Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Rest: Freedom from activity.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Anaerobic Threshold: The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.Muscle Stretching Exercises: Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Breathing Exercises: Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Exercise Movement Techniques: Methods or programs of physical activities which can be used to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.GlycogenRegional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Ergometry: Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Athletic Performance: Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Tai Ji: One of the MARTIAL ARTS and also a form of meditative exercise using methodically slow circular stretching movements and positions of body balance.Bed Rest: Confinement of an individual to bed for therapeutic or experimental reasons.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Hydrotherapy: External application of water for therapeutic purposes.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Metabolic Equivalent: A measurement of OXYGEN uptake in a sitting, resting person (resting oxygen consumption), varying with age, sex, race, and other factors. In normal adult men, one MET is approximately 3.5 ml O2/kg/min of body weight. Oxygen uptake during activities or work can be measured in METs which can be use to determine health status and exercise prescription.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Jogging: Running at a low rate of speed. It can be done as a means of conditioning or for general health and well being.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Plyometric Exercise: Exercises in which muscles are repeatedly and rapidly stretched, followed by shortening, concentric MUSCLE CONTRACTION (e.g. jumping and rebounding). They are designed to exert maximal force in minimal time by increasing STRETCH REFLEX.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Inspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Glycogen Storage Disease Type V: Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Acetylcarnitine: An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.

*  Wiley: Exercise Psychology: The Influence of Physical Exercise on Psychological Processes - Peter Seraganian

Exercise Psychology: The Influence of Physical Exercise on Psychological Processes. Peter Seraganian (Editor) ... Psychological Effects of Exercise Among the Elderly (R. Fillingim & J. Blumenthal).. Social-Psychological Aspects of Fitness ... On the Affective Benefits of Acute Aerobic Exercise: Taking Stock After Twenty Years of Research (K. Tuson & D. Sinyor).. Meta- ... Historical and Conceptual Roots of Exercise Psychology (W. Rejeski & A. Thompson).. THE STATUS OF RELEVANT RESEARCH.. Aerobic ...
wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471527017.html

*  Prospective Study of Health in Runners and Walkers - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... and cancer per unit of exercise. Exercise-related injuries from walking and running will also be examined. Power calculations ... Health effects resulting from exercise versus those from body fat loss. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Jun;33(6 Suppl):S611-21; ... To compare rates of coronary heart disease (CHD), cancer, total mortality and exercise injuries in 68,000 runners and 68,000 ... Current government physical fitness guidelines state that: 1) the majority of the health benefits from physical activity can be ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00005494

*  "Heterogeneous responses of personalised high intensity interval traini" by Tim Higgins, Matthew Baker et al.

We describe a personalised programme of high intensity exercise which provides significant improvements in CVD risk markers. ... We describe a personalised programme of high intensity exercise which provides significant improvements in CVD risk markers. ... Hypertension, decreased glucose tolerance, adverse lipid profiles and low physical activity levels are associated with ... may be a useful alternative to current government guidelines which specify a minimum of 150 minutes of physical activity per ...
epublications.bond.edu.au/hsm_pubs/794/

*  Learning Through Movement and Music: How Exercise Benefits the Brain

Others exercise to prevent disease. Some exercise just to feel better or to be healthy. One of the reasons we should exercise ... Why do we exercise? Some people exercise to lose weight. ... Why do we exercise? Some people exercise to lose weight. Others ... Our bodies are designed for exercise. As stated previously, exercise benefits the brain first. We exercise to help our brains ... Some exercise just to feel better or to be healthy. One of the reasons we should exercise is for brain health. ...
humankinetics.com/news-and-excerpts/news-and-excerpts/learn-how-exercise-benefits-the-brain?ActionType=2_SetCurrency&CurrencyCode=2

*  Regular aerobic exercise protects against impaired fasting plasma glucose-associated vascular endothelial dysfunction with...

