European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)EuropeEurope, EasternLegislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Orphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Catalogs, UnionUSSRHealth Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Fractures, Ununited: A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Anniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.Health ResortsInternationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals: BIOLOGIC PRODUCTS that are imitations but not exact replicas of innovator products.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.PolandGuidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Consumer Product SafetySolid Waste: Garbage, refuse, or sludge, or other discarded materials from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, and air pollution control facility that include solid, semi-solid, or contained material. It does not include materials dissolved in domestic sewage, irrigation return flows, or industrial discharges.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Medical Device Recalls: Removal of a MEDICAL DEVICE from the market due to a problem occurring in the manufacture or distribution of the product.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Republic of BelarusTravel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Commonwealth of Independent StatesAbattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Tibial FracturesDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.ItalyRussiaEmigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.AustriaPolicy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.EstoniaMedical Device Legislation: Laws and regulations pertaining to devices used in medicine, proposed for enactment, or enacted by a legislative body.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.African Swine Fever: A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Slovenia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Great Britain

*  Politika - European Commission

European Commission - Healthcare is highly labour intensive and one of the largest economic sectors in the EU - accounting for ... V rubrike: Cezhraničná starostlivosť, eZdravotníctvo, European Reference Networks, Skupiny odborníkov, Bezpečnosť pacientov, ... European Reference Networks, Zdravotnícky personál, Health systems performance assessment, Posudzovanie zdravotníckej ...
https://ec.europa.eu/health/workforce/policy_sk

*  EU research commissioner opposes funding for human cloning, stem cell projects - The Blade

... laws banning research on stem cells and human embryos and the commission has urged the remaining members of the European Union ... Commission will not finance any projects involving the cloning of humans or stem cell research and hopes all 15 European Union ...
toledoblade.com/frontpage/2001/08/09/EU-research-commissioner-opposes-funding-for-human-cloning-stem-cell-projects.html

*  Sport policies of the European Union - Wikipedia

The European Union has a very limited direct role in sport. The European Commission is composed of Directorates-General and ... on a European continental level (which is not the same as the level of the European Union), or globally. ... The European Union plays a minor and mostly indirect policy role in sport, because (a) sport is normally considered to be ... In particular, the common market of the European Union creates the right for any EU citizen to move and work freely in another ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport_policies_of_the_European_Union

*  NANoREG harmonised terminology for environmental health and safety assessment of nanomaterials - European Commission

European TTO circle A network of the Technology Transfer offices of the largest public research organisations in Europe ... European Microbiology Expert Group (EMEG) European Microbiology Expert Group for water quality ... European Commission > EU Science Hub. > Publication , NANoREG harmonised terminology for environmental health and safety ... As the European Commission's knowledge and science service, the JRC plays a central role in creating, managing and making sense ...
https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/nanoreg-harmonised-terminology-environmental-health-and-safety-assessment-nanomaterials?search

*  EEA-Lex | European Free Trade Association

2017/660 of 6 April 2017 concerning a coordinated multiannual control programme of the Union for 2018, 2019 and 2020 to ensure ... Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/983 of 9 June 2017 amending Annexes III and V to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European ... Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1135 of 23 June 2017 amending Annexes II and III to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European ... Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1164 of 22 June 2017 amending Annexes II and III to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European ...
efta.int/eea-lex?f[0]=field_adoption_date_in_the_eu:2017&f[1]=field_case_status_short_desc:5&f[2]=field_annex_chapter:571

*  Expert survey on identification of gaps in available test methods for evaluation of endocrine disruptors - European Commission

European TTO circle A network of the Technology Transfer offices of the largest public research organisations in Europe ... European Microbiology Expert Group (EMEG) European Microbiology Expert Group for water quality ... European Commission > EU Science Hub. > Publication , Expert survey on identification of gaps in available test methods for ... As the European Commission's knowledge and science service, the JRC plays a central role in creating, managing and making sense ...
https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/expert-survey-identification-gaps-available-test-methods-evaluation-endocrine-disruptors

*  Implementation/activities - European Commission

European Commission - The designated Competent Authorities in the Member States are in charge of the implementation of the ... European Commission > DG Health and Food Safety > Public health. > Blood, tissues and organs , Tissues and cells , ... Message from Vytenis Andriukaitis, Commissioner for Health and Food Safety - European Day for Organ Donation and ... European Reference Networks, Health workforce, Health systems performance assessment, Health technology assessment, eHealth, ...
https://ec.europa.eu/health/blood_tissues_organs/tissues/implementation_activities_en

*  SIRTURO® (bedaquiline) Receives Conditional Approval in the European Union for the Treatment of Multi-Drug Resistant...

