmingham.ac.uk)


  • If the fructose doesn't go into the liver, it may go to peripheral tissues," DeBosch said. (innovations-report.com)


  • He or she may order a sonogram of your liver, or a glucose tolerance test in which your blood is drawn two hours after you eat or take in a specific sugar load. (drmirkin.com)


  • Another separate condition is fatty liver of pregnancy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The scientists speculated that if the finding holds true for fatty liver disease in humans, therapies aimed at improving protein folding in the ER, or inhibiting CHOP, could help treat the condition. (medindia.net)


  • World-class research by University of Birmingham scientists and clinicians into a deadly and increasingly common form of liver disease goes under the spotlight in a BBC Radio 4 documentary. (birmingham.ac.uk)


  • The study, published in the October issue of Pediatrics, found that fatty liver was present in 13% of the children and adolescents whose records were studied. (medindia.net)
  • The results of the study may pave the way for understanding and perhaps treating fatty liver disease. (medindia.net)
  • A study of 12,454 North Americans showed that 22 percent had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which means that they have too much fat stored in their liver ( Am J Epidemiol , July, 2013;178(1):38-45). (drmirkin.com)


  • A transporter called GLUT8 (green) is in the outer membrane of liver cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Compared to controls, numerous ssDNA and caspase-3-positive cells were detected in the liver. (biomedsearch.com)


  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is seen in people whatever their level drinking, including people who do not drink any alcohol. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some estimate as many as 1 billion people worldwide have fatty liver disease, though some may not realize it. (innovations-report.com)
  • People who store a lot of fat in their livers also store a lot of fat underneath the skin in their bellies. (drmirkin.com)


  • Simply known as alcoholic liver disease , it has different medical management. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Scientists have known that fructose is processed in the liver and stored there as fat in the form of triglycerides. (innovations-report.com)


American Liver Foun


  • Treatment may focus on avoiding certain medications, chemicals, or lifestyle factors that can damage your liver. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Alcohol is the second most common cause of liver damage. (drmirkin.com)


  • However, children with high-birth weight were more likely to develop the hepatitis form of fatty liver disease. (eurekalert.org)


  • For more information or to schedule an appointment at the UPMC Fatty Liver Program, please call 412-647-1170 . (upmc.com)

common cause

  • The team determined it was the most common cause of liver disease in the children and adolescents they studied. (medindia.net)


  • As the children's weight rose so did the incidence of fatty liver. (medindia.net)