... and that regular aerobic exercise prevents this effect. Data were analysed from a cohort of 13 ... Exercise / physiology*. Fasting / physiology. Female. Humans. Insulin / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Physical Fitness / physiology ... Regular aerobic exercise protects against impaired fasting plasma glucose-associated vascular endothelial dysfunction with ... in MA/O adults with NFG who regularly performed aerobic exercise (,45 min/day for ≥5 days/week, 62±1 years, n=23) compared with ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Regular-Aerobic-Exercise-Protects-Against/23025811.html

*  Aerobic exercise: Top 10 reasons to get physical - Mayo Clinic

Aerobic exercise may help lower blood pressure and control blood sugar. If you have coronary artery disease, aerobic exercise ... Aerobic exercise also keeps your mind sharp. Studies have found that regular physical activity may help protect memory, ... Studies show that people who participate in regular aerobic exercise live longer than those who don't exercise regularly. ... www.arthritis.org/living-with-arthritis/exercise/how-to/starting-exercise-program.php. Accessed Jan. 3, 2017. ...
mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/fitness/in-depth/aerobic-exercise/art-20045541?footprints=mine&p=1

*  What is the Best Time to Do Cardio to Burn Fat? | LIVESTRONG.COM

In addition to creating a regular exercise routine,... ... Frequent cardiovascular exercise promotes fat loss and helps ... Exercise in the afternoon or evening if it is better for your schedule or if you feel more energetic and motivated at those ... Aerobic exercise boosts your mood and increases relaxation. Exercising in the morning prepares you for the rest of the day by ... Frequent cardiovascular exercise promotes fat loss and helps your body maintain a healthy weight. In addition to creating a ...
livestrong.com/article/349715-what-is-the-best-time-to-do-cardio-to-burn-fat/

*  Exercise frequency and calcium intake predict 4-year bone changes in postmenopausal women.

The aim of this study was to examine the association of exercise frequency and calcium intake (CI) with change in regional and ... Exercise / physiology*. Female. Femur / physiology. Femur Neck / physiology. Hormone Replacement Therapy / methods. Humans. ... Four-year percentage exercise frequency (ExFreq) averaged 26.8%+/-20.1% for crossovers (including the first year at 0%), and ... The aim of this study was to examine the association of exercise frequency and calcium intake (CI) with change in regional and ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Exercise-frequency-calcium-intake-predict/16283062.html

*  Dr. Gabe Mirkin on Health, Fitness and Nutrition. | How to Recover from Muscle Soreness Caused by Intense Exercise

The benefits of exercise are much greater with intense exercise than with casual exercising. ... If you don't exercise intensely enough on one day to have sore muscles on the next, you will not gain maximum fitness and you ... are also losing out on many of the health benefits of exercise. ... Muscle soreness should be part of every exercise program. ... How to Recover from Muscle Soreness Caused by Intense Exercise. Muscle soreness should be part of every exercise program. If ...
drmirkin.com/public/ezine050612.html

*  Physical activity guidance issued for pregnant women | Leisure Opportunities

"We encourage pregnant women to listen to their bodies and adapt their exercise accordingly. As a general rule, if it feels ... Key points in the guidance include: pregnant women who are already active should be encouraged to maintain their physical ... Research shows that taking regular physical exercise during pregnancy can boost the immune system, help to prevent health risks ... Expectant mothers should undertake 150 minutes of moderate physical activity spread throughout the week, according to guidance ...
leisureopportunities.co.uk/news/Physical-activity-Pregnant/332908

*  Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise Increases Serum Calcium Levels and Dietary Requirements - SuppVersity: Nutrition and Exercise...

Labels: aerobic, athletes, bone, calcium, endurance exercise, exhaustion, exhaustive exercise, health, healthy eating, lose ... In view of the fact that, in the 24h after exercise, there is no sudden falloff (only -9.13%) of blood calcium, I would yet ... 2011) found major effects of pro-longed (15min) high intensity aerobic exercise on serum calcium levels of 12 randomly selected ... Science Round-Up Seconds - GABA & Exercise: Both Can Improve and Mess With Your Sleep. Plus: Natural GABA Alternatives and ...
https://suppversity.blogspot.com/2011/04/exhaustive-aerobic-exercise-increases.html

*  CO2 retention during hyperbaric exercise while breathing 40/60 nitrox.

Exercise / physiology*. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nitrogen / administration & dosage, metabolism. Oxygen / administration & ... during exercise at pressure be measured in potential nitrox users and that the above PO2 limits be enforced on moderate and ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/CO2-retention-during-hyperbaric-exercise/8574121.html

*  GRIT Series | Les Mills Asia Pacific

Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption. Otherwise known as the EPOC effect, it will help you burn calories even after you've ... Whenever you exercise you engage your slow twitch muscle fiber but if you want to maximize your workout you need to unleash ... Both groups did five hours per week of excellent, professionally designed exercise.. Group 1 did three hours of cardio (either ...
https://lesmills.com.au/gritseries

*  Vigorous Exercise Can Increase Brain Chemicals Zapped by Depression

The findings of the study were published in The Journal of Neuroscience and it offers new insight into how exercise may become ... To get a better grasp of how exercise affects the human brain, the team studied 38 healthy volunteers. Participants exercised ... The team found glutamate or GABA levels increased in participants who exercised, but not in those who didn't exercise. ... A new imaging study has shown intense exercise boosts two important neurotransmitters; glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid ( ...
psyweb.com/news/treatment/vigorous-exercise-can-increase-brain-chemicals-zapped-by-depression

*  Effect of physical exercise on the performance of cognitive tasks.

