Eyelid DiseasesEyelid Neoplasms: Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.Blepharoplasty: Plastic surgery of the eyelid. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Conditioning, Eyelid: Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous: A malignant tumor composed of cells showing differentiation toward sebaceous epithelium. The tumor is solitary, firm, somewhat raised, more or less translucent, and covered with normal or slightly verrucose epidermis. It may be yellow or orange. The face and scalp are the commonest sites. The growth can be slow or rapid but metastasis is uncommon. Surgery cures most of the cases. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2403-4)Blepharoptosis: Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.Ectropion: The turning outward (eversion) of the edge of the eyelid, resulting in the exposure of the palpebral conjunctiva. (Dorland, 27th ed)Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids.Sebaceous Gland NeoplasmsOculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Entropion: The turning inward (inversion) of the edge of the eyelid, with the tarsal cartilage turned inward toward the eyeball. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hidrocystoma: A cystic form of sweat gland adenoma (ADENOMA, SWEAT GLAND). It is produced by the cystic proliferation of apocrine secretory glands. It is not uncommon, occurring in adult life in no particular age group, with males and females equally affected. The commonest site is around the eye, particularly lateral to the outer canthus. It is cured by surgical removal. (Stedman, 25th ed; Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2410)Blepharospasm: Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.Eyelashes: The hairs which project from the edges of the EYELIDS.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Esthetics: The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.Eye Infections, Parasitic: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsRhytidoplasty: Plastic surgery performed, usually by excision of skin, for the elimination of wrinkles from the skin.Graves Ophthalmopathy: An autoimmune disorder of the EYE, occurring in patients with Graves disease. Subtypes include congestive (inflammation of the orbital connective tissue), myopathic (swelling and dysfunction of the extraocular muscles), and mixed congestive-myopathic ophthalmopathy.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Orbital Diseases: Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Chalazion: A non-neoplastic cyst of the MEIBOMIAN GLANDS of the eyelid.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Exophthalmos: Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.ConjunctivitisEye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Orbital Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Mohs Surgery: A surgical technique used primarily in the treatment of skin neoplasms, especially basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. This procedure is a microscopically controlled excision of cutaneous tumors either after fixation in vivo or after freezing the tissue. Serial examinations of fresh tissue specimens are most frequently done.Eyebrows: Curved rows of HAIR located on the upper edges of the eye sockets.Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Conjunctival DiseasesOrbit Evisceration: The surgical removal of the contents of the orbit. This includes the eyeball, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerve supply, and periosteum. It should be differentiated from EYE EVISCERATION which removes the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia: Solitary or multiple benign cutaneous nodules comprised of immature and mature vascular structures intermingled with endothelial cells and a varied infiltrate of eosinophils, histiocytes, lymphocytes, and mast cells.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome: An idiopathic syndrome characterized by one or more of the following; recurrent orofacial swelling, relapsing facial paralysis, and fissured tongue (lingua plicata). The onset is usually in childhood and relapses are common. Cheilitis granulomatosa is a monosymptomatic variant of this condition. (Dermatol Clin 1996 Apr;14(2):371-9; Magalini & Magalini, Dictionary of Medical Syndromes, 4th ed, p531)Mite Infestations: Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.Surgery, Plastic: The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Enophthalmos: Recession of the eyeball into the orbit.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Lipoid Proteinosis of Urbach and Wiethe: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by glassy degenerative thickening (hyalinosis) of SKIN; MUCOSA; and certain VISCERA. This disorder is caused by mutation in the extracellular matrix protein 1 gene (ECM1). Clinical features include hoarseness and skin eruption due to widespread deposition of HYALIN.Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Conjunctival Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases: Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction: A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Skin Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.BelizeHorner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Cyanoacrylates: A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.Muir-Torre Syndrome: A form of LYNCH SYNDROME II associated with cutaneous SEBACEOUS GLAND NEOPLASMS. Muir-Torre syndrome is also associated with other visceral malignant diseases include colorectal, endometrial, urological, and upper gastrointestinal neoplasms.Psychology, Experimental: The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Adenoma, Sweat Gland: A benign neoplasm derived from epithelial cells of sweat glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Palate, Hard: The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated: A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Facial NeoplasmsRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Graves Disease: A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).Dacryocystorhinostomy: Surgical fistulization of the LACRIMAL SAC for external drainage of an obstructed nasolacrimal duct.Ointment Bases: Various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons; vehicles for medicinal substances intended for external application; there are four classes: hydrocarbon base, absorption base, water-removable base and water-soluble base; several are also emollients.Eye Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.Naphazoline: An adrenergic vasoconstrictor agent used as a decongestant.Myiasis: The invasion of living tissues of man and other mammals by dipterous larvae.Chancre: The primary sore of syphilis, a painless indurated, eroded papule, occurring at the site of entry of the infection.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Eccrine Glands: Simple sweat glands that secrete sweat directly onto the SKIN.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Hemangiopericytoma: A tumor composed of spindle cells with a rich vascular network, which apparently arises from pericytes, cells of smooth muscle origin that lie around small vessels. Benign and malignant hemangiopericytomas exist, and the rarity of these lesions has led to considerable confusion in distinguishing between benign and malignant variants. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1364)Epilepsy, Absence: A childhood seizure disorder characterized by rhythmic electrical brain discharges of generalized onset. Clinical features include a sudden cessation of ongoing activity usually without loss of postural tone. Rhythmic blinking of the eyelids or lip smacking frequently accompanies the SEIZURES. The usual duration is 5-10 seconds, and multiple episodes may occur daily. Juvenile absence epilepsy is characterized by the juvenile onset of absence seizures and an increased incidence of myoclonus and tonic-clonic seizures. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p736)Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
BlepharochalasisBlepharoplastyInterstimulus interval: The interstimulus interval (often abbreviated as ISI) is the temporal interval between the offset of one stimulus to the onset of another. For instance, Max Wertheimer did experiments with two stationary, flashing lights that at some interstimulus intervals appeared to the subject as moving instead of stationary.Sebaceous carcinoma: Sebaceous carcinoma is an uncommon and aggressive malignant cutaneous tumor. Most are typically about 10 mm in size at presentation.Marcus Gunn phenomenonEctropionBlepharitisSebaceous adenoma: Sebaceous adenoma is a cutaneous condition characterized by a slow-growing tumor usually presenting as a pink, flesh-coloured, or yellow papule or nodule.James et al.Inferior rectus muscle: The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.Meibomian gland: The meibomian glands (or tarsal glands) are a special kind of sebaceous gland at the rim of the eyelids inside the tarsal plate, responsible for the supply of meibum, an oily substance that prevents evaporation of the eye's tear film. Meibum prevents tear spillage onto the cheek, trapping tears between the oiled edge and the eyeball, and makes the closed lids airtight.EntropionBlepharospasmEyelash: An eyelash or simply lash is one of the hairs that grows at the edge of the eyelid. Eyelashes protect the eye from debris and perform some of the same function as whiskers do on a cat or a mouse in the sense that they are sensitive to being touched, thus providing a warning that an object (such as an insect or dust mite) is near the eye (which then closes reflexively).Optimax: Optimax is a UK-based laser eye treatment specialist which has 38 locations nationwide. Optimax was established as one of the first private clinics to offer laser eye surgery.Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis: Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) is a rare condition that occurs in otherwise healthy, often young patients and is due to the presence of a subretinal nematode.Hidradenocarcinoma: Hidradenocarcinoma (also known as malignant hidradenoma, malignant acrospiroma, clear cell eccrine carcinoma, or primary mucoepidermoid cutaneous carcinoma) is a malignant adnexal tumor of the sweat gland. It is the malignant variant of the benign hidradenoma.RhytidectomyInfiltrative ophthalmopathy: Infiltrative ophthalmopathy is found in Graves disease and resembles exophthalmos, except that the blurry or double vision is acquired because of weakness in the ocular muscles of the eye. In addition, there is no known correlation with the patient's thyroid levels.Conjunctiva: The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (white part of the eye). It is composed of non-keratinized, stratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells, and also stratified columnar epithelium.Orbital apex syndrome: Orbital apex syndrome, also known as Jacod syndrome, is a collection of cranial nerve deficits associated with a mass lesion near the apex of the orbit of the eye. This syndrome is a separate entity from Rochon–Duvigneaud syndrome, which occurs due to a lesion immediately anterior to the orbital apex.Superior orbital fissure: The superior orbital fissure is a foramen in the skull, although strictly it is more of a cleft, lying between the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid bone.ChalazionRombo syndrome: Rombo syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder characterized mainly by atrophoderma vermiculatum of the face,James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology.ExophthalmosLigneous conjunctivitis: Ligneous conjunctivitis is a rare form of chronic conjunctivitis characterized by recurrent, fibrin-rich pseudomembranous lesions of wood-like consistency that develop mainly on the underside of the eyelid (tarsal conjunctiva). It is generally a systemic disease which may involve the periodontal tissue, the upper and lower respiratory tract, kidneys, middle ear, and female genitalia.Orbital lymphoma: Orbital lymphoma is a common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that occurs near or on the eye. Common symptoms include decreased vision and uveitis.Dermatology: Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.Eyebrow: The eyebrow is an area of thick, delicate hairs above the eye that follows the shape of the lower margin of the brow ridges of some mammals. Their main function is hypothesized to prevent sweat, water, and other debris from falling down into the eye socket, but they are also important to human communication and facial expression.Facial nerve paralysisConjunctivochalasisInterposed nucleus: The interposed nucleus is a deep nucleus of the cerebellum and is composed of the globose nuclei and the emboliform nuclei. It is located in the roof (dorsal aspect) of the fourth ventricle, lateral to the fastigial nucleus.Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia: Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (also known as: "Epithelioid hemangioma," "Histiocytoid hemangioma," "Inflammatory angiomatous nodule," "Intravenous atypical vascular proliferation," "Papular angioplasia," "Inflammatory arteriovenous hemangioma," and "Pseudopyogenic granuloma") usually presents with pink to red-brown, dome-shaped, dermal papules or nodules of the head or neck, especially about the ears and on the scalp.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Neuro-ophthalmology: Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system. Neuro-ophthalmologists initially complete a residency in either neurology or ophthalmology, then do a fellowship in the complementary field.Pediatric ophthalmology: Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases, visual development, and vision care in children.Friedrich MiescherAcariasisAesthetic Surgery Journal: Aesthetic Surgery Journal is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers the field of plastic surgery. The journal's editor-in-chief is Foad Nahai (Emory University School of Medicine).Guiding Eyes for the Blind: Yorktown Heights, New YorkUrbach–Wiethe diseaseBarbed suture: A barbed suture is a type of knotless surgical suture that has barbs on its surface. While suturing tissue, these barbs penetrate inside the tissue and lock them into place, eliminating the need for knots to tie the suture.Circular knittingEye injuryLacrimal caruncle: The caruncula lacrimalis, or lacrimal caruncle, is the small, pink, globular nodule at the inner corner (the medial angle) of the eye. It is made of skin covering sebaceous (oil) and sudoriferous (sweat) glands.Diastase: A diastase (; from GreekAlachrymaBacalar Chico National Park and Marine ReserveNicholas Horner: Nicholas Horner (died 4 March 1590) was an English Roman Catholic layman, hanged, drawn and quartered because he had relieved and assisted Christopher Bales, a seminary priest. He is a Catholic martyr, beatified in 1987.CyanoacrylateMuir–Torre