Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Drainage, Sanitary: A system of artificial or natural drains, generally used for the disposal of liquid wastes.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Harmful Algal Bloom: An algal bloom where the algae produce powerful toxins that can kill fish, birds, and mammals, and ultimately cause illness in humans. The harmful bloom can also cause oxygen depletion in the water due to the death and decomposition of non-toxic algae species.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Zosteraceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Nitrosomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative nitrifying bacteria, in the order Nitrosomonadales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Animal DiseasesRivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

*  Phosphorus in lakes - Eutrophication indicators in lakes - European Environment Agency

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*  Eutrophication:Causes and Solutions | HubPages

This can occur from natural eutrophication from excess phytoplankton dying and excreting fecal... ... Eutrophication is a water pollution caused from excess nitrogen and phosphorus that depletes the oxygen from lower sediments ... Eutrophication is a water pollution caused from excess nitrogen and phosphorus that depletes the oxygen from lower sediments ... Another form of eutrophication is cultural, basically caused from man. The over use of fertilizers containing nitrogen and ...

*  Browsing by Subject "Eutrophication monitoring and control - North Sea"

Optical remote sensing in support of eutrophication monitoring in the southern North Sea.  De Cauwer, Vera; Ruddick, Kevin; ... Browsing by Subject "Eutrophication monitoring and control - North Sea". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q ... Spring mean and maximum chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations are main factors to determine the eutrophication status of the ... monitoring and control - North Sea&starts_with=L

*  "Lowes Pond Eutrophication" by Michael Collins, John Eracar et al.

Collins, Michael; Eracar, John; Flegel, Cole; and Zomb, Madeline, "Lowes Pond Eutrophication" (2016). Great Problems Seminar ...

*  dianchi lake eutrophication

... The best way to get to know a city is joining China Tours, we provide all of dianchi lake ... Meet new people and get dianchi lake eutrophication details about tour packages, travel guides, blogs, photos and Q&A with ...


F2: Sven Erik Jorgensen: Modelling the Eutrophication. (Keynote) F3: Arun Kumar: Hypolimnic Withdrawal for Lake. Conservation. ... B19: Omkar Singh, S.P. Rai, Vijay Kumar, M.K. Sharma, V.K. Choubey and K.D. Sharma: Water Quality and Eutrophication Status of ... F1: C.H.D. Magadza: Management of Eutrophication in Lake. Chivero. ; Success and failures: A Case Study. (Plenary). ... F5: Sung-Ryong Ha and Jae-Yil Lee: Application of CE-QUAL-W2 Model to Eutrophication Simulation in Daecheong Reservoir ...

*  Solutions - Eutrophication

Finding Solutions For Eutrophication. Now you know the problems that this type of pollution can cause. Read more below to learn ... The key to solving the problem of eutrophication is an increase in composting and a decrease in pollution. By doing these, less ... Composting is the main solution for eutrophication. Composting is actually a substitute for fertilizers. You can do this on ... as will the eutrophication caused by run-off. If they cap the amount of waste they discharge then there will also be less ...

*  Sources - Eutrophication

"Eutrophication." The Encyclopedia of Earth. N.p., 08 Feb 2013. Web. 20 May 2013. , ...,.. "How to Solve the Problem." Eutrophication and You. WordPress, n.d. ... "Causes of Eutrophication." Kodu. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 May 2013. ,,.. "Causes of ... Eutrophication." N.p., n.d. Web. 22 May 2013. , ...

*  Eutrophication

re: Eutrophication Redfield 23:08:57 30/08/16 (. 0) Post a Follow-Up. Name: E-Mail: Subject: Comments:. Optional Link URL: ( ... Eutrophication. Posted by MaDMAn on August 30, 2016 at 13:59:35:. In Reply to: re: Castlebar Diving Board posted by Sad Old ... Eutrophication is mainly down to overuse of nitrate ferlilisers something sucessive governments have been encouraging for ...

*  Nutrients and eutrophication: introduction

Cultural eutrophication stimulated by anthropogenic-derived nutrients represents one of the most common forms of compromised ... 2008) challenged by those who contend that both P and N control are key elements of eutrophication management in freshwater ... 1998). In lakes it is more common that excessive P inputs are the primary cause of eutrophication (Schindler 1977) although ... 2009; Scott and McCarthy 2010). Eutrophication of temperate estuaries and coastal waters is also common, but in contrast to ...

