Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).Polygonaceae: The only family of the buckwheat order (Polygonales) of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It has 40 genera of herbs, shrubs, and trees.Flowering Tops: Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Kinesis: Locomotor behavior not involving a steering reaction, but in which there may be a turning random in direction. It includes orthokinesis, the rate of movement and klinokinesis, the amount of turning, which are related to the intensity of stimulation.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fungal Polysaccharides: Cell wall components constituting a polysaccharide core found in fungi. They may act as antigens or structural substrates.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
Fagopyrum tataricumMuehlenbeckia florulenta: Muehlenbeckia florulenta, commonly known as Tangled Lignum or often simply Lignum, is a plant native to inland Australia. It is associated with wetland habitats, especially those in arid and semiarid regions subject to cycles of intermittent flooding and drying out.Organic hydroponics: Organic hydroponics is a hydroponics culture system which is managed based on organic agriculture concepts.
(1/83) Muscle hypertrophy in rats fed on a buckwheat protein extract.
Growing rats were examined for the influence of a buckwheat protein diet on muscle weight and protein. In experiment 1, the rats were fed on a diet containing either casein or a buckwheat protein extract (BWPE) as the protein source (10%, 20% or 30%) for 5 wk. The relative weights (g per kg of body wt) of the gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus muscles were higher in the BWPE-fed animals than in the casein-fed ones, but were unaffected by the dietary level of protein. These differences were not associated with growth. In experiment 2, the rats were fed on either a casein or BWPE diet at the 20% protein level for 5 wk. BWPE intake significantly elevated the gastrocnemius muscle weight, carcass protein and water, and reduced carcass fat. These results demonstrate that BWPE consumption causes muscle hypertrophy, elevates carcass protein and water, and reduces body fat. (+info)
(2/83) Consumption of a buckwheat protein extract retards 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats.
Female rats were examined for the effects of feeding buckwheat protein extract (BWPE) on the development of mammary tumor caused by administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene. The percentage of rats with palpable mammary tumors and serum estradiol were lower in the BWPE-fed animals than the casein-fed ones, implying that BWPE intake retarded the mammary carcinogenesis by lowering serum estradiol. (+info)
(3/83) Resolution and synthesis of optically active alcohols with immobilized water-soluble proteins from green pea, soybean and buckwheat as new bio-catalysts.
Kinetic resolution of racemic alcohols, (+/-)-1-(4-substituted phenyl)ethanol and (+/-)-1-(2-naphthyl)ethanol, was done with immobilized green pea, soybean, or buckwheat proteins. The resolution was done stereoselectively by oxidizing only one enantiomer of a racemic alcohol to leave an optically active alcohol with a high purity. In addition, each protein could be reused consecutively at least three times without any decrease of yield or optical purity. (+info)
(4/83) Development of a simple and efficient method for transformation of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Apical meristems of seedlings of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum var. Shinano No. 1) were pricked with a needle and inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404, pBI121). The inoculated seedlings were grown to maturation and allowed to pollinate randomly to set the seeds (T1 plants). The transformation efficiency of the T1 plants was estimated by germination in the presence of geneticin (20 microg/ml) and by detection of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene with PCR, indicating that 36% and 70% of the T1 plants were transformed, respectively. Four plants taking on a mutated morphology were selected from T1 plants which were transformed with the method using A. tumefaciens harboring a modified pBI121 for plasmid rescue. Southern blot analysis of plasmids rescued from the 4 T1 plants demonstrated that each plasmid contained a different flanking DNA of the buckwheat genome, an evidence that T-DNA was integrated in different sites of the genomic DNA among the 4 T1 plants. (+info)