syndrome: Muir–Torre syndrome (MTS) is a rare hereditary, autosomal dominant cancer syndrome that is thought to be a subtype of HNPCC. Individuals are prone to develop cancers of the colon, breast, and genitourinary tract, and skin lesions, such as keratoacanthomas and sebaceous tumors.Loftus, North YorkshireRotation flap: A rotation flap is a semicircular skin flap that is rotated into the defect on a fulcrum point. Rotation flaps provide the ability to mobilize large areas of tissue with a wide vascular base for reconstruction.Apocrine sweat glandPeripheral edemaIntraocular lymphoma: Intraocular lymphoma is a rare malignant form of eye cancer. Intraocular lymphoma may affect the eye secondarily from a metastasis from a non-ocular tumor or may arise within the eye primarily (primary intraocular lymphoma, PIOL).Electropalatography: Electropalatography (EPG) is a technique used to monitor contacts between the tongue and hard palate, particularly during articulation and speech.Devil facial tumour diseaseNew Zealand rabbitProfessional DiscSymptoms and signs of Graves' disease: Virtually all the symptoms and signs of Graves' disease result from the direct and indirect effects of hyperthyroidism, with exceptions being Graves' ophthalmopathy, goitre and pretibial myxedema (which are caused by the autoimmune processes of Graves' disease). These clinical manifestations are dramatic and involve virtually every system in the body.DacryocystorhinostomyNicomide: Nicomide is an acne medication available in topical cream, topical gel and vitamin supplement form (U.S.NaphazolineMyiasisChancreMalformative syndrome: A malformative syndrome (or malformation syndrome) is a recognizable pattern of congenital anomalies that are known or thought to be causally related (VIIth International Congress on Human Genetics).ConjunctivitisNAME (dispersion model): The NAME atmospheric pollution dispersion model Air Quality Programme and Progress, Met Office Scientific Advisory Committee (MOSAC), November 11–12, 2004Met Office "Specialised forecasts"Met Office "NWP Gazette", 3rd Quarter, 1996Met Office "NWP Gazette", December 2000 was first developed by the UK's Met Office in 1986 after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, which demonstrated the need for a method that could predict the spread and deposition of radioactive gases or material released into the atmosphere.Aging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma: Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma usually appear as a solitary nodular lesion on the acral areas of the extremities, particularly the palms and soles.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Infantile hemangiopericytoma: Infantile hemangiopericytoma (also known as "Congenital hemangiopericytoma") is a cutaneous condition characterized by single or multiple dermal and subcutaneous nodules that may be alarmingly large at birth or grow rapidly.Childhood absence epilepsy: Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), also known as pyknolepsy, is an idiopathic generalized epilepsy which occurs in otherwise normal children. The age of onset is between 4–10 years with peak age between 5–7 years.ElectrooculographyCongenital lacrimal duct obstruction
(1/619) Electrical stimulation as a therapeutic option to improve eyelid function in chronic facial nerve disorders.
PURPOSE: To establish whether it is possible to improve orbicularis oculi muscle function in the eyelids of patients with a chronic seventh cranial nerve palsy by using transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the point at which electrical stimulation induces a functional blink. METHODS: Ten subjects (one woman, nine men) aged 36 to 76 with chronic, moderate to severe facial nerve palsy were recruited into the study. Voluntary and spontaneous eyelid movements were assessed, using an optical measuring system, before, during, and after a 3-month treatment period. Voluntary and spontaneous lid velocities were also measured and compared with eyelid kinematic data in normal subjects (12 women, 18 men; age range, 22-56 years). RESULTS: Therapeutic electrical stimulation applied over 3 months produced improvement in eyelid movement (>2 mm) in 8 of 10 patients during voluntary eyelid closure. However, there was no significant improvement recorded in spontaneous blink amplitudes or peak downward-phase velocity of the upper eyelid. This regimen of stimulation failed to recover function well enough that a functional blink could be induced in the paretic eyelid by electrical stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Electrical stimulation using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators units can improve voluntary eye closure, apparently because of a reduction in stiffness of eyelid mechanics, rather than an improvement of muscle function. Investigation of alternative stimulation regimens is warranted. (+info)
(2/619) Alpha9 and beta8 integrin expression correlates with the merger of the developing mouse eyelids.