This experiment examined the effect of physical exercise on measures of cognitive performance, Raven's Matrices, and an ... Exercise / psychology*. Humans. Intelligence Tests / statistics & numerical data. Male. Problem Solving. Psychometrics. ... Three exercise groups undertook bench stepping at mean power outputs of either 47, 75, or 120 watts. One control group played ... We also tested the inverted-U hypothesis of an interactive relation between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Effect-physical-exercise-performance-cognitive/8247692.html

*  Exercise and Dietary Counseling in Improving Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Quality of Life in Older Long-Term Cancer...

Exercise and Dietary Counseling in Improving Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Quality of Life in Older Long-Term Cancer ... RATIONALE: Exercise and dietary counseling may improve physical activity, nutrition, and quality of life in older long-term ... subjects randomized to receive diet & exercise counseling for one year. Behavioral: behavioral dietary and exercise ... Arm I (immediate intervention): Patients receive a personalized notebook of diet and exercise information, exercise equipment, ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00303875?view=results

*  Just 20 minutes of exercise enough to reduce inflammation, study finds

In Exercise Amount Matters, Not Frequency If you do 150 minutes of physical activity once or twice a week, it is just as good ... Just 45 minutes of exercise a week can benefit older adults with arthritis Meeting current exercise guidelines can be hard for ... New research adds to the long list of health benefits brought by regular physical activity. As little as 20 minutes of exercise ... As little as 20 minutes of exercise reduces inflammation. The results revealed that a 20-minute session of moderate exercise ...
https://medicalnewstoday.com/articles/315255.php

*  The Effectiveness of Regular Exercise on Improving Sleep in Older Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Experimental: Exercise training Group based exercise training. Two weekly classes including aerobic endurance physical activity ... Moderate-Intensity Aerobic Physical Activity. 4+ days per week, 60+ minutes per day, moderate or greater intensity physical ... One group will partake in a moderate-intensity physical activity training regimen. The other group will act as a non-exercise ... Moderate-intensity exercise and self-rated quality of sleep in older adults. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1997 Jan 1; ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00149747

*  Intense Exercise Can Produce Wheezing Even In Healthy Children

Heavy exercise can provoke the onset of temporary lung problems and other symptoms typically associated with asthma in children ... Exercise and Fitness. Exercise is about revamping your lifestyle, not just weight loss. Exercise to get healthy that way, you ... "We evaluated two exercise protocols in each child - a constant work rate exercise test commonly used for evaluation of exercise ... Exercise To Gain Weight. Are you underweight and want to know how to gain weight? Exercise or workouts can help you gain weight ...
medindia.net/news/Intense-Exercise-Can-Produce-Wheezing-Even-In-Healthy-Children-69100-1.htm

*  Exercise to Target Upper Abs | LIVESTRONG.COM

Exercise to Target Upper Abs by JUDY BRUEN Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017. ... The ACE study ranks the bicycle maneuver as the top exercise for challenging the rectus abdominis. Lie on your back, tighten ... A 2001 study, commissioned by the American Council on Exercise and implemented by Dr. Peter Francis, Ph.D., and the ... Always consult with your doctor before starting an exercise program. If you have any health concerns that affect your ...
livestrong.com/article/336401-exercise-to-target-upper-abs/

*  Does Exercise Increase the Appetite? | LIVESTRONG.COM

You may turn to exercise as a means to promote weight loss --- but it's important to remember that intense physical activity ... The level at which you exercise determines how it affects your appetite. Photo Credit exercise lady image by Paul Moore from ,a ... You may turn to exercise as a means to promote weight loss - but it's important to remember that intense physical activity can ... Regardless of its effects on appetite, exercise benefits your body in ways besides weight loss, University of Arkansas exercise ...
livestrong.com/article/244704-does-exercise-increase-the-appetite/

*  The Role of Exercise in Weight Regulation in Nonathletes | SpringerLink

Oscai L. The role of exercise in weight control. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 1: 103-123, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... The determinants of physical activity and exercise. Public Health Reports 100: 158-171, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Relationships between exercise or physical activity and other health behaviors. Public Health Reports 100: 172-180, 1985PubMed ... A review: exercise and its influence on resting energy metabolism in man. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 21: 515- ...
https://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00007256-199111050-00004