(5/83) A buckwheat protein product suppresses gallstone formation and plasma cholesterol more strongly than soy protein isolate in hamsters.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a buckwheat protein product (BWP) on plasma cholesterol, gallbladder bile composition and fecal steroid excretion in hamsters fed diets with 5 g/kg cholesterol. Diets also contained 200 g/kg of casein, soy protein isolate (SPI) or BWP as protein sources. After 2 wk, plasma and liver concentrations of cholesterol in the hamsters fed BWP were significantly lower than those in the hamsters fed casein and SPI. The molar proportion of cholesterol in gallbladder bile was significantly lower in the BWP group than in the other groups, whereas that of bile acids was slightly higher in the BWP group (P = 0.05), resulting in the lowest lithogenic index in the BWP group. None of the hamsters fed BWP had gallstones, whereas they were present in some of the hamsters fed other proteins. Compared with casein intake, BWP intake resulted in significantly higher ratios of cholic acid to chenodeoxycholic acid and of cholic acid to lithocholic acid in the gallbladder bile. The excretions of fecal neutral and acidic steroids were markedly higher in the BWP group compared with the other groups (P = 0.05). SPI intake also significantly lowered cholesterol level in gallbladder bile and caused higher fecal bile acids compared with casein intake, but the effects were significantly less than those of BWP (P = 0.05). The results suggest that BWP suppresses gallstone formation and cholesterol level more strongly than SPI by enhancing bile acid synthesis and fecal excretion of both neutral and acidic steroids. (+info)
(6/83) Complete amino acid sequence of the protease inhibitor BWI-4a from buckwheat seeds.
The complete amino acid sequence of the protease inhibitor BWI-4a from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) seeds has been established by automated Edman degradation in combination with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The inhibitor molecule consists of 67 amino acid residues with a single disulfide bond. Its N-terminus is blocked by a pyroglutamic acid residue. The reactive site of the inhibitor contains an Arg43-Asp44 bond. Mass spectrometry revealed that inhibitor BWI-4a is present in buckwheat seeds in two isoforms differing by a single amino acid substitution of Gly40 for Ala40. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of the BWI-4a inhibitor indicates that this inhibitor is a member of the potato proteinase inhibitor I family. (+info)
(7/83) Antioxidant activities of buckwheat hull extract toward various oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo.
We have undertaken four basic in vitro studies and an animal experiment to obtain information about the antioxidant activities of buckwheat hull extract (BWHE). In the in vitro studies, BWHE scavenged super oxide anion produced in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system (IC50=11.4 microg phenolic compound/ml), and strongly inhibited autoxidation of linoleic acid (IC50=6.2 microg phenolic compound/ml). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation induced by Cu2+ ion was also protected by BWHE. In the animal experiment, ddY mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with 0.75% BWHE for 14 d. In blood, liver and brain of the mice TBARS and fluorescent substance concentration were significantly decreased compared with those of non-treated mice. SOD like activity in serum also significantly rose by BWHE treatment. BWHE was shown to be effective for protecting biological systems against various oxidative stresses in vitro, and to have antioxidant activity in vivo. (+info)
(8/83) Buckwheat allergy and reports on asthma and atopic disorders in Taiyuan City, Northern China.
Allergy to common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) has been reported from Europe and Japan, and a 24 kDa globulin protein has been identified as one of the major allergens. In China also another type, tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tartaricum) is grown and consumed. Three groups of individuals in Shanxi province, China, were investigated for buckwheat allergy using skin prick test. The groups were: agricultural researchers with occupational exposure to buckwheat (N = 16); workers in a food industry producing buckwheat noodles (N = 25), and patients with diabetes or cardiovascular disease consuming buckwheat as functional food (N = 20). Information on atopic disorders and adverse food reactions were collected by a doctors-administered questionnaire. One male industrial worker had a positive skin prick test to buckwheat, but no symptoms while eating or handling buckwheat products. In total, 34% consumed buckwheat food at least every week, and 23% had a weekly consumption of tartary buckwheat. The prevalence of doctor's diagnosed asthma was low (1.6%). Four subjects (6.6%) reported a history of allergic rhinitis, with allergy to cedar pollen, carnation and peach. (+info)