As previously reported, alpha9 integrin is expressed between the merged or fused eyelids of mice at birth, and changes in alpha9 localization occur during lid opening. To determine whether alpha9 and/or additional integrin subunits mediate the emergence and temporary fusion of the eyelids, immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the localization of various integrin subunits in the developing ocular surface of the mouse. No detectable beta5, beta6, or beta7 integrins were observed on the epithelia of the ocular surface. alpha2, alpha3, alphav, and beta1 integrins were most abundant in the basal cells beginning at 13.5 days post conception and remained primarily localized to the basal cell layers throughout development. beta4 was localized at the basal surface of the epidermal basal cells beginning at 13.5 days post conception but was not found on the corneal epithelial basal cells until after birth. alpha9 and beta8 integrins were present on suprabasal cells of the epidermis at the leading edge of the eyelid before merger and on the epithelial bridge that forms immediately after these tissues merge, suggesting that they play a role in the initial fusion of the epithelial tissues of the eyelid and in stabilizing the epithelial junction. After birth and into adulthood, beta8 was retained within the suprabasal cell layers of the epidermis, whereas alpha9 became localized to the basal cells of the epidermis, the conjunctiva, and the limbus. The lack of co-localization of beta4 with either alpha9 or beta8 in double-labeling studies suggests that alpha9 and beta8 are restricted to the lateral and apical aspects of those cells in which they are expressed. The presence of tenascin-C and laminin-5 at the epithelial junction site suggests that alpha9: tenascin-C and beta4: laminin-5 interactions may play a role in stabilizing the fusion between lids early on but do not appear to be involved in the movement of the lids across the cornea. The data presented identify specific integrins and matrix proteins that are likely to mediate eyelid fusion. (+info)
(3/619) Discharge profiles of abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons during reflex and conditioned blinks in alert cats.
The discharge profiles of identified abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons have been recorded extra- and intracellularly in alert behaving cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and classically conditioned eyelid responses. The movement of the upper lid and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle also were recorded. Animals were conditioned by short, weak air puffs or 350-ms tones as conditioned stimuli (CS) and long, strong air puffs as unconditioned stimulus (US) using both trace and delayed conditioning paradigms. Motoneurons were identified by antidromic activation from their respective cranial nerves. Orbicularis oculi and accessory abducens motoneurons fired an early, double burst of action potentials (at 4-6 and 10-16 ms) in response to air puffs or to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. Orbicularis oculi, but not accessory abducens, motoneurons fired in response to flash and tone presentations. Only 10-15% of recorded abducens motoneurons fired a late, weak burst after air puff, supraorbital nerve, and flash stimulations. Spontaneous fasciculations of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the activity of single orbicularis oculi motoneurons that generated them also were recorded. The activation of orbicularis oculi motoneurons during the acquisition of classically conditioned eyelid responses happened in a gradual, sequential manner. Initially, some putative excitatory synaptic potentials were observed in the time window corresponding to the CS-US interval; by the second to the fourth conditioning session, some isolated action potentials appeared that increased in number until some small movements were noticed in eyelid position traces. No accessory abducens motoneuron fired and no abducens motoneuron modified their discharge rate for conditioned eyelid responses. The firing of orbicularis oculi motoneurons was related linearly to lid velocity during reflex blinks but to lid position during conditioned responses, a fact indicating the different neural origin and coding of both types of motor commands. The power spectra of both reflex and conditioned lid responses showed a dominant peak at approximately 20 Hz. The wavy appearance of both reflex and conditioned eyelid responses was clearly the result of the high phasic activity of orbicularis oculi motor units. Orbicularis oculi motoneuron membrane potentials oscillated at approximately 20 Hz after supraorbital nerve stimulation and during other reflex and conditioned eyelid movements. The oscillation seemed to be the result of both intrinsic (spike afterhyperpolarization lasting approximately 50 ms, and late depolarizations) and extrinsic properties of the motoneuronal pool and of the circuits involved in eye blinks. (+info)
(4/619) A single technique to correct various degrees of upper lid retraction in patients with Graves' orbitopathy.