*  Universidade do Minho: Parameter estimation for eutrophication models in reservoirs

Parameter estimation for eutrophication models in reservoirs. Autor(es): Vieira, J. M. Pereira. Pinho, José L. S.. Dias, N.. ... 431-Parameter estimation for eutrophication models.pdf. 452,96 kB. Adobe PDF. Ver/Abrir Solicitar cópia ao autor!. ... Excessive eutrophication is a major water quality issue in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. This complex biological process can ... Vieira J. M. P., Pinho J. L. S., Dias N., Schwanenberg D., van den Boogaard H. Parameter Estimation for Eutrophication Models ...

*  Eutrophication-Driven Shifts in Primary Producers in Shallow Coastal Systems: Implications for System Functional Change |...

Seagrasses and eutrophication. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 350: 46-72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... A comparative analysis of eutrophication patterns in a temperate coastal lagoon. Estuaries 19: 408-421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Eutrophication in shallow coastal bays and lagoons: The role of plants in the coastal filter. Marine Ecology Progress Series ... Spatial patterns of macroalgal abundance in relation to eutrophication. Marine Biology 152: 25-36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...

*  THESIS: Eutrophication Affects Algae Diversity - Redorbit

Eutrophication of the seas may have an impact on genetic variation in algae, research at the University of Gothenburg shows. ... and that the genetic variation of the algae may possibly be affected by eutrophication: the researchers found different types ...

*  What is Eutrophication? (with pictures)

Eutrophication is an increase of nutrients in a body of water. Though eutrophication is natural, unchecked eutrophication can ... Eutrophication refers to an increase of nutrients in a body of water. Although eutrophication is a natural process, when it is ... If left unchecked, eutrophication becomes a problem, severely impacting water quality and biodiversity. Eutrophication was ... However, eutrophication can be rapidly accelerated by human activities, in which case it is known as "nutrient pollution." ...

*  Eutrophication Monitoring and Prediction - Digital Library

Cairns, Stefan H., 1949-. Eutrophication Monitoring and Prediction, dissertation, December 1993; Denton, Texas. (digital. ...

*  Alert Diver | Eutrophication

... this is eutrophication. Eutrophication is the leading example of human activity degrading marine habitat in coastal waters, and ... Eutrophication is usually the final step in a shift from complex reef communities - desirable for so many human endeavors and ... As awareness of eutrophication grows, the hope is citizens will elect officials with the political will to implement phosphate ... If you don't already know what eutrophication is, you soon will. If you've been diving recently in the Caribbean, the Coral Sea ...

*  Hazardous Substances & Eutrophication - KIMO

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*  Eutrophication: More Nitrogen Data Needed | Science

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*  Calibration and Verification of the Potomac Eutrophication Model

... ... Calibration and Verification of the Potomac Eutrophication Model by James J. Fitzpatrick, Stuart A. Freudberg, Kent Mountford, ...

*  Looking on eutrophication processes | ZHAW Life Sciences und Facility Management

... the pupils to a simple method to determine nitrate levels and link them to the issue of human impact like eutrophication and ... Eutrophication belongs to the main types of water pollution in Western Europe. Eutrophication means an enrichment in the ... Nitrogen and phosphorous are the main nutrients which are causing eutrophication. Nitrate is, in contrast to phosphate, easy to ... This experiment therefore uses nitrate as chemical indicator for the eutrophication level of a river ...

*  Eutrophication - Document in A Level and IB Biology

Home > A Level and IB > Biology > Eutrophication Eutrophication. A poster i made to make learning the process of eutrophication ...

