Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Family Nursing: The provision of care involving the nursing process, to families and family members in health and illness situations. From Lippincott Manual of Nursing Practice. 6th ed.BrazilNational Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.IndiaHealth Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Nursing Staff: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in an organized facility, institution, or agency.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.EnglandPatient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Humanism: An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.OklahomaPartnership Practice: A voluntary contract between two or more doctors who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.Medical Staff: Professional medical personnel who provide care to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Nursing, Supervisory: Administration of nursing services for one or more clinical units.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Government Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Prescription Fees: The charge levied on the consumer for drugs or therapy prescribed under written order of a physician or other health professional.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.House Calls: Visits to the patient's home by professional personnel for the purpose of diagnosis and/or treatment.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Great BritainHealth Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Domestic Violence: Deliberate, often repetitive physical, verbal, and/or other types of abuse by one or more members against others of a household.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.WalesMothers: Female parents, human or animal.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Prepaid Health Plans: Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.

*  Family Health Nursing as a Growing Specialty - WriteWork

Nursing research has moved from client centered care to viewing the client within the context of the family. Changing family ... University of PhoenixThe family's health has become an important focus in healthcare today. ... Definition Of Family Health Nursing. �PAGE � �PAGE �5� Family Health Nursing DOCVARIABLE SH5SectionTitle Family Health Nursing ... DOCVARIABLE SH5SectionTitleFamily Health Nursing Family health nursing, which is synonymous with family-centered care, is one ...
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*  Finding a good doctor - Family Health

BellaOnline's Family Health Editor. Finding a good doctor. Guest Author - danielle barone. Establishing a good relationship ... Family. Food & Wine. Health & Fitness. Hobbies & Crafts. Home & Garden. Money. News & Politics. Relationships. Religion & ... For FREE email updates, subscribe to the Family Health Newsletter Past Issues ... 1. Ask for references from your family, friends, employer, and most importantly your health insurance company. These important ...
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*  Celebrate Family Health & Fitness Day | Care2 Healthy Living

Get your family members out of the house and moving their bodies to celebrate the 12th annual Family Health & Fitness Day USA ... Today is the 12th annual Family Health & Fitness Day USA-a national health and fitness event for families that is always held ... health clubs and other community locations. Local family health and fitness activities will vary widely based on the ... Here are five ways you can celebrate Family Health and Fitness Day at your own leisure:. 1. Understand the importance of going ...
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*  Family Health

Take advantage of the wide variety of resources that Dartmouth provides for expected parents, families, and aging adults. ...
https://dartmouth.edu/wellness/family/

*  Community: Related to Family Health

Dartmouth Weight Watchers Inspire Events - 9/7 & 9/14!. It's back to school and time to get back on track -- the Dartmouth Weight Watchers At Work program will be holding two Fall Inspire Promotion Days -- all NEW members who purchase an At-Work Series during this time are eligible to receive a free starter Kit to help them get started and stay on track throughout this fall season. Check us out from 12-1 p.m. on Sept. 7th in Baker 213 and on Sept. 14th in the HR Training room at 7 Lebanon Street. For more info contact: Barbara.Belloir@dartmouth.edu. Community Lunch: September 11th, 11:30 AM - 1:30 PM. The Dartmouth community is invited to celebrate the start of the school year with a cookout and musical entertainment hosted by President Phil Hanlon and Gail Gentes. Hamburgers, hot dogs, garden burgers, and more will be served. Music by Reckless Breakfast. Stop by the Wellness Table at the event to learn more about upcoming programs and enter a prize drawing! Location: Tuck Mall (rain location is ...
dartmouth.edu/wellness/family/community-family.html

*  Family Health Newsletter Archive

BellaOnline's Family Health Editor. November 4 2012 Family Health Newsletter. Here's the latest article from the Family Health ... Unsubscribe from the Family Health Newsletter Online Newsletter Archive for Family Health Site Master List of BellaOnline ... Family. Food & Wine. Health & Fitness. Hobbies & Crafts. Home & Garden. Money. News & Politics. Relationships. Religion & ...
bellaonline.com/newsdtl.asp?name=FamilyHealth&date=11/4/2012 5:13:19 AM