BACKGROUND: Several lengthening techniques have been proposed for upper eyelid retraction in patients with Graves' orbitopathy and variable rates of success have been reported. Most authors recommend different procedures for different degrees of retraction, but cannot prevent residual temporal retraction in a significant number of cases. The modified levator aponeurosis recession described by Harvey and colleagues, in which the lateral horn is cut completely, seems to be an exception to this rule, but was evaluated in a limited number of cases only. METHOD: The authors further modified Harvey's technique by dissecting the aponeurosis together with Muller's muscle of the tarsus and the conjunctiva medially only to the extent necessary to achieve an acceptable position and contour of the eyelid in upright position. They also used an Ethilon 6.0 suture, instead of Vicryl, on a loop. It is placed between the tarsal plate and the detached aponeurosis to prevent spontaneous disinsertion. This modification was used in 50 Graves' patients (78 eyelids) with a upper lid margin-limbus distance ranging from 1 to 7 mm and evaluated using strict criteria. RESULTS: A perfect or acceptable result was obtained in 23 of 28 patients (82%) with bilateral retraction and in 18 of 22 patients (82%) with unilateral retraction. Seven eyelids were overcorrected (too low) and three undercorrected, necessitating reoperation. All other eyelids had an almond-like contour and a lid crease of 10 mm or less. No complications except subcutaneous haematomas were seen. Two patients showed a recurrence of lid retraction 9 months after the operation. CONCLUSION: This technique is safe and efficacious and can be used for all degrees of eyelid retraction. (+info)
(5/619) Topographic anatomy of the eyelids, and the effects of sex and age.
AIMS: To describe the effects of sex and age on eyeball, eyelid, and eyebrow position. METHODS: A cross sectional cohort study was performed in which both eyes of 320 normal subjects aged between 10 and 89 years were included. Of each 10 year age cohort, there were 20 men and 20 women. Frontal, as well as lateral, slides were taken of both eyes. On projected slides, a reference line through the medial canthi and vertical lines through the pupil centre and the lateral canthus were constructed. Using these lines, we measured the size of the horizontal eyelid fissure, the distance from the reference line to the pupil centre and to the lateral canthus, the distance between the pupil centre and the upper and lower eyelid margin, and the distance between the upper eyelid margin and the skin fold and eyebrow. On lateral slides, the distance between the lateral canthus and the anterior corneal surface was measured. RESULTS: Between the ages of approximately 12 and 25 years, the horizontal eyelid fissure lengthened 3 mm, while the position of other eyelid structures remained virtually unchanged. Between the average ages of 35 and 85 years, the horizontal eyelid fissure gradually shortened again by about 2.5 mm. Meanwhile, the distance between the lateral canthal angle and the anterior corneal surface decreased almost 1.5 mm. Aging caused an increase of the distance between the pupil centre and the lower eyelid of about 1 mm in men, and 0.5 mm in women. Aging also caused a higher skin crease and raised eyebrows in men and women, but it did not affect the position of the pupil centre and the lateral canthus. Men showed an 0.7 mm larger horizontal eyelid fissure than women. In women, however, the eyebrows were situated about 2.5 mm higher than in men. CONCLUSION: Aging mainly affects the size of the horizontal eyelid fissure, which lengthens by about 10% between the ages of 12 and 25, and shortens by almost the same amount between middle age and old age. Aging causes sagging of the lower eyelid, especially in men, and a higher skin fold and eyebrow position in both sexes. Aging does not affect the position of the eyeball proper, or of the lateral canthus. (+info)
(6/619) Developmental expression of mucin genes ASGP (rMuc4) and rMuc5ac by the rat ocular surface epithelium.