*  Exercise Tiger - Wikipedia

"Memorials to Exercise Tiger". Exercise Tiger Association. Retrieved 6 August 2016.. *^ Casson, John. "Exercise Tiger Remembered ... Exercise Tiger was one of the larger exercises that took place in April and May 1944. The exercise was to last from 22 April ... For the exercise in 1942, see Exercise Tiger (1942). For various other military events, see Operation Tiger (disambiguation). ... The Official UK Charity for Exercise Tiger. *Oral history interview with John Maltese, a survivor of Exercise Tiger from the ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exercise_Tiger

*  Compulsive Exercise

Teens who exercise compulsively are at risk for both physical and psychological problems. ... Even though exercise has many positive benefits, too much can be harmful. ... About Compulsive Exercise. Compulsive exercise (also called obligatory exercise and anorexia athletica) is best defined by an ... Exercise addicts may keep detailed journals about their exercise schedules and obsess about improving themselves. Unfortunately ...
kidshealth.org/PrimaryChildrens/en/parents/compulsive-exercise.html

*  Exercise & Fitness

... Visit our Nutrition and Fitness Center to get information and advice on food, exercise, and sports for ...
kidshealth.org/ChildrensHospitalPittsburgh/en/teens/nutrition-fitness-center/fitness/?WT.ac=en-t-fitness-nutrition-center-c