*  Family Health Newsletter Archive

BellaOnline's Family Health Editor. March 29 2013 Family Health Newsletter. Hello, The latest article is available from the ... Unsubscribe from the Family Health Newsletter Online Newsletter Archive for Family Health Site Master List of BellaOnline ... Family. Food & Wine. Health & Fitness. Hobbies & Crafts. Home & Garden. Money. News & Politics. Relationships. Religion & ... Family Health site at BellaOnline.com.. Colors are healing. Let colors into your life to feel better and heal. http://www. ...
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*  Letting Go - Family Health

BellaOnline's Family Health Editor. Letting Go. Guest Author - danielle barone. I received an email from an old friend last ... Family. Food & Wine. Health & Fitness. Hobbies & Crafts. Home & Garden. Money. News & Politics. Relationships. Religion & ... For FREE email updates, subscribe to the Family Health Newsletter Past Issues ...
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*  Family Health Tips - Kid Health | Scholastic

Find out how to keep your family healthy all year with the latest health info and tips. ...
scholastic.com/family-health-tips/kid-first-aid.htm

*  Blood Sugar - Family Health - MedHelp

My other family members also have lower HDL levels. But no heart problems. I worry that my liver might be damaged from years of ... It is not intended to be and should not be interpreted as medical advice or a diagnosis of any health or fitness problem, ... Never disregard the medical advice of your physician or health professional, or delay in seeking such advice, because of ... any physician or other health providers posting on or otherwise referred to on this Site and/or any Third Party Site. ...
medhelp.org/posts/Family-Health/Blood-Sugar/show/227693

*  Viral Symptoms - Family Health - MedHelp

My daily discomfort has caused me to be concerned about my health. I have not had any fever, sore throat or runny nose in the ... It is not intended to be and should not be interpreted as medical advice or a diagnosis of any health or fitness problem, ... Never disregard the medical advice of your physician or health professional, or delay in seeking such advice, because of ... any physician or other health providers posting on or otherwise referred to on this Site and/or any Third Party Site. ...
medhelp.org/posts/Family-Health/Viral-Symptoms/show/1091337

*  Kidney Biopsy - Family Health - MedHelp

It is not intended to be and should not be interpreted as medical advice or a diagnosis of any health or fitness problem, ... Never disregard the medical advice of your physician or health professional, or delay in seeking such advice, because of ... any physician or other health providers posting on or otherwise referred to on this Site and/or any Third Party Site. ...
medhelp.org/posts/Family-Health/Kidney-Biopsy/show/1098065

*  Family Health International - allAfrica.com

Health *. Health HomeAIDSEbolaMalariaNCDsNutritionPolioPregnancy and ChildbirthTuberculosis ... Nigeria: The Future of Health and Promise of Primary Health Care in Nigeria(allAfrica) ... Europe and AfricaExternal RelationsFood and AgricultureGame ParksGovernanceHealthHuman RightsICTInfrastructureInnovation ... South Africa: South Africa's Gupta Family Under FBI Investigation - Report(Deutsche Welle) ...
allafrica.com/list/aans/post/af/pubkey/publisher:editorial:00010797.html

*  Smashwords - Family health - short ebooks

Categories: Nonfiction » Health, wellbeing, & medicine » Family health, Nonfiction » Relationships and Family » Family health ... Categories: Nonfiction » Health, wellbeing, & medicine » Family health Coping With Family Stress After Reye's Syndrome, or any ... Categories: Nonfiction » Health, wellbeing, & medicine » Family health Coping With Family Stress After Chronic Illness or Death ... Categories: Nonfiction » Health, wellbeing, & medicine » Family health, Nonfiction » Health, wellbeing, & medicine » Diseases ...
https://smashwords.com/books/category/516/newest/0/any/short/130

*  WHO | Ihsan Doğramacı Family Health Foundation Prize

... the standard of family health by acknowledging individuals who have given distinguished service in the field of family health. ... Ihsan Doğramacı Family Health Foundation Prize. The Foundation was established in 1980 on the initiative of and with funds ... globally recognized for his/her/their service in the field of family health. The prize is presented at a special ceremony ... Any national health administration, the Executive Director of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Bureau of the ...
who.int/governance/awards/dogramaci/en/

*  The Family Health Center Salary | PayScale

The Family Health Center - Salary - Get a free salary comparison based on job title, skills, experience and education. Accurate ...
payscale.com/research/US/Employer=The_Family_Health_Center/Salary

*  Family Health International, YouthNet Program

Focus on health, governance, HIV/AIDS, children, media development, conflict management, environment, rights, disasters, gender ... Content from Network Contact: Family Health International, YouthNet Program_6. * May 18, 2005 ...
comminit.com/content/family-health-international-youthnet-program-6

*  How Can Spirituality Affect Your Family's Health?