Eutrophication: Eutrophication (Greek: eutrophia—healthy, adequate nutrition, development; ) or more precisely hypertrophication, is the ecosystem's response to the addition of artificial or natural nutrients, mainly phosphates, through detergents, fertilizers, or sewage, to an aquatic system.Schindler, David and Vallentyne, John R.Tadas Karosas: Tadas Karosas (born 1963 in Vilnius) is a businessman, serial entrepreneur, the founder and developer of e-commerce enterprises,the owner of holding company "LTk Capital", the founder and owner of restaurants chain "Čili Holdings".PhytoplanktonCHyM – Cetemps Hydrological Model: CHyM (Cetemps Hydrological Model) is a distributed grid-based hydrological model developed by Cetemps Center of Excellence at the University of L'Aquila.Salt lake: Salt Lake (Disambiguation)}}Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.EcosystemPhosphorus deficiency: Phosphorus deficiency is a plant disorder associated with insufficient supply of phosphorus. Phosphorus refers here to salts of phosphates (PO43−), monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42−), and dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4−).Heterosigma akashiwo: Heterosigma akashiwo is a microscopic alga of the class Raphidophyceae. It is a swimming marine alga that episodically forms toxic surface aggregations known as harmful algal bloom.United States regulation of point source water pollution: Point source water pollution comes from discrete conveyances and alters the chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of water. It is largely regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972.Appropriation (By Any Other Name): June 13, 2005Water quality law: Water quality laws govern the release of pollutants into water resources, including surface water, ground water, and stored drinking water. Some water quality laws, such as drinking water regulations, may be designed solely with reference to human health.Nitrogen deficiencySeaweed farming: Seaweed farming is the practice of cultivating and harvesting seaweed. In its simplest form, it consists of the management of naturally found batches.Organic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter. (e.Climate change feedback: Climate change feedback is important in the understanding of global warming because feedback processes may amplify or diminish the effect of each climate forcing, and so play an important part in determining the climate sensitivity and future climate state. Feedback in general is the process in which changing one quantity changes a second quantity, and the change in the second quantity in turn changes the first.Labyrinthula: Labyrinthula is a genus of heterokont, comprising ten species.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Hydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.Nankai Trough gas hydrate site: Nankai Methane Hydrate Site (or Japanese Methane Hydrate R&D Program at Nankai, Nankai Trough Methane Hydrate Site) is located in the Nankai Trough, Japan.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentWhite band disease: White band disease is a coral disease that affects acroporid corals and is distinguishable by the white band of dead coral tissue that it forms. The disease completely destroys the coral tissue of Caribbean acroporid corals, specifically elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (A.Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.Plum Island Animal Disease Center: Plum Island Animal Disease Center of New York (PIADCNY) is a United States federal research facility dedicated to the study of animal diseases. It is part of the DHS Directorate for Science and Technology.List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Oxymonad: The Oxymonads are a group of flagellated protozoa found exclusively in the intestines of termites and other wood-eating insects. Along with the similar parabasalid flagellates, they harbor the symbiotic bacteria that are responsible for breaking down cellulose.Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Meramec Conservation AreaIndex of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Climate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Public water systemSpatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.

(1/248) Dynamics of bacterial community composition and activity during a mesocosm diatom bloom.

Bacterial community composition, enzymatic activities, and carbon dynamics were examined during diatom blooms in four 200-liter laboratory seawater mesocosms. The objective was to determine whether the dramatic shifts in growth rates and ectoenzyme activities, which are commonly observed during the course of phytoplankton blooms and their subsequent demise, could result from shifts in bacterial community composition. Nutrient enrichment of metazoan-free seawater resulted in diatom blooms dominated by a Thalassiosira sp., which peaked 9 days after enrichment ( approximately 24 microg of chlorophyll a liter(-1)). At this time bacterial abundance abruptly decreased from 2.8 x 10(6) to 0.75 x 10(6) ml(-1), and an analysis of bacterial community composition, by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, revealed the disappearance of three dominant phylotypes. Increased viral and flagellate abundances suggested that both lysis and grazing could have played a role in the observed phylotype-specific mortality. Subsequently, new phylotypes appeared and bacterial production, abundance, and enzyme activities shifted from being predominantly associated with the <1.0-microm size fraction towards the >1.0-microm size fraction, indicating a pronounced microbial colonization of particles. Sequencing of DGGE bands suggested that the observed rapid and extensive colonization of particulate matter was mainly by specialized alpha-Proteobacteria- and Cytophagales-related phylotypes. These particle-associated bacteria had high growth rates as well as high cell-specific aminopeptidase, beta-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Rate measurements as well as bacterial population dynamics were almost identical among the mesocosms indicating that the observed bacterial community dynamics were systematic and repeatable responses to the manipulated conditions.  (+info)

(2/248) Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change.