Treadmill: A treadmill is a device generally for walking or running while staying in the same place. Treadmills were introduced before the development of powered machines, to harness the power of animals or humans to do work, often a type of mill that was operated by a person or animal treading steps of a treadwheel to grind grain.Exercise prescription software: Exercise prescription software is a branch of computer software designed to aid in the construction of exercise programmes or regimes for patients who require some kind of ongoing rehabilitation.High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Physical strength: Strength (physics)}}Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Interbeat interval: Interbeat interval is a scientific term used in the study of the mammalian heart.Cadence (cycling): In cycling, cadence (or pedaling rate) is the number of revolutions of the crank per minute; roughly speaking, this is the rate at which a cyclist is pedalling/turning the pedals. Cadence is related to wheel speed, but is a distinct measurement.Annual Fitness Test: In the British Army, the Annual Fitness Test is designed to assess soldiers' lower and upper body strength and endurance. The test was formally known as the Combat Fitness Test - and is still colloquially known by soldiers as the CFT.Strandpulling: Strandpulling is the general term for the practice of stretching steel springs, rubber cables or latex tubing, as a form of exercise and as a competitive sport, using a "chest expander", with many specific movements designed to target different muscles and provide progressive resistance usually, but not always, to the upper body.Shitaye Gemechu: Shitaye Gemechu (born 17 June 1980) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner, who specializes in marathon races. Shitaye was the women's winner of the Rock 'n' Roll Arizona Marathon for the years 2004 - 2006.Respiratory compensation: Respiratory compensation is a mechanism by which plasma pH can be altered by varying the respiratory rate. It is faster than renal compensation, but has less ability to restore normal values.Pursed lip breathing: Pursed lip breathing (PLB) is the breathing technique that consists of exhaling through tightly pressed (pursed lips) and inhaling through nose with mouth closed. Physicians, physical therapists, occupational therapists, and respiratory therapists teach this technique to their patients to ease shortness of breath and to promote deep breathing, also referred to as abdominal or diaphragmatic breathing.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingAortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Let's Move!: Let's Move! seeks to combat the epidemic of childhood obesity and encourage a healthy lifestyle through "a comprehensive, collaborative, and community-oriented initiative that addresses all of the various factors that lead to childhood obesity [.Cadillac Ciel: The Cadillac Ciel is a hybrid electric concept car created by Cadillac and unveiled at the 2011 Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance. The Cadillac Ciel has a twin-turbocharged 3.Glycogen synthase: ; ; rendered using PyMOL.Ethernet flow control: Ethernet flow control is a mechanism for temporarily stopping the transmission of data on Ethernet family computer networks. The first flow control mechanism, the PAUSE frame, was defined by the IEEE 802.Weightlifting at the 2000 Summer Olympics – Men's 62 kg: The Men's Featherweight Weightlifting Event (– 62 kg) is the second men's weight class event at the weightlifting competition, limiting competitors to a maximum of 62 kilograms of body mass. The competition took place on 2000-09-17 in the Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre and was the first weightlifting event to conclude at the 2000 Summer Olympics.WeaknessMaladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Cardiac function curve: A cardiac function curve is a graph showing the relationship between right atrial pressure (x-axis) and cardiac output (y-axis).Walking on a Dream (song)Assunta LegnanteDimefoxCrossplane: The crossplane or cross-plane is a crankshaft design for piston engines with a 90° angle (phase in crank rotation) between the crank throws.See Crankshaft for "crank throw".Muscle contraction: Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length such as holding a heavy book or a dumbbell at the same position.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Quadriceps tendon ruptureAutomated ECG interpretation: Automated ECG interpretation is the use of artificial intelligence and pattern recognition software and knowledge bases to carry out automatically the interpretation, test reporting, and computer-aided diagnosis of electrocardiogram tracings obtained usually from a patient.End-diastolic volume: In cardiovascular physiology, end-diastolic volume (EDV) is the volume of blood in the right and/or left ventricle at end load or filling in (diastole) or the amount of blood in the ventricles just before systole. Because greater EDVs cause greater distention of the ventricle, 'EDV is often used synonymously with preload, which refers to the length of the sarcomeres in cardiac muscle prior to contraction (systole).Management of heart failure: Management of heart failure requires a multimodal approach. It involves a combination of lifestyle modifications, medications, and possibly the use of devices or surgery.Vortex ring toyList of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsAchy Breaky HeartPhosphocreatineCheyne–Stokes respirationCable grip: thumbnail|right|[[Detachable chairlift grip. (Chair is on a sidetrack).Cancer-related fatigue: Cancer-related fatigue is a subjective symptom of fatigue that is experienced by nearly all cancer patients.Citrate synthase family: In molecular biology, the citrate synthase family of proteins includes the enzymes citrate synthase , and the related enzymes 2-methylcitrate synthase and ATP citrate synthase .Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Paul Edwards (athlete)Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Select MedicalCarbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Adrenalin O.D.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Homeothermy: Homeothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence. This internal body temperature is often, though not necessarily, higher than the immediate environment (Greek: homoios = "similar", thermē = "heat").Shivering: Shivering (also called rigors or shuddering) is a bodily function in response to early hypothermia or just feeling cold in warm-blooded animals. When the core body temperature drops, the shivering reflex is triggered to maintain homeostasis.Dan BuckinghamManagement of obesity: The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower calorie diet a permanent part of an individual's lifestyle.Blood vessel: The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body. There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart.Effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: In some individuals, the effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is to cause increased carbon dioxide retention, which may cause drowsiness, headaches, and in severe cases lack of respiration, which may lead to death. People with lung ailments or with central respiratory depression, who receive supplemental oxygen, require careful monitoring.Antianginal: An antianginal is any drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, a symptom of ischaemic heart disease.HyperaemiaThigh: In humans, the thigh is the area between the pelvis and the knee. Anatomically, it is part of the lower limb.Intermittent claudicationLake MarathonSuperficial velocity: Superficial velocity (or superficial flow velocity), in engineering of multiphase flows and flows in porous media, is a hypothetical (artificial) flow velocity calculated as if the given phase or fluid were the only one flowing or present in a given cross sectional area. Other phases, particles, the skeleton of the porous medium, etc.

(1/12078) Physician advice and individual behaviors about cardiovascular disease risk reduction--seven states and Puerto Rico, 1997.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) (e.g., heart disease and stroke) is the leading cause of death in the United States and accounted for 959,227 deaths in 1996. Strategies to reduce the risk for heart disease and stroke include lifestyle changes (e.g., eating fewer high-fat and high-cholesterol foods) and increasing physical activity. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend that, as part of a preventive health examination, all primary-care providers counsel their patients about a healthy diet and regular physical activity. AHA also recommends low-dose aspirin use as a secondary preventive measure among persons with existing CVD. To determine the prevalence of physician counseling about cardiovascular health and changes in individual behaviors, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for seven states and Puerto Rico. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate a lower prevalence of counseling and behavior change among persons without than with a history of heart disease or stroke.  (+info)

(2/12078) Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older.

Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups.  (+info)

(3/12078) Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with high exercise tolerance.