"We are delighted that SIRTURO® has been approved for use in the European Union, as it represents a significant step forward in ... SIRTURO® (bedaquiline) Receives Conditional Approval in the European Union for the Treatment of Multi-Drug Resistant ... in the European Union, for use as part of an appropriate combination regimen for pulmonary multi-drug resistant tuberculosis ( ... Results were presented in 2010 at the 41st Union World Conference on Lung Health in Berlin, Germany.[5] Results from Stage 1 ...
news.sys-con.com/node/3000222

*  EUR-Lex - 32002L0096 - EN - EUR-Lex

Access to European Union law EUR-Lex Access to European Union law. Quick search: insert free text, CELEX number or descriptors ... THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,. Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community ... This Directive shall enter into force on the day of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union. ... and Decision of the European Parliament of 10 April 2002 (not yet published in the Official Journal). Decision of the European ...
eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32002L0096

*  European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Antitrust: European Commission welcomes Apple's announcement to...

9th January 2008 The European Commission welcomes Apple's announcement to equalise prices for downloads of songs from its ... iTunes online store in Europe within the next six months. This puts an end to the different treatment of UK consumers who ... European Union Newsroom. * Other press releases databases *Latest press releases from all EU institutions ... European Commission welcomes Apple's announcement to equalise prices for music downloads from iTunes in Europe The European ...
europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-08-22_en.htm?locale=en

*  EUR-Lex - 32009L0030 - EN - EUR-Lex

Access to European Union law EUR-Lex Access to European Union law. Quick search: insert free text, CELEX number or descriptors ... THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,. Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community ... This Directive shall enter into force on the 20th day following its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union. ... The European Parliament and the Council shall endeavour to decide by 31 December 2012 on any such proposals submitted by the ...
eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32009L0030

*  Anna ROSBACH | History of parliamentary service | MEPs | European Parliament

Profile page of a current Member of the European Parliament - History of parliamentary service including memberships in ... OPINION on The European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea and the role of macro-regions in the future cohesion policy ... RECOMMENDATION on the draft Council decision on the accession of the European Union to the Protocol for the Protection of the ... RECOMMENDATION on the draft Council decision on the acceptance on behalf of the European Union of the Amendment to Articles 25 ...
europarl.europa.eu/meps/en/96664/ANNA_ROSBACH_home.html

*  Adulteration of foodstuffs: from misleading to poisoning. Experiences of a new EU member state (Hungary) on the threshold of...

European Union. Food Contamination / analysis, legislation & jurisprudence*, prevention & control. Foodborne Diseases / ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Adulteration-foodstuffs-from-misleading-to/15702595.html

*  GLORIA-AF Registry Program (Phase II/III - EU/EEA Member States) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

European Union) and non-EEA (European Economic Area) countries, and 1160.136 for EU and EEA countries. The total number of ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01671007?term=heart attack&lup_s=09/25/2013&lup_d=14&show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14&show_locs=Y

*  EUR-Lex - 32002L0003 - EN - EUR-Lex

Access to European Union law EUR-Lex Access to European Union law. Quick search: insert free text, CELEX number or descriptors ... THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,. Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community ... and Decision of the European Parliament of 13 June 2001 (not yet published in the Official Journal). Decision of the European ... Central European Time each day(1).. In order to be valid, the annual data on exceedances used to check compliance with the ...
eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32002L0003

*  European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - The common agricultural policy (CAP) and agriculture in Europe -...