During the next 50 years, which is likely to be the final period of rapid agricultural expansion, demand for food by a wealthier and 50% larger global population will be a major driver of global environmental change. Should past dependences of the global environmental impacts of agriculture on human population and consumption continue, 10(9) hectares of natural ecosystems would be converted to agriculture by 2050. This would be accompanied by 2.4- to 2.7-fold increases in nitrogen- and phosphorus-driven eutrophication of terrestrial, freshwater, and near-shore marine ecosystems, and comparable increases in pesticide use. This eutrophication and habitat destruction would cause unprecedented ecosystem simplification, loss of ecosystem services, and species extinctions. Significant scientific advances and regulatory, technological, and policy changes are needed to control the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion.  (+info)

(3/248) Possible estuary-associated syndrome: symptoms, vision, and treatment.

The human illness designated as possible estuarine-associated syndrome (PEAS) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been associated with exposure to estuaries inhabited by toxin-forming dinoflagellates, including members of the fish-killing toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC), Pfiesteria piscicida and Pfiesteria shumwayae. Humans may be exposed through direct contact with estuarine water or by inhalation of aerosolized or volatilized toxin(s). The five cases reported here demonstrate the full spectrum of symptoms experienced during acute and chronic stages of this suspected neurotoxin-mediated illness. The nonspecific symptoms most commonly reported are cough, secretory diarrhea, headache, fatigue, memory impairment, rash, difficulty in concentrating, light sensitivity, burning skin upon water contact, muscle ache, and abdominal pain. Less frequently encountered symptoms are upper airway obstruction, shortness of breath, confusion, red or tearing eyes, weakness, and vertigo. Some patients experience as few as four of these symptoms. The discovery that an indicator of visual pattern-detection ability, visual contrast sensitivity (VCS), is sharply reduced in affected individuals has provided an objective indicator that is useful in diagnosing and monitoring PEAS. VCS deficits are present in both acute and chronic PEAS, and VCS recovers during cholestyramine treatment coincident with symptom abatement. Although PEAS cannot yet be definitively associated with TPC exposure, resolution with cholestyramine treatment suggests a neurotoxin-mediated illness.  (+info)

(4/248) Pfiesteria-related educational products and information resources available to the public, health officials, and researchers.

Public and political concerns about Pfiesteria from 1997 to the present vastly exceed the attention given to other harmful algal bloom (HAB) issues in the United States. To some extent, the intense focus on Pfiesteria has served to increase attention on HABs in general. Given the strong and continuing public, political, and research interests in Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder and related organisms, there is a clear need for information and resources of many different types. This article provides information on Pfiesteria-related educational products and information resources available to the general public, health officials, and researchers. These resources are compiled into five categories: reports; website resources; state outreach and communication programs; fact sheets; and training manuals and documentaries. Over the last few years there has been rapid expansion in the amount of Pfiesteria-related information available, particularly on the Internet, and it is scattered among many different sources.  (+info)

(5/248) The role of nutrient loading and eutrophication in estuarine ecology.

Eutrophication is a process that can be defined as an increase in the rate of supply of organic matter (OM) to an ecosystem. We provide a general overview of the major features driving estuarine eutrophication and outline some of the consequences of that process. The main chemical constituent of OM is carbon (C), and therefore rates of eutrophication are expressed in units of C per area per unit time. OM occurs in both particulate and dissolved forms. Allochthonous OM originates outside the estuary, whereas autochthonous OM is generated within the system, mostly by primary producers or by benthic regeneration of OM. The supply rates of limiting nutrients regulate phytoplankton productivity that contributes to inputs of autochthonous OM. The trophic status of an estuary is often based on eutrophication rates and can be categorized as oligotrophic (<100 g C m(-2) y(-1), mesotrophic (100-300 g C m(-2) y(-1), eutrophic (300-500 g C m(-2) y(-1), or hypertrophic (>500 g C m(-2) y(-1). Ecosystem responses to eutrophication depend on both export rates (flushing, microbially mediated losses through respiration, and denitrification) and recycling/regeneration rates within the estuary. The mitigation of the effects of eutrophication involves the regulation of inorganic nutrient (primarily N and P) inputs into receiving waters. Appropriately scaled and parameterized nutrient and hydrologic controls are the only realistic options for controlling phytoplankton blooms, algal toxicity, and other symptoms of eutrophication in estuarine ecosystems.  (+info)

(6/248) State monitoring activities related to Pfiesteria-like organisms.