BACKGROUND: Although high exercise tolerance is associated with an excellent prognosis, the significance of abnormal myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with high exercise tolerance has not been established. This study retrospectively compares the utility of MPI and exercise ECG (EECG) in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 388 consecutive patients who underwent exercise MPI and reached at least Bruce stage IV, 157 (40.5%) had abnormal results and 231 (59.5%) had normal results. Follow-up was performed at 18+/-2.7 months. Adverse events, including revascularization, myocardial infarction, and cardiac death, occurred in 40 patients. Nineteen patients had revascularization related to the MPI results or the patient's condition at the time of MPI and were not included in further analysis. Seventeen patients (12.2%) with abnormal MPI and 4 (1.7%) with normal MPI had adverse cardiac events (P<0.001). Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed that MPI was an excellent predictor of cardiac events (global chi2=13.2; P<0.001; relative risk=8; 95% CI=3 to 23) but EECG had no predictive power (global chi2=0.05; P=0.8; relative risk=1; 95% CI=0.4 to 3.0). The addition of Duke's treadmill score risk categories did not improve the predictive power of EECG (global chi2=0.17). The predictive power of the combination of EECG (including Duke score categories) and MPI was no better than that of MPI alone (global chi2=13.5). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike EECG, MPI is an excellent prognostic indicator for adverse cardiac events in patients with known or suspected CAD and high exercise tolerance.  (+info)

(4/12078) Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion.

1. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. 2. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50 % maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4 % glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22 % glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. 3. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. 4. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Fast, 73-74 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Lo-Glu and 117-119 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100 % in all trials. 5. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible.  (+info)

(5/12078) Reduced cytosolic acidification during exercise suggests defective glycolytic activity in skeletal muscle of patients with Becker muscular dystrophy. An in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

Becker muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder due to mutations in the dystrophin gene, resulting in reduced size and/or content of dystrophin. The functional role of this subsarcolemma protein and the biochemical mechanisms leading to muscle necrosis in Becker muscular dystrophy are still unknown. In particular, the role of a bioenergetic deficit is still controversial. In this study, we used 31p magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31p-MRS) to investigate skeletal muscle mitochondrial and glycolytic ATP production in vivo in 14 Becker muscular dystrophy patients. Skeletal muscle glycogenolytic ATP production, measured during the first minute of exercise, was similar in patients and controls. On the other hand, during later phases of exercise, skeletal muscle in Becker muscular dystrophy patients was less acidic than in controls, the cytosolic pH at the end of exercise being significantly higher in Becker muscular dystrophy patients. The rate of proton efflux from muscle fibres of Becker muscular dystrophy patients was similar to that of controls, pointing to a deficit in glycolytic lactate production as a cause of higher end-exercise cytosolic pH in patients. The maximum rate of mitochondrial ATP production was similar in muscle of Becker muscular dystrophy patients and controls. The results of this in vivo 31P-MRS study are consistent with reduced glucose availability in dystrophin-deficient muscles.  (+info)

(6/12078) Addition of angiotensin II receptor blockade to maximal angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition improves exercise capacity in patients with severe congestive heart failure.

BACKGROUND: Incomplete suppression of the renin-angiotensin system during long-term ACE inhibition may contribute to symptomatic deterioration in patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF). Combined angiotensin II type I (AT1) receptor blockade and ACE inhibition more completely suppresses the activated renin-angiotensin system than either intervention alone in sodium-depleted normal individuals. Whether AT1 receptor blockade with losartan improves exercise capacity in patients with severe CHF already treated with ACE inhibitors is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-three patients with severe CHF despite treatment with maximally recommended or tolerated doses of ACE inhibitors were randomized 1:1 to receive 50 mg/d losartan or placebo for 6 months in addition to standard therapy in a multicenter, double-blind trial. Peak aerobic capacity (V(O2)) during symptom-limited treadmill exercise and NYHA functional class were determined at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of double-blind therapy. Peak V(O2) at baseline and after 3 and 6 months were 13.5+/-0.6, 15.1+/-1.0, and 15.7+/-1.1 mL. kg-1. min-1, respectively, in patients receiving losartan and 14.1+/-0.6, 14.3+/-0.9, and 13.6+/-1.1 mL. kg-1. min-1, respectively, in patients receiving placebo (P<0.02 for treatment group-by-time interaction). Functional class improved by at least one NYHA class in 9 of 16 patients receiving losartan and 1 of 17 patients receiving placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Losartan enhances peak exercise capacity and alleviates symptoms in patients with CHF who are severely symptomatic despite treatment with maximally recommended or tolerated doses of ACE inhibitors.  (+info)

(7/12078) Influences of low intensity exercise on body composition, food intake and aerobic power of sedentary young females.