European Commission MEMO Brussels, 26 June 2013 Farming in Europe - an overview How rural is the EU? Over 77% of the EU's ... The 'public benefit' aspect is all the more important when one considers that the standards applicable in the European Union ... The common agricultural policy allows European farmers to meet the needs of 500 million Europeans. Its main objectives are to ... the European Social Fund (ESF), the Cohesion fund and the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF) to achieve the objectives ...
europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-13-631_en.htm

*  JRC hosts a meeting to strengthen its collaboration with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) - European Commission

JRC hosts a meeting to strengthen its collaboration with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) - The European Commission's ... European Commission > EU Science Hub. > Science update , JRC hosts a meeting to strengthen its collaboration with the European ... European TTO circle A network of the Technology Transfer offices of the largest public research organisations in Europe ... European Microbiology Expert Group (EMEG) European Microbiology Expert Group for water quality ...
https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/science-update/jrc-strengthen-its-collaboration-efsa

*  National Drug Strategy - 6.1 Control of drinking environments

All European Union countries prohibit the sale of alcohol to young people below a determined age in bars and hotels, while one- ...
health.gov.au/internet/drugstrategy/publishing.nsf/Content/mono70-l~mono70-l-ch6~mono70-l-ch6.1

*  European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - OLAF Reform and the new Controller of Procedural Guarantees: Questions...

European Commission MEMO Brussels, 11 June 2014 What qualifications will the new Controller of Procedural Rights need, and what ... European Union Newsroom. * Other press releases databases *Latest press releases from all EU institutions ... A member of an EU institution means a member of the European Parliament (MEPs), a member of the European Council, a ... Why build further on the reform of OLAF, if much of its investigative function is intended to be taken over by the European ...
europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-14-409_de.htm

*  Causality between exports, productivity and financial support in European Union agriculture - Opus

This finding may help explain why some countries within the European Union, such as France, have large agricultural trade ... Causality between exports, productivity and financial support in European Union agriculture. Regional Studies, 42 (2), pp. 189- ... evidence is found of exports within the European Union being determined by support in Ireland and France, as well as gains in ... the causal relationship between exports and productivity and exports and agricultural support within the European Union. Using ...
opus.bath.ac.uk/9715/

*  EUR-Lex - 32004R0261 - EN - EUR-Lex

Access to European Union law EUR-Lex Access to European Union law. Quick search: insert free text, CELEX number or descriptors ... THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,. Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community ... and Position of the European Parliament of 3 July 2003. Legislative Resolution of the European Parliament of 18 December 2003 ... c) 75 % of the price of the ticket for all flights not falling under (a) or (b), including flights between the European ...
eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32004R0261

*  European Union

Infrastructure plans at risk if Europe finance ends Britain may find it harder to fund projects without the European Investment ... Unions fear export-led companies could move abroad if UK is outside customs union ... Kurz faces tension over Europe as Freedom party talks looms * Juncker: France to shift back into compliance with EU budget ... Kurz faces Europe rift as Freedom party talks loom Diplomats are especially concerned over Austria far-right grouping's ties ...
https://ft.com/topics/organisations/European_Union

*  European Union : NPR

European Union
npr.org/tags/129179189/european-union/archive?date=8-31-1999

*  IEA - European Union

Home » Policies and Measures » PAMS » European Union. Renewable Energy Road Map - Renewable energies in the 21st century: ... The Road Map sets out the Commissions long-term strategy for renewable energy in the European Union. The aim of this strategy ... European Commission DG Energy and Transport. URL:. http://ec.europa.eu/energy/energy_policy/doc/03_renewable_energy_roadmap_en. ...
iea.org/policiesandmeasures/pams/europeanunion/name-24475-en.php?s=dHlwZT1jYyZzdGF0dXM9T2s,&return=PG5hdiBpZD0iYnJlYWRjcnVtYiI-PGEgaHJlZj0iLyI-SG9tZTwvYT4gJnJhcXVvOyA8YSBocmVmPSIvcG9saWNpZXNhbmRtZWFzdXJlcy8iPlBvbGljaWVzIGFuZCBNZWFzdXJlczwvYT4gJnJhcXVvOyA8YSBocmVmPSIvcG9saWNpZXNhbmRtZWFzdXJlcy9jbGltYXRlY2hhbmdlLyI-Q2xpbWF0ZSBDaGFuZ2U8L2E-PC9uYXY-