Can spirituality promote a healthier physical life for your family? Recent medical studies indicate that spiritual people ... How Can Spirituality Affect Your Family's Health?. Resources. Please Note: By clicking a link to any resource listed on this ... This site includes information about grandparents day as well as suggested activities for families. ... This organization provides listings of marriage and family therapists nationwide.. Habitat for Humanity. http://www.habitat.org ...
kidshealth.org/PrimaryChildrens/en/parents/spirituality.html?view=rr

*  Gardening Health and Safety Tips - Family Health - CDC

Family health information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ... Five Minutes for Health *Five Minutes or Less for Health Weekly Tips *Make Health Your Resolution ... Physical Activity and Health Get vaccinated. Vaccinations can prevent many diseases and save lives. All adults should get a ... Talk to your health care provider if you have physical, mental, or environmental concerns that may impair your ability to work ...
https://cdc.gov/family/gardening/

*  Family health makes moral and economic sense - CNN

But for that to happen, people around the world need to speak up so that governments make family health a priority. Working ... Family health makes moral and economic sense. By Melinda Gates, Special to CNN ... Although advances in vaccines, nutrition and family health have dramatically reduced the number of child deaths in the past 50 ... On a visit not long ago to Nairobi, I met a woman who used contraceptives and limited her family to three children, which meant ...
cnn.com/2011/11/30/opinion/gates-maternal-health/index.html?iref=allsearch

*  Family Health News Announces Expansion in American Market

Family Health News, a company that dedicates itself to researching breakthroughs in alternative health and complementary ... Family Health News, a company that dedicates itself to researching breakthroughs in alternative health and complementary ... Family Health News, a company that dedicates itself to researching breakthroughs in alternative health and complementary ... From a product standpoint, Family Health News has always been particularly interested in oxygen, both O2 (the oxygen used by ...
prweb.com/releases/2017/08/prweb14587457.htm

*  Osteosarcoma - Cancer - Family Health

Australia's parenting resource for family health. Sources include Better Health Channel, NSW Health, and Health Insite. ... Family loved recipes delivered to your inbox. Find delicious recipes made by mums and approved by kids. ... This article contains general information only and is not intended to replace advice from a qualified health professional. ...
kidspot.com.au/familyhealth/Conditions-and-Disorders-Cancer-Osteosarcoma 3078 209 article.htm

*  Child Family Health International | Reviews & Programs

Learn more about Child Family Health International! Find programs, read reviews and interviews, and get inspired for your trip ... Reproductive Health in Quito, Ecuador Program Rating 9.5 2 Reviews The Child Family Health International Reproductive Health ... Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a UN-recognized organization that provides community-based Global Health Education ... Previously called the Tropical Medicine and Rural Health program, the program is run by Child Family Health International (CFHI ...
https://goabroad.com/providers/child-family-health-international

*  Is the Hepatitis Vaccine Safe? My Story | What to Expect

I can't say with confidence which type of hepatitis infected me since my health records are long gone; however, chances are it ... A big factor in my decision is that my family doesn't have a history of adverse side effects to any immunizations, and ...
https://whattoexpect.com/wom/toddler/is-the-hepatitis-vaccine-safe--my-story.aspx

*  Overnight, the ball of my left foot, bottom of the foot behind the big toe, has swollen. No pain, minor redness. I

Category: Health. Satisfied Customers: 5536. Experience: Practicing Physician, Family Physician for 7 years ... I - Answered by a verified Health Professional ... Ask Health Experts and Get Answers to Your Health Question ASAP ...
https://justanswer.com/health/7slyh-overnight-ball-left-foot-bottom-foot-behind.html

Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Global Health Delivery ProjectUniversity of CampinasPublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Halfdan T. MahlerLifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Social determinants of health in poverty: The social determinants of health in poverty describe the factors that affect impoverished populations’ health and health inequality. Inequalities in health stem from the conditions of people's lives, including living conditions, work environment, age, and other social factors, and how these affect people's ability to respond to illness.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversitySchool health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Standard evaluation frameworkEco-Runner Team Delft: Eco-Runner Team DelftChronic disease in Northern OntarioRed Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Health management system: The health management system (HMS) is an evolutionary medicine regulative process proposed by Nicholas Humphrey reprinted fromJoachim Kahl: Joachim Kahl (born 1941 in Cologne, Germany) is a German freelance philosopher whose work focuses on the criticism of religion, ethics and aesthetics. His central theme is ‘secular humanism’.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Oklahoma City Oil Field: The Oklahoma City Oil Field is one of the world's giant petroleum fields and is located in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma in the United States of America. The field was opened just south of the city limits on December 4, 1928, and first entered Oklahoma City limits on May 27, 1930.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Robert Moffat (businessman): Robert "Bob" Moffat was a senior executive at IBM, the senior vice president of its systems and technology group, and "widely considered" a candidate to be its next CEO.http://money.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Fome Zero: Fome Zero (, Zero Hunger) is a Brazilian government program introduced by the then President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2003, with the goal to eradicate hunger and extreme poverty in Brazil.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Essex School of discourse analysis: The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focuses predominantly on an in-depth analysis of political discourses in late modernity.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Muskoka Initiative: The Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health is a funding initiative announced at the 36th G8 summit which commits member nations to collectively spend an additional $5 billion between 2010 and 2015 to accelerate progress toward the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, the reduction of maternal, infant and child mortality in developing countries. A second summit on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health was held in Toronto from May 28-30, 2014 in follow-up to the original 36th G8 summit.Agnes Fleischer: Agnes Fleischer (6 February 1865 – 15 September 1909) was a Norwegian pioneering teacher for disabled persons. She was born in Christiania, and the sister of Nanna Fleischer.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Minati SenMental disorderNational Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Northeast Community Health Centre

(1/3578) A parametric copula model for analysis of familial binary data.

Modeling the joint distribution of a binary trait (disease) within families is a tedious challenge, owing to the lack of a general statistical model with desirable properties such as the multivariate Gaussian model for a quantitative trait. Models have been proposed that either assume the existence of an underlying liability variable, the reality of which cannot be checked, or provide estimates of aggregation parameters that are dependent on the ordering of family members and on family size. We describe how a class of copula models for the analysis of exchangeable categorical data can be incorporated into a familial framework. In this class of models, the joint distribution of binary outcomes is characterized by a function of the given marginals. This function, referred to as a "copula," depends on an aggregation parameter that is weakly dependent on the marginal distributions. We propose to decompose a nuclear family into two sets of equicorrelated data (parents and offspring), each of which is characterized by an aggregation parameter (alphaFM and alphaSS, respectively). The marginal probabilities are modeled through a logistic representation. The advantage of this model is that it provides estimates of the aggregation parameters that are independent of family size and does not require any arbitrary ordering of sibs. It can be incorporated easily into segregation or combined segregation-linkage analysis and does not require extensive computer time. As an illustration, we applied this model to a combined segregation-linkage analysis of levels of plasma angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) dichotomized into two classes according to the median. The conclusions of this analysis were very similar to those we had reported in an earlier familial analysis of quantitative ACE levels.  (+info)

(2/3578) Immunodeficiency due to a unique protracted developmental delay in the B-cell lineage.

A unique immune deficiency in a 24-month-old male characterized by a transient but protracted developmental delay in the B-cell lineage is reported. Significant deficiencies in the number of B cells in the blood, the concentrations of immunoglobulins in the serum, and the titers of antibodies to T-dependent and T-independent antigens resolved spontaneously by the age of 39 months in a sequence that duplicated the normal development of the B-cell lineage: blood B cells followed by immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, IgA, and specific IgG antibodies to T-independent antigens (pneumococcal polysaccharides). Because of the sequence of recovery, the disorder could have been confused with other defects in humoral immunity, depending on when in the course of disease immunologic studies were conducted. Investigations of X-chromosome polymorphisms suggested that the disorder was not X linked in that the mother appeared to have identical X chromosomes. An autosomal recessive disorder involving a gene that controls B-cell development and maturation seems more likely. In summary, this case appears to be a novel protracted delay in the development of the B-cell lineage, possibly due to an autosomal recessive genetic defect.  (+info)

(3/3578) The Thr124Met mutation in the peripheral myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene is associated with a clinically distinct Charcot-Marie-Tooth phenotype.