The present study was designed to investigate the influences of aerobic training on the body composition, aerobic power and food intake of sedentary young females in relation to the initial levels of these variables. Thirty one untrained college females (age = 19.8 +/- 0.2 yr, stature = 154.4 +/- 0.8 cm, body mass = 53.3 +/- 1.2 kg, mean +/- SEM) participated in an exercise regimen consisting of 40% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) for 30 minutes per day on a bicycle ergometer 5 times a week in a training period of 12 weeks. Food consumption was ad libitum but the content of daily food intake was recorded accurately throughout the whole training period and analyzed weekly. The average body mass index (BMI) and fat mass relative to body mass (% FM), estimated from the data of skinfold thickness, decreased significantly after the 12 wk training. There were significant negative correlations between the relative changes (% delta s) and initial levels of both body mass (r = -0.447, p < 0.05) and fat mass (r = -0.638, p < 0.05), but the corresponding correlation for lean body mass (LBM) was not significant (r = 0.186, p > 0.05). While the energy intake during the training period did not differ significantly from that during the control period on the average, the % delta value in energy intake between the two periods was negatively correlated to the energy intake during the control period (r = -0.604, p < 0.05). In addition, there were low but significant negative correlations between both the initial levels of BMI and %FM and % delta in energy intake; r = -0.413 (p < 0.05) for BMI and r = -0.393 (p < 0.05) for %FM. However, no significant correlations were found between % delta in energy intake and those in body composition variables (r = 0.116 to 0.237, p > 0.05). On the average VO2max relative to body mass (VO2max/BM) increased significantly, but VO2max relative to LBM (VO2max/LBM) did not. However, not only VO2max/BM but also VO2max/LBM was negatively correlated to the initial level; r = -0.671 (p < 0.05) for VO2max/BM and r = -0.625 for VO2max/LBM. Thus, the present results indicate that whether the body composition, food intake and aerobic power of sedentary young females can be modified by the exercise regimen eliciting 40% of VO2max depends on their initial levels.  (+info)

(8/12078) Stroke volume decline during prolonged exercise is influenced by the increase in heart rate.

This study determined whether the decline in stroke volume (SV) during prolonged exercise is related to an increase in heart rate (HR) and/or an increase in cutaneous blood flow (CBF). Seven active men cycled for 60 min at approximately 57% peak O2 uptake in a neutral environment (i.e., 27 degrees C, <40% relative humidity). They received a placebo control (CON) or a small oral dose (i.e., approximately 7 mg) of the beta1-adrenoceptor blocker atenolol (BB) at the onset of exercise. At 15 min, HR and SV were similar during CON and BB. From 15 to 55 min during CON, a 13% decline in SV was associated with an 11% increase in HR and not with an increase in CBF. CBF increased mainly from 5 to 15 min and remained stable from 20 to 60 min of exercise in both treatments. However, from 15 to 55 min during BB, when the increase in HR was prevented by atenolol, the decline in SV was also prevented, despite a normal CBF response (i.e., similar to CON). Cardiac output was similar in both treatments and stable throughout the exercise bouts. We conclude that during prolonged exercise in a neutral environment the decline in SV is related to the increase in HR and is not affected by CBF.  (+info)



uptake


  • Biochemical adaptations in muscle: effects of exercise on mitochondrial oxygen uptake and respiratory enzyme activity in skeletal muscle. (springer.com)
  • Oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) are exercise parameters that can predict cardiac morbidity in patients with numerous heart diseases. (cosmed.com)

hyperventilation


  • Is lactic acidosis a cause of exercise induced hyperventilation at the respiratory compensation point? (bmj.com)
  • The respiratory compensation point (RCP) marks the onset of hyperventilation ("respiratory compensation") during incremental exercise. (bmj.com)
  • For the first time it was directly demonstrated that exercise induced lactic acidosis is causally involved in the hyperventilation which starts at RCP. (bmj.com)
  • RCP marks the onset of hyperventilation during incremental exercise, that is, the loss of linearity in a plot between V˙E and V co 2 . (bmj.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of pH changes in the initiation of hyperventilation during incremental exercise and, thus, to more closely investigate the physiological meaning of RCP. (bmj.com)
  • During exercise, few subjects showed disturbances in pulmonary gas exchange despite demonstrating poor compensatory hyperventilation at peak exercise. (biomedsearch.com)

aerobic


  • This includes moderately intense aerobic exercise at 40% to 60% of maximum oxygen consumption, such as 30 to 45 minutes of brisk walking on most days of the week. (ahajournals.org)