*  IEA - European Union

Home » Policies and Measures » PAMS » European Union. Directive on the Taxation of Energy Products and Electricity. ... European Commission DG Taxation and Customs Union. URL:. http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/taxation/excise_duties/energy_ ...
iea.org/policiesandmeasures/pams/europeanunion/name-24236-en.php?s=dHlwZT1yZSZzdGF0dXM9T2s,&return=PG5hdiBpZD0iYnJlYWRjcnVtYiI-PGEgaHJlZj0iLyI-SG9tZTwvYT4gJnJhcXVvOyA8YSBocmVmPSIvcG9saWNpZXNhbmRtZWFzdXJlcy8iPlBvbGljaWVzIGFuZCBNZWFzdXJlczwvYT4gJnJhcXVvOyA8YSBocmVmPSIvcG9saWNpZXNhbmRtZWFzdXJlcy9yZW5ld2FibGVlbmVyZ3kvIj5SZW5ld2FibGUgRW5lcmd5PC9hPjwvbmF2Pg,,

European Union climate and energy package: The European plan on climate change consists of a range of measures adopted by the members of the European Union to fight against climate change. The plan was launched in March 2007, and after months of tough negotiations between the member countries, it was adopted by the European Parliament on December 2008.GA²LENAnna Reid: Anna Reid (born 1965) is a journalist and author whose work focuses primarily on the history of Eastern Europe.International Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.TOL101: TOL101, is a murine-monoclonal antibody specific for the human αβ T cell receptor. In 2010 it was an Investigational New Drug under development by Tolera Therapeutics, Inc.Marketing authorization: Process of reviewing and assessing the dossier to support a medicinal product in view of its marketing (also called licensing, registration, approval, etc.), finalized by granting of a document also called marketing authorization (MA) (equivalent: product license).Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response ActProportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Australian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.University Hospital Centre Zagreb: The University Hospital Centre (sometimes also Clinical Hospital Centre, ) in Zagreb, Croatia, is the largest hospital in Croatia and the teaching hospital of the University of Zagreb. It serves most of Central and Northern Croatia for specialist and acute medical procedures.Alternative Green: Alternative Green is a UK magazine set up by former Green Anarchist contributor and editor Richard Hunt in 1991 to promote the ideas later set out in his book 'To End Poverty, The Starvation of the Periphery by the Core' (1997).Yevgeny Vesnik: Yevgeny Yakovlevich Vesnik (; January 15, 1923 — April 10, 2009) was a Russian and Soviet stage and a film actor. The son of Yakov Vesnik, the first director of the Kryvorizhstal plant, he fought the Germans in the Second World War.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Nonunion: Nonunion is permanent failure of healing following a broken bone.Cigarette packets in Australia: Cigarette packets in Australia have undergone significant change. Since 1 December 2012 all forms of branding logos, colours, and promotional texts are banned from cigarette pack designs.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Wedding anniversary: A wedding anniversary is the anniversary of the date a wedding took place. Traditional names exist for some of them: for instance, 50 years of marriage is called a "golden wedding anniversary" or simply a "golden anniversary" or "golden.Peat pulp bathCriticisms of globalization: Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of globalization. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement.Reditux: Reditux is the trade name of a non-comparable biologic (NCB) version of rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody used in the treatment of certain lymphomas, leukaemias and rheumatoid arthritis.Timeline of the nuclear program of Iran: This is the timeline of the nuclear program of Iran.Katowice International Fair: Katowice International Fair () is an international trade fair in Katowice and one of the largest in Poland (the largest being the Poznań International Fair). Few dozen events are organized there each year, with the participation of some 4,500 companies.Essence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Renewable energy in the Czech Republic: Renewable energy in the Czech Republic describes the renewable energy related development in the Energy in the Czech Republic.Consumer Product Safety Act: The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted in 1972 by the United States Congress. The act established the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent agency of the United States federal government and defined its basic authority.The Doors of His Face, The Lamps of His Mouth, and Other Stories: The Doors of His Face, The Lamps of His Mouth is a collection of science fiction short stories by Roger Zelazny and the title of the first story in the collection. It was published in 1971 by Doubleday.Highly hazardous chemical: A highly hazardous chemical is a substance classified by the American Occupational Safety and Health Administration as material that is both toxic and reactive and whose potential for human injury is high if released. Highly hazardous chemicals may cause cancer, birth defects, induce genetic damage, cause miscarriage, injury and death from relatively small exposures.Israel and animal welfare: Israel's protection of animal welfare rests upon the Animal Welfare Law, 1994 which is composed of an Animal Protection Law and an Animal Experimentation Law. The law was originally introduced by Abraham Poraz in 1993 and passed by the Knesset on January 11, 1994.Hinduism in Belarus: Hinduism in Belarus has a very small following. There are three main Hindu groups in country.Carte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development: The Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development (ENVI) is a standing committee in the Canadian House of Commons.Notifiable disease: A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities. The collation of information allows the authorities to monitor the disease, and provides early warning of possible outbreaks.Pharmaceutical manufacturing: Drug manufacturing is the process of industrial-scale synthesis of pharmaceutical drugs by pharmaceutical companies. The process of drug manufacturing can be broken down into a series of unit operations, such as milling, granulation, coating, tablet pressing, and others.International Life Sciences Institute: The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) is a nonprofit [501c3]IRS 501c3 Definition1985 IRS ILSI Tax Code Determination science organization founded in 1978 and headquartered in Washington, DC. It is a member organization whose members are primarily food and beverage, agricultural, chemical, and pharmaceutical companies.Castleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.RDCRN Contact Registry: The Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) Contact Registry is an international patient contact registry sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. This registry collects basic data (i.France and the Commonwealth of Nations: Relations between France and the Commonwealth of Nations have undergone successive periods of change since the Commonwealth's creation.Jet aeratorsWHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Postmarketing surveillance: Postmarketing surveillance (PMS) (also post market surveillance) is the practice of monitoring the safety of a pharmaceutical drug or medical device after it has been released on the market and is an important part of the science of pharmacovigilance. Since drugs are approved on the basis of clinical trials, which involve relatively small numbers of people who have been selected for this purpose - meaning that they normally do not have other medical conditions which may exist in the general population - postmarketing surveillance can further refine, or confirm or deny, the safety of a drug after it is used in the general population by large numbers of people who have a wide variety of medical conditions.Generic Pharmaceutical Price Decay: Generic Pharmaceutical Price Decay is what happens (in the UK) once the originator brand has lost its patent exclusivity (patent expiry) and generic versions of the originator brand have been launched.Applied Economics, 2004, 36, 731–73, The price premium of generic to brand-names and pharmaceutical price index, Ying KonNHH Dept.Triangle of death (Italy): The triangle of death (Italian: Triangolo della morte) is an area in the Italian province of Campania comprising the municipalities of Acerra, Nola and Marigliano. The region has recently experienced increasing deaths caused by cancer and other diseases that exceeds the Italian national average.Pulse St. Petersburg: Pulse St. Petersburg is a monthly entertainment magazine published in English and Russian.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Pocket petHealthcare in Austria: The nation of Austria has a two-tier health care system in which virtually all individuals receive publicly funded care, but they also have the option to purchase supplementary private health insurance. Some individuals choose to completely pay for their care privately.Chronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Estonia (race car)Howard Engle: Howard Aaron Engle (September 11, 1919 – July 22, 2009) was an American pediatrician and lifelong smoker who was one of the plaintiffs in a class action lawsuit filed against the tobacco industry, in which Engle claimed that he smoked multiple packs of cigarettes daily since he was in college and was unable to quit despite multiple attempts even after contracting emphysema, continuing to smoke until his death.Pharmaceutical Research Institute (PRI)- AlbanyAircraft cabin: An aircraft cabin is the section of an aircraft in which passengers travel. At cruising altitudes of modern commercial aircraft the surrounding atmosphere is too thin for passengers and crew to breathe without an oxygen mask, so cabins are pressurized at a higher pressure than ambient pressure at altitude.Poundage quota: A poundage quota, also called a marketing quota, is a quantitative limit on the amount of a commodity that can be marketed under the provisions of a permanent law. Once a common feature of price support programs, this supply control mechanism ended with the quota buyouts for peanuts in 2002 and tobacco in 2004.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Totally drug-resistant tuberculosis: Totally drug-resistant tuberculosis (TDR-TB) is a generic term for tuberculosis strains that are resistant to a wider range of drugs than strains classified as Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. TDR-TB has been identified in three countries; India, Iran, and Italy.Biological resistanceList of birds of Slovenia: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Slovenia. The avifauna of Slovenia include a total of 376 species, of which four have been introduced by humans and five are rare or accidental.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Health claims on food labels: Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals that oat bran can reduce cholesterol, which will lower the chances of developing serious heart conditions.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.SAFE FOODSNomad Rock: Nomad Rock () is an isolated rock in Bransfield Strait, 5 nautical miles (9 km) off the north coast of Trinity Peninsula and 9 nautical miles (17 km) northeast of Cape Legoupil. So named by United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee (UK-APC) because of confusion about the identity of geographic points along this coast, and because of the wandering of features and names on charts of this vicinity.Bresle methodNational Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.