PURPOSE: To determine site and time of initiation of expression of the membrane-spanning mucin ASGP (rMuc4) and the goblet cell-specific, gel-forming mucin rMuc5AC by the developing rat ocular surface epithelium. METHODS: Newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were killed at 1, 7, and 14 days after birth. Adult rats (weight, 200 g) were used as controls. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect ASGP mRNA using beta-actin as an internal control. Competitive RT-PCR was performed to quantitate rMuc5AC mRNA using an rMuc5AC-competitive reference standard (CRS) as an internal control. In situ hybridization was performed to localize ASGP and rMuc5AC mRNA. Goblet cells were detected by staining with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent. RESULTS: ASGP mRNA was detected by RT-PCR at 1 day after birth. Compared with beta-actin, the amount of ASGP mRNA showed a progressive increase from 1 to 14 days of postnatal development. By in situ hybridization, the expression of ASGP was first clearly detected at 14 days after birth at the lid margin, where the most stratification of epithelium was seen, and along the adjacent palpebral conjunctiva. This pattern was seen in rat eyelids that were not yet open but appeared about to open. In rat eyelids already open at 14 days after birth, ASGP mRNA was diffusely spread in the apical cell layer of both conjunctival and corneal epithelia. The expression of rMuc5AC was detected by RT-PCR in ocular surface epithelium in rat pups 1 day after birth. Quantitative RT-PCR showed a low level of rMuc5AC RNA expression in conjunctiva of 1-, 7-, and 14-day-old rats followed by a large increase in expression between 14 days and adulthood. The expression of rMuc5AC was first detected by in situ hybridization in a few goblet cells at 7 days after birth. One or two labeled cells were present in the fornical area; some were on the palpebral side of the fornix; others were present on the bulbar side. The distribution and time of appearance of rMuc5AC correlated with that of PAS staining of goblet cells. CONCLUSIONS: The developmental expression of the membrane-spanning mucin ASGP (rMuc4) and the gel-forming mucin rMuc5AC are regionally and temporally separated. Expression of the gel-forming mucin begins at the fornix at 7 days after birth and is correlated with the appearance of goblet cells, whereas, expression of the membrane-spanning mucin begins later at the lid margin at day 14. Expression of the membrane-spanning mucin correlates to eyelid opening. (+info)
(7/619) Ductal cysts of the accessory lacrimal glands: CT findings.
Benign ductal cysts of the accessory lacrimal glands are uncommon lesions of the orbit, arising from the glands of Wolfring and Krause. We report two patients with histopathologically proved cysts in whom CT scans revealed well-circumscribed extraconal cystic lesions adjacent to the globe, involving both eyelids. Radiologists should be aware of these rare lesions so as to include them in the differential diagnosis of orbital cysts. (+info)
(8/619) Role of cerebellum in adaptive modification of reflex blinks.
We investigated the involvement of the cerebellar cortex in the adaptive modification of corneal reflex blinks and the regulation of normal trigeminal reflex blinks in rats. The ansiform Crus I region contained blink-related Purkinje cells that exhibited a complex spike 20.4 msec after a corneal stimulus and a burst of simple spike activity correlated with the termination of orbicularis oculi activity. This occurrence of the complex spike correlated with trigeminal sensory information associated with the blink-evoking stimulus, and the burst of simple spike activity correlated with sensory feedback about the occurrence of a blink. Inactivation of the inferior olive with lidocaine prevented all complex and significantly reduced simple spike modulation of blink-related Purkinje cells, but did not alter orbicularis oculi activity evoked by corneal stimulation. In contrast, both acute and chronic lesions of the cerebellar cortex containing blink-related Purkinje cells blocked adaptive increases in orbicularis oculi activity of the lid ipsilateral but not contralateral to the lesion. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the cerebellum is part of a trigeminal reflex blink circuit. Changes in trigeminal signals produce modifications of the cerebellar cortex, which in turn, reinforce or stabilize modifications of brainstem blink circuits. When the trigeminal system does not attempt to alter the magnitude of trigeminal reflex blinks, cerebellar input has little or no effect on reflex blinks. (+info)