endurance exercise


  • Background Endurance exercise training produces multiple cardiac adaptations including changes in electrophysiological function that may make endurance-trained athletes more vulnerable to atrial fibrillation (AF). (bmj.com)
  • Consequently, we performed a literature review to examine the relationship between atrial fibrillation and endurance exercise training among athletes. (bmj.com)
  • PubMed was searched from January 1960 through December 2008 to identify articles examining the relationship between endurance exercise training and AF. (bmj.com)
  • A programme of regular endurance exercise, undertaken over a number of weeks, produces significant adaptations within skeletal muscle such that noticeable improvements in oxidative capacity are evident, and the related decline in endurance performance can be attenuated. (springer.com)

undertaken


  • This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of progressive resistance training exercise (PRT) on plasma oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in erythrocytes. (biomedsearch.com)

interventions


  • An understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern the increases in mitochondrial volume with repeated bouts of exercise can provide insights into possible therapeutic interventions to care for those with mitochondrially-based diseases, and those unable to withstand regular physical activity. (springer.com)
  • There have been numerous reports of exercise interventions in people with knee osteoarthritis. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Body Composition


  • COSMED products include a full range of Spirometers, Pulmonary Function, Body Composition, Nutritional Assessment and Cardio Pulmonary Exercise systems, including Electrocardiographs, Ergometers and Assessment Software. (cosmed.com)

humans


  • The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of progressive resistance exercise on resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adult humans. (ahajournals.org)

intense


  • However, it does not represent the only additional stimulus of ventilation during intense exercise. (bmj.com)

Muscle


  • Respiratory capacity of white, red, and intermediate muscle: adaptive response to exercise. (springer.com)
  • Hoppeler H. Exercise-induced ultrastructural changes in skeletal muscle. (springer.com)

partial


  • Partial Blood Flow Restriction (PBFR) during Low-Intensity Exercise. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Partial Blood Flow Restriction (PBFR) Low-Intensity Exercise: using the Biodex 3 Dynamometer in isotonic mode at 10% (first 3 weeks), 15% (following 3 weeks) and 20% (final 3 weeks) of their 1RM for each side, while receiving PBFR in each exercising limb. (clinicaltrials.gov)

effect


  • However, most of these studies suffer from small sample sizes, thus increasing the risk of incorrectly concluding that progressive resistance exercise has no positive effect on resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults. (ahajournals.org)
  • Effect of right ventricular anatomy on the cardiopulmonary response to exercise. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, BFR in the absence of exercise has no effect on torque at any time point. (biomedsearch.com)

blood


  • Bicarbonate was injected during incremental exercise in order to maintain physiological blood pH. (bmj.com)
  • Studies were retrieved via (1) computerized literature searches, (2) cross-referencing from original and review articles, and (3) review of the reference list by 2 experts on exercise and blood pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • It was concluded that progressive resistance exercise is efficacious for reducing resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 It has been suggested that progressive resistance exercise may also lower resting blood pressure, possibly by reducing peripheral resistance at rest. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 However, absent from the previous recommendations was the promotion of progressive resistance exercise for controlling resting blood pressure levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • This is not surprising given the lack of statistically significant and positive findings regarding the use of progressive resistance exercise as a nonpharmacological intervention for controlling resting blood pressure in adults. (ahajournals.org)
  • Additionally, because some of the studies were not specifically testing the hypothesis of progressive resistance exercise on blood pressure, the standardized mechanisms for assessing blood pressure may not have been as rigorous as those studies specifically testing for such a hypothesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • We sought to determine if blood flow restriction (BFR) by itself or in combination with exercise would result in prolonged decrements in torque when using restriction pressures relative to the participants' limb size. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Experiment A participants performed unilateral knee extensions at 30 % of their one repetition maximum (1RM) with moderate blood flow restriction on one leg (BFR + Exercise) and exercised the other leg without BFR (CON + Exercise). (biomedsearch.com)

changes


  • No changes in torque were observed in Experiment B. RPE and discomfort were rated consistently higher for those in the BFR + Exercise and BFR conditions compared to control. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The acute changes in torque are due to fatigue and quickly recover back to baseline within 24 h of exercise. (biomedsearch.com)

However


  • However, a need exists for additional studies that limit enrollment to hypertensive subjects as well as analysis of data with an intention-to-treat approach before the effectiveness of progressive resistance exercise as a nonpharmacological intervention can be determined. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, torque quickly recovered by 1 h post exercise and was back to baseline by 24 h. (biomedsearch.com)