(1/804) The future of tobacco product regulation and labelling in Europe: implications for the forthcoming European Union directive.

The European Commission has announced that it is considering legislation concerning further restrictions on cigarette tar and nicotine yields, as well as new provisions to regulate additives and the labelling of tobacco products. This report considers these issues and their relation to public health. In particular, we argue that further reductions in tar and nicotine yields as measured by the International Standards Organisation/Federal Trade Commission (ISO/FTC) method will be largely cosmetic and certainly misleading to consumers. If a new directive uses the ISO/FTC methodology as a basis for regulation, it risks lending further official support to the concept of "low tar" cigarettes, which may be used by smokers as an alternative to smoking cessation. Although new regulations based on the ISO/FTC methodology may appear to offer health gains, these will be illusory and there may even be negative health consequences, as has been the case with these tests up to the present. We therefore make the following recommendations for the way forward.  (+info)

(2/804) Epidemiological data of treated end-stage renal failure in the European Union (EU) during the year 1995: report of the European Renal Association Registry and the National Registries.

BACKGROUND: The new Centre Questionnaire, mainly based on the collection of epidemiological data, was launched in 1996 and the overall response rate of centres for the 15 countries constituting the European Union (EU) reached 82.2% (66-100%) for 1995. RESULTS: We could derive the following information for a general population of 372.6 million. In 1995, the incidence of new end-stage renal failure (ESRF) patients (Ni/P) was 120 p.m.p. (per million population) with a clear north to south/west gradient (69 in Ireland, 131 in Italy and 163 in Germany). The incidence of ESRF deaths (No/P) was 67 p.m.p. (from 35 in Ireland to 89 in Germany). The net increase of patients was therefore 53 p.m.p. (from 13 in Greece to 74 in Germany). The point prevalence of treated ESRF patients (Ns/P) alive on 31 December 1995 was 644 p.m.p. (from 444 in Finland to 773 in Italy). The mean increase in the stock of ESRF patients was +8.2% (4.6 to 13.0) as a linear rate and +0.085 as a fractional rate (exponential). The first treatment of new patients (Ni) was haemodialysis (HD; 81%), peritoneal dialysis (PD; 18%) and pre-emptive renal transplantation (Tx; 1%). The latest treatment for patients still alive was HD (58.5%), PD (9%) or functional Tx (32.5%). The number of Tx was 30 p.m.p. (from 14 in Greece to 45 in Spain). The death rate was 10.4% for all those with ESRF, with 14.4% for those dialysed and 2.2% for transplanted patients. In 1995, 6.5% of dialysed patients received a graft and 4.0% of transplant patients returned to dialysis. The linear expansion rate of the dialysis pool and the transplant pool was respectively 8.3% and 7.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This data shows considerable disparities among countries of the EU which merit further evaluation. Also this analysis by the ERA Registry provides data of value for health and economic purposes.  (+info)

(3/804) Genetically modified organisms: an analysis of the regulatory framework currently employed within the European Union.