In response to potential threats to human health and fish populations, six states along the east coast of the United States initiated monitoring programs related to Pfiesteria-like organisms in 1998. These actions were taken in the wake of toxic outbreaks of Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder in Maryland during 1997 and previous outbreaks in North Carolina. The monitoring programs have two major purposes. The first, rapid response, is to ensure public safety by responding immediately to conditions that may indicate the presence of Pfiesteria or related organisms in a toxic state. The second, comprehensive assessment, is to provide a more complete understanding of where Pfiesteria-like organisms may become a threat, to understand what factors may stimulate their growth and toxicity, and to evaluate the impacts of these organisms upon fish and other aquatic life. In states where human health studies are being conducted, the data from both types of monitoring are used to provide information on environmental exposure. The three elements included in each monitoring program are identification of Pfiesteria-like organisms, water quality measurements, and assessments of fish health. Identification of Pfiesteria-like organisms is a particularly difficult element of the monitoring programs, as these small species cannot be definitively identified using light microscopy; newly applied molecular techniques, however, are starting to provide alternatives to traditional methods. State monitoring programs also offer many opportunities for collaborations with research initiatives targeting both environmental and human health issues related to Pfiesteria-like organisms.  (+info)

(7/248) Field ecology of toxic Pfiesteria complex species and a conservative analysis of their role in estuarine fish kills.

Within the past decade, toxic Pfiesteria outbreaks have been documented in poorly flushed, eutrophic areas of the largest and second largest estuaries on the U.S. mainland. Here we summarize a decadal field effort in fish kill assessment, encompassing kills related to Pfiesteria (49 major kills in North Carolina estuaries since 1991 and 4 in Maryland estuaries in 1997) and to other factors such as low oxygen stress (79 major fish kills in North Carolina estuaries). The laboratory and field data considered in developing our protocols are described, including toxic Pfiesteria behavior, environmental conditions conducive to toxic Pfiesteria activity, and impacts of toxic clonal Pfiesteria on fish health. We outline the steps of the standardized fish bioassay procedure that has been used since 1991 to diagnose whether actively toxic Pfiesteria was present during estuarine fish kills. Detailed data are given for a 1998 toxic Pfiesteria outbreak in the Neuse Estuary in North Carolina to illustrate of the full suite of diagnostic steps completed. We demonstrate that our conservative approach in implicating toxic Pfiesteria involvement in fish kills has biased in favor of causes other than Pfiesteria. Data are summarized from experiments that have shown stimulation of toxic Pfiesteria strains by nutrient (N, P) enrichment, supporting field observations of highest abundance of toxic strains in eutrophic estuaries. On the basis of a decade of research on toxic Pfiesteria, we present a conceptual model of the seasonal dynamics of toxic strains as affected by changing food resources and weather patterns. We also recommend protocols and research approaches that will strengthen the science of fish kill assessment related to Pfiesteria and/or other causative factors.  (+info)

(8/248) History and timing of human impact on Lake Victoria, East Africa.

Lake Victoria, the largest tropical lake in the world, suffers from severe eutrophication and the probable extinction of up to half of its 500+ species of endemic cichlid fishes. The continuing degradation of Lake Victoria's ecological functions has serious long-term consequences for the ecosystem services it provides, and may threaten social welfare in the countries bordering its shores. Evaluation of recent ecological changes in the context of aquatic food-web alterations, catchment disturbance and natural ecosystem variability has been hampered by the scarcity of historical monitoring data. Here, we present high-resolution palaeolimnological data, which show that increases in phytoplankton production developed from the 1930s onwards, which parallels human-population growth and agricultural activity in the Lake Victoria drainage basin. Dominance of bloom-forming cyanobacteria since the late 1980s coincided with a relative decline in diatom growth, which can be attributed to the seasonal depletion of dissolved silica resulting from 50 years of enhanced diatom growth and burial. Eutrophication-induced loss of deep-water oxygen started in the early 1960s, and may have contributed to the 1980s collapse of indigenous fish stocks by eliminating suitable habitat for certain deep-water cichlids. Conservation of Lake Victoria as a functioning ecosystem is contingent upon large-scale implementation of improved land-use practices.  (+info)

process of eutrophication

  • I'm stuck on the process of eutrophication and i need to include it in my science coursework which is based on intensive farming. (