We observed a missense mutation in the peripheral myelin protein zero gene (MPZ, Thr124Met) in seven Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) families and in two isolated CMT patients of Belgian ancestry. Allele-sharing analysis of markers flanking the MPZ gene indicated that all patients with the Thr124Met mutation have one common ancestor. The mutation is associated with a clinically distinct phenotype characterized by late onset, marked sensory abnormalities and, in some families, deafness and pupillary abnormalities. Nerve conduction velocities of the motor median nerve vary from <38 m/s to normal values in these patients. Clusters of remyelinating axons in a sural nerve biopsy demonstrate an axonal involvement, with axonal regeneration. Phenotype-genotype correlations in 30 patients with the Thr124Met MPZ mutation indicate that, based on nerve conduction velocity criteria, these patients are difficult to classify as CMT1 or CMT2. We therefore conclude that CMT patients with slightly reduced or nearly normal nerve conduction velocity should be screened for MPZ mutations, particularly when additional clinical features such as marked sensory disturbances, pupillary abnormalities or deafness are also present.  (+info)

(4/3578) The impact of depression on the physical health of family members.

BACKGROUND: Depressive illness is common. Depression in one family member is associated with an increased incidence of psychopathology in other family members. There are no data on the physical well being of the families of depressed individuals. AIM: To compare physical morbidity of family members of depressed patients with that of family members of comparison patients. METHOD: A comparative follow-up study from case notes. Two hundred and one subjects from 88 families with an index family member diagnosed with depression ('depression families') were compared with 200 subjects from 88 families with a matched index subject without depression ('comparison families'), using the Duke University Illness Severity Scores (ISS) to assess burden of illness experienced by both groups. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of depression over 11 months in depression families was 8.9% compared to 1.4% in the Family Practice Unit as a whole. Members of depression families had significantly greater ISS than members of comparison families (difference in means = 0.164; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.113-0.215; P < 0.001). Excluding family members with depression (in addition to the index subject), ISS of members of depression families remained significantly greater than the comparison group (difference in means = 0.136; 95% CI 0.083-0.189; P < 0.001). Among depression families, mean ISS was significantly higher after presentation of depression in index subjects compared with before (difference in means = 0.155; 95% CI 0.115-0.194; P < 0.0001). No significant difference was seen between ISS of depression and comparison families before presentation of depression (difference in means = 0.008; 95% CI -0.004-0.058; P = 0.74). CONCLUSION: Depression in patients is associated with increased physical morbidity in their families.  (+info)

(5/3578) Patient removals from general practitioner lists in Northern Ireland: 1987-1996.

BACKGROUND: Being struck off a general practitioner's list is a major event for patients and a subject for much media attention. However, it has not hitherto received much research attention. AIMS: To quantify the numbers of patients removed at doctors' request in Northern Ireland between 1987 and 1996. To describe the characteristics of those removed and to determine if the rate of removal has increased. METHODS: This is a descriptive epidemiological study involving a secondary data analysis of records held by the Central Services Agency. RESULTS: Six thousand five hundred and seventy-eight new patients were removed at general practitioner (GP) request between 1987 and 1996. This equated to 3920 removal decisions, a rate of 2.43 per 10,000 person-years. The very young and young adults had the highest rates of removal; most of the young being removed as part of a family. Ten point six per cent of removed patients had a repeat removal, and 16.3% of first removal decisions required an assignment to another practice. Family removals have decreased and individual removals have increased over the 10 years. Disadvantaged and densely populated areas with high population turnover were associated with higher rates of removal, though heterogeneity is evident between general practitioners serving similar areas. Compared to the period 1987 to 1991, removal rates for the years 1992 to 1993 were reduced by 20.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) for rate ratio (RR) 0.73-0.87), and those for the years 1994 to 1996 increased by 8% (95% CI = 1.01-1.16). The greatest increase was in the over-75 years age group (standardized RR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.57-1.62). CONCLUSIONS: Removals are relatively rare events for both patients and practices, though they have been increasing in recent years. Further research is needed to understand the processes that culminate in a removal.  (+info)

(6/3578) A wide variety of mutations in the parkin gene are responsible for autosomal recessive parkinsonism in Europe. French Parkinson's Disease Genetics Study Group and the European Consortium on Genetic Susceptibility in Parkinson's Disease.

Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP, PARK2; OMIM 602544), one of the monogenic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), was initially described in Japan. It is characterized by early onset (before age 40), marked response to levodopa treatment and levodopa-induced dyskinesias. The gene responsible for AR-JP was recently identified and designated parkin. We have analysed the 12 coding exons of the parkin gene in 35 mostly European families with early onset autosomal recessive parkinsonism. In one family, a homozygous deletion of exon 4 could be demonstrated. By direct sequencing of the exons in the index patients of the remaining 34 families, eight previously undescribed point mutations (homozygous or heterozygous) were detected in eight families that included 20 patients. The mutations segregated with the disease in the families and were not detected on 110-166 control chromosomes. Four mutations caused truncation of the parkin protein. Three were frameshifts (202-203delAG, 255delA and 321-322insGT) and one a nonsense mutation (Trp453Stop). The other four were missense mutations (Lys161Asn, Arg256Cys, Arg275Trp and Thr415Asn) that probably affect amino acids that are important for the function of the parkin protein, since they result in the same phenotype as truncating mutations or homozygous exon deletions. Mean age at onset was 38 +/- 12 years, but onset up to age 58 was observed. Mutations in the parkin gene are therefore not invariably associated with early onset parkinsonism. In many patients, the phenotype is indistinguishable from that of idiopathic PD. This study has shown that a wide variety of different mutations in the parkin gene are a common cause of autosomal recessive parkinsonism in Europe and that different types of point mutations seem to be more frequently responsible for the disease phenotype than are deletions.  (+info)

(7/3578) Germline E-cadherin gene (CDH1) mutations predispose to familial gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.

Inherited mutations in the E-cadherin gene ( CDH1 ) were described recently in three Maori kindreds with familial gastric cancer. Familial gastric cancer is genetically heterogeneous and it is not clear what proportion of gastric cancer susceptibility in non-Maori populations is due to germline CDH1 mutations. Therefore, we screened eight familial gastric cancer kindreds of British and Irish origin for germline CDH1 mutations, by SSCP analysis of all 16 exons and flanking sequences. Each family contained: (i) two cases of gastric cancer in first degree relatives with one affected before age 50 years; or (ii) three or more cases of gastric cancer. Novel germline CDH1 mutations (a nonsense and a splice site) were detected in two families (25%). Both mutations were predicted to truncate the E-cadherin protein in the signal peptide domain. In one family there was evidence of non-penetrance and susceptibility to both gastric and colorectal cancer; thus, in addition to six cases of gastric cancer, a CDH1 mutation carrier developed colorectal cancer at age 30 years. We have confirmed that germline mutations in the CDH1 gene cause familial gastric cancer in non-Maori populations. However, only a minority of familial gastric cancers can be accounted for by CDH1 mutations. Loss of E-cadherin function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sporadic colorectal and other cancers, and our findings provide evidence that germline CDH1 mutations predispose to early onset colorectal cancer. Thus, CDH1 should be investigated as a cause of inherited susceptibility to both gastric and colorectal cancers.  (+info)

(8/3578) Genome-wide screen for systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility genes in multiplex families.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototype of human autoimmune diseases. Its genetic component has been suggested by familial aggregation (lambdas = 20) and twin studies. We have screened the human genome to localize genetic intervals that may contain lupus susceptibility loci in a sample of 188 lupus patients belonging to 80 lupus families with two or more affected relatives per family using the ABI Prism linkage mapping set which includes 350 polymorphic markers with an average spacing of 12 cM. Non-parametric multipoint linkage analysis suggests evidence for predisposing loci on chromosomes 1 and 18. However, no single locus with overwhelming evidence for linkage was found, suggesting that there are no 'major' susceptibility genes segregating in families with SLE, and that the genetic etiology is more likely to result from the action of several genes of moderate effect. Furthermore, the support for a gene in the 1q44 region as well as in the 1p36 region is clearly found only in the Mexican American families with SLE but not in families of Caucasian ethnicity, suggesting that consideration of each ethnic group separately is crucial.  (+info)



care


  • He has written extensively in the lay press on single payer and patient-oriented health care, often using the concept of "Universal Medicare" as a model for single payer that the public can understand and support. (pnhp.org)
  • Dr. Paul Song is a board-certified radiation oncologist, biotech executive, and health care reform activist. (pnhp.org)
  • He also served as the very first visiting fellow on health care policy in the California Department of Insurance for 2013. (pnhp.org)
  • The California State Assembly will be busy this summer continuing to shape SB-562, a statewide universal health-care bill that passed the Senate last month. (pnhp.org)
  • The legislation aims to create a so-called single-payer system: a unified public insurance pool that would cover all residents' health-care costs, thereby extending coverage to three million previously uninsured Californians. (pnhp.org)