BACKGROUND: Genetic engineering technology is starting to bring many commercial products to the market. These genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their derived products are subject to topical debate as to their benefits and risks. The strengths and weaknesses of the regulatory framework that controls their development and application is central to the question of whether this technology poses significant risk to the public health during this critical phase of its evolution. METHODS: A critical review was carried out of the legal framework regulating the contained use, deliberate release and some aspects of consumer protection relevant to the control of GMOs in Europe and the United Kingdom. RESULTS: The current legal framework is failing to provide a speed of adaptation commensurate with the development of the science of genetic engineering; failing to properly respond to democratic control; failing to resolve significant conflict between the protection of free markets and protection of public health and the environment; and failing to implement obligations on biodiversity. CONCLUSION: The present legal framework must be replaced. Current European Union proposals for new standards of regulation are welcome, but provide only for further incremental change, and do not address some significant fundamental flaws in our current laws.  (+info)

(4/804) A new questionnaire for the repeat of the first stage of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey: a pilot study.

In the early 1990s a multicentre survey on asthma was performed on the young adult population (European Community Respiratory Health Survey - ECRHS). This study is to be repeated in order to estimate changes in the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms during the last decade and to assess the social and economic costs of the disease and their variations among countries. The self-administered questionnaire devised for this purpose is a two-page questionnaire. The first page contains the same items as those used in the first survey with four additional questions related to: 1) the frequency and severity of asthma attacks; 2) the presence of chronic bronchitis; 3) smoking habits; and 4) a visual analogue scale assessing perception of outdoor pollution. The second page aims to collect information regarding the direct and indirect costs of asthma. The influence of the length of the questionnaire on the response rate was assessed in a pilot study in Italy. Two random samples of 150 subjects received either the one-page questionnaire (first page) or the two-page questionnaire. The response rate was compared with that obtained from the first postal wave in the 1991-1992 survey. Although the response rate was unchanged when using the one-page questionnaire (45% versus 45%), it decreased by 7% when the two-page questionnaire was used (38% versus 45%). On the basis of these results, no problem should arise if four more questions are added to the one-page questionnaire. The slight reduction in the response rate of the two-page questionnaire is worrying but could be corrected by the use of telephone interviews.  (+info)

(5/804) Development of orphan vaccines: an industry perspective.

The development of vaccines against rare emerging infectious diseases is hampered by many disincentives. In the face of growing in-house expenditures associated with research and development projects in a complex legal and regulatory environment, most pharmaceutical companies prioritize their projects and streamline their product portfolio. Nevertheless, for humanitarian reasons, there is a need to develop niche vaccines for rare diseases not preventable or curable by other means. The U.S. Orphan Drug Act of 1983 and a similar proposal from the European Commission (currently under legislative approval) provide financial and practical incentives for the research and development of drugs to treat rare diseases. In addition, updated epidemiologic information from experts in the field of emerging diseases; increased disease awareness among health professionals, patients, and the general public; a list of priority vaccines; emergence of a dedicated organization with strong leadership; and the long-term pharmacoeconomic viability of orphan products will be key factors in overcoming the complexity of orphan status and the limited need for vaccine.  (+info)

(6/804) Possibilities for regulatory actions in the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders.

This review argues that there is a need for regulatory action against work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Designing such regulation is fraught with problems, such as insufficient knowledge about mechanisms and exposure-dose-response relationships, and lack of consensus on definitions. The multifactorial character of the disorders, especially risks involving work organization, further increases the problems. Nevertheless, regulation is necessary because of the poor results of voluntary prevention and the large costs of these disorders. Some major regulations are reviewed, and it is argued that there is insufficient scientific support for quantitative regulations proposed for some European norms. The recent Nordic ergonomic regulations for the prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders is a step forward, since they succeed in providing guidance, including some on work organizational issues, with only few quantitative measures. Researchers should become more involved in these activities, and priorities in future research that would benefit a more scientific approach to ergonomic regulation are indicated.  (+info)

(7/804) Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union.