  • This can occur from natural eutrophication from excess phytoplankton dying and excreting fecal matter that forms bacteria on the waters floor. (
  • It is well established that, in pristine systems dominated by seagrasses, incipient to moderate eutrophication often leads to the replacement of seagrasses by phytoplankton and loose macroalgal mats as the dominant producers. (
  • However, less is known about the interactions between phytoplankton and loose macroalgae at intense eutrophication. (
  • However, we also show that intense eutrophication is not always necessarily conducive to severe water column shading and large macroalgal declines, possibly due to short water residence time and/or elevated grazing on phytoplankton. (


  • Eutrophication is a water pollution caused from excess nitrogen and phosphorus that depletes the oxygen from lower sediments and the water above it. (


  • Many human activities have led to widespread eutrophication in rivers, streams, lakes, and oceans around the world. (
  • Lakes and rivers which are experiencing eutrophication can be readily identified, as they often turn bright green or red as a result of the algae blooms in their waters. (
  • Excessive eutrophication is a major water quality issue in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. (


  • Like natural eutrophication, this excess nitrogen absorbs the surrounding oxygen from the sediment layer, as well as above water. (
  • Nitrogen and phosphorous are the main nutrients which are causing eutrophication. (


  • If left unchecked, eutrophication becomes a problem, severely impacting water quality and biodiversity . (


  • Eutrophication of the seas may have an impact on genetic variation in algae, research at the University of Gothenburg shows. (
  • The results show that different populations of a diatom species may have different growth and adaptability characteristics, and that the genetic variation of the algae may possibly be affected by eutrophication: the researchers found different types of populations during periods of heavy eutrophication in Mariager Fjord. (


  • In concert, our results contribute to an improvement of our current model of eutrophication of shallow coastal systems and suggest that further effort should be put on ascertaining the mechanisms that may prevent severe water column shading and large macroalgal decline at intense eutrophication, as well as thorough documentation of the impacts of anoxic/hypoxic conditions on system functionality at different stages of eutrophication. (
  • It assesses the indicator strength of these metrics, specifically in relation to representing the impacts of eutrophication. (


  • These proceedings provide the reader with recent advances in the study of planktonic cycling of matter and energy, placing a strong emphasis on the effects of eutrophication on these processes. (


  • Eutrophication refers to an increase of nutrients in a body of water. (


  • Using a combination of original research and literature data, we provide support for the hypothesis that substantial macroalgal decline may occur at intense eutrophication due to severe water column shading. (
  • Focusing on the macroalgal blooms and seagrass decline that often occur at incipient/moderate eutrophication, we show the blooms have a positive effect on epifaunal abundance under well-oxygenated conditions, but a negative effect if pervasive anoxic/hypoxic conditions develop with the bloom. (


  • Eutrophication is mainly down to overuse of nitrate ferlilisers something sucessive governments have been encouraging for decades. (
  • This experiment will introduce the pupils to a simple method to determine nitrate levels and link them to the issue of human impact like eutrophication and acidification. (


  • Many countries also try to remove nutrient pollution in their waters, and they may use other measures to create eutrophication buffer zones, preventing the spread of the problem. (


  • However, eutrophication can be rapidly accelerated by human activities, in which case it is known as " nutrient pollution . (


  • Significant progress has been made recently towards a better understanding of the nature, causes, and consequences of anthropogenic eutrophication of shallow coastal systems. (


  • Eutrophication belongs to the main types of water pollution in Western Europe. (
  • Composting is the main solution for eutrophication. (


  • Although eutrophication is a natural process, when it is accelerated it is an issue for concern. (
  • Although eutrophication has not directly impacted on gwyniad habitat availability, associated low oxygen levels in the hypolimnion periodically approach its tolerance limit of 2 mg L-1. (


  • In the sense of a natural process, eutrophication is part of the aging of bodies of water. (


  • Could anyone please help me out with a brief summary of eutrophication and the effects? (


  • Vegetation and fauna can therefore be used as bio-indicator for the eutrophication level. (


  • The key to solving the problem of eutrophication is an increase in composting and a decrease in pollution. (


  • Read more below to learn the solutions and ways that eutrophication can be reduced. (


  • Eutrophication was first recognized as a problem in the middle of the 20th century, and many biologists study it extensively in an attempt to prevent further eutrophication of vital bodies of water around the world. (