OBJECTIVES: To construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU). METHODS: A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX includes data on agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (all agents in groups 1 and 2A as of February 1995, and selected agents in group 2B) and on ionising radiation, displayed across the 55 industrial classes. The 1990-3 occupational exposure was estimated in two phases. Firstly, estimates were generated by the CAREX system on the basis of national labour force data and exposure prevalence estimates from two reference countries (Finland and the United States) which had the most comprehensive data available on exposures to these agents. For selected countries, these estimates were then refined by national experts in view of the perceived exposure patterns in their own countries compared with those of the reference countries. RESULTS: About 32 million workers (23% of those employed) in the EU were exposed to agents covered by CAREX. At least 22 million workers were exposed to IARC group 1 carcinogens. The exposed workers had altogether 42 million exposures (1.3 mean exposures for each exposed worker). The most common exposures were solar radiation (9.1 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), environmental tobacco smoke (7.5 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), crystalline silica (3.2 million exposed), diesel exhaust (3.0 million), radon (2.7 million), and wood dust (2.6 million). CONCLUSION: These preliminary estimates indicate that in the early 1990s, a substantial proportion of workers in the EU were exposed to carcinogens.  (+info)

(8/804) A survey of undergraduate orthodontic education in 23 European countries.

This paper reports on a survey of teaching contents and time allocation within the undergraduate orthodontic curriculum in European countries in 1997, and on whether or not these countries set a formal undergraduate examination in orthodontics. A questionnaire and an explanatory letter were mailed to all members of the EURO-QUAL BIOMED II project. Answers were validated during a meeting of project participants and by fax when necessary. Completed questionnaires, which were subsequently validated, were returned by orthodontists from 23 countries. They indicated that orthodontics was taught in all undergraduate curriculums of the countries surveyed. The number of hours in the undergraduate curriculum devoted to orthodontics was reported as varying from 135 to 500 hours with a mean of 245 hours. The time reported as allocated to theory, clinical practice, laboratory work, diagnosis, and treatment planning varied widely. In general, clinical practice and theory were reported as being allocated most curriculum hours, whilst diagnosis, laboratory work, and treatment planing were reported as receiving relatively less time. Removable appliances were reported to be taught in 22 of the 23 countries, functional appliances in 21 countries and fixed appliances in 17 countries. An undergraduate examination in orthodontics was reported by 20 countries. It was concluded that orthodontics occupies a small proportion of the undergraduate curriculum in dentistry in most countries, the emphasis is on theory and clinical work, and that removable appliances, functional appliances, and certain aspects of fixed appliances are taught in the majority of countries that responded to the questionnaire  (+info)



Medicines Agency


  • 1 ] The designation follows a positive opinion from the Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products (COMP) within the European Medicines Agency (EMA). (sys-con.com)
  • VANCOUVER, British Columbia, Feb. 10, 2011 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- QLT Inc. (Nasdaq:QLTI) (TSX:QLT) ("QLT" or the "Company") today announced that QLT091001, an oral synthetic retinoid, has received positive opinions for two distinct Orphan Drug Designations by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products (COMP) for the treatment of the inherited retinal degenerative diseases, Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA) and Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). (nbcnews.com)

designation


  • Speaking about the European Commission orphan medicinal product designation for liposomal daunorubicin, Mark Scrutton , President of Galen, commented: "We are delighted about the designation of liposomal daunorubicin as an orphan medicinal product for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia, a life-threatening disease. (sys-con.com)
  • The EMA's Orphan Drug Designation program allows for certain incentives to promote the development of drugs and biologics for patients suffering from rare and life-threatening diseases, conditions which affect no more than five in 10,000 people in the European Union. (nbcnews.com)