American Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.EuropeEuropean Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Genealogy and HeraldryPolymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Gene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Trinidad and Tobago: An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.

*  Early mortality among triplets in the United States: black-white disparity.

European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data*. Female. Humans. Infant Mortality*. Infant, Newborn. Male. ... African Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data*. Delivery, Obstetric / statistics & numerical data. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Early-mortality-among-triplets-in/14981393.html

*  "Pancreatic resection: a key component to reducing racial disparities in pancreatic adenocarcinoma" by Melissa M....

Adenocarcinoma; *African Americans; Aged; *European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; *Healthcare Disparities; Humans; Male; ...
https://works.bepress.com/jennifer_tseng/59/

*  "Ten-year incidence of elevated blood pressure and its predictors: the CARDIA study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young...

... each of these variables was significantly related to incidence in at least one of the four sex-race groups. In multivariate ... Adult; African Americans; Cohort Studies; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Humans; Hypertension; Incidence; Male; ... each of these variables was significantly related to incidence in at least one of the four sex-race groups. In multivariate ...
https://works.bepress.com/catarina_kiefe/129/

*  "The association between income, education, and experiences of discrimination in older African American and European American...

This study suggests future research should focus less on differences between racial/ethnic groups and more on factors within ... and European Americans (EA). DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study involving computer-assisted telephone survey. SETTING ... African Americans; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Educational Status; *European Continental Ancestry Group ... The association between income, education, and experiences of discrimination in older African American and European American ...
https://works.bepress.com/catarina_kiefe/197/

*  "Alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and early coronary calcification: findings from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in...

European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Logistic Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle ... Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group; Alcohol Drinking; Alcoholic Intoxication; Calcinosis; Chi-Square Distribution; ...
https://works.bepress.com/catarina_kiefe/128/

*  Insufficient treatment of hypercholesterolemia among patients hospitalized with chest pain.

European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Hospitalization. Humans. Hypercholesterolemia / complications*, drug therapy*. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Insufficient-treatment-hypercholesterolemia-among-patients/16796076.html

*  Very low food security predicts obesity predominantly in California Hispanic men and women.

Continental Population Groups*. Cross-Sectional Studies. Diet / economics, ethnology*, standards. European Continental Ancestry ... Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Body Mass Index*. California / ethnology. ... Group. Female. Food Supply* / economics. Health Surveys. Hispanic Americans. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Minority Groups*. ... We examined whether food insecurity was associated with BMI and obesity within gender and racial/ethnic groups in a large, ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Very-low-food-security-predicts/22463949.html

*  A common genetic variant is associated with adult and childhood obesity.

Europe. European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Gene Frequency. Genes, Recessive. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. ... We have replicated the finding in four separate samples composed of individuals of Western European ancestry, African Americans ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/common-genetic-variant-associated-with/16614226.html

*  Ethnic differences in titratable acid excretion and bone mineralization.

European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Fractures, Stress / ethnology*, urine*. Humans. Male. Risk Factors. Sodium / urine ... African Continental Ancestry Group. Ammonium Chloride / administration & dosage. Biological Markers / urine. Calcification, ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Ethnic-differences-in-titratable-acid/11828240.html

*  The increasing prevalence of atrial fibrillation among hemodialysis patients.

European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects*, ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Increasing-Prevalence-Atrial-Fibrillation-among/21233416.html

*  Interocclusal distance: a comparison between American Caucasians and Negroes.

Cephalometric analyses were performed on groups of American Negro and Caucasian subjects to establish whether or not there were ... African Continental Ancestry Group*. Aged. Cephalometry. European Continental Ancestry Group*. Female. Humans. Male. Middle ... Cephalometric analyses were performed on groups of American Negro and Caucasian subjects to establish whether or not there were ... Statistically significant differences were found between the mean interocclusal distances of the two treatment groups, ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Interocclusal-distance-comparison-between-American/265397.html

*  Vitamin D intake needed to maintain target serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in participants with low sun exposure and...

European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Humans. Male. Nutritional Requirements. Seasons. Skin Pigmentation / physiology*. ... median for African ancestry (AA)] and high [median for European ancestry (EA)] skin reflectance and with low [20th percentile, ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Vitamin-D-Intake-Needed-to/20053937.html

*  Ethnicity, criminality, and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory.

... were analyzed in relation to violent versus nonviolent criminality and ethnic group membership within a sample of adult, male ... Ethnic Groups / psychology*. European Continental Ancestry Group / psychology. Factor Analysis, Statistical. Hispanic Americans ... 17483397 - Helping to improve the group stereotype: on the strategic dimension of prosocial behavior.. 24772097 - The arsq 2.0 ... were analyzed in relation to violent versus nonviolent criminality and ethnic group membership within a sample of adult, male ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Ethnicity-criminality-Buss-Durkee-Hostility/6620107.html

*  Perceived stress and biological risk: is the link stronger in Russians than in Taiwanese and Americans?

European Continental Ancestry Group / psychology*. Female. Heart Rate. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Inflammation / ... Asian Continental Ancestry Group / psychology*. Biological Markers. Cardiovascular System / physiopathology. Creatinine / ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Perceived-Stress-Biological-Risk-Link/23534869.html

*  Genetic variability of apolipoprotein E in a Polish population.

Europe. European Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Female. Gene Frequency*. Humans. Male. Phenotype. Poland. Reference ... The data have been compared with data found in other population groups. The frequency of the APOE*2 allele in Poles was among ... Distribution of apoE isoforms shows marked variation among various ethnic groups. Direct phenotyping of human APOE in plasma ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Genetic-variability-apolipoprotein-E-in/9825598.html

*  Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms, alcohol intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in the...

Europe. European Continental Ancestry Group / genetics*. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. ... Title: European journal of clinical nutrition Volume: 66 ISSN: 1476-5640 ISO Abbreviation: Eur J Clin Nutr Publication Date: ... alcohol intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. ... was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the impact of ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Alcohol-dehydrogenase-aldehyde-gene-polymorphisms/23149980.html

*  Stereotypes of smokers held by Hispanic and white non-Hispanic smokers.

A group of Hispanic and White non-Hispanic smokers were asked to report the stereotypes they hold of smokers in general. All ... European Continental Ancestry Group / psychology*. Female. Hispanic Americans / psychology*. Humans. Male. San Francisco. ... A group of Hispanic and White non-Hispanic smokers were asked to report the stereotypes they hold of smokers in general. All ... Only the Self-Presentation factor showed statistically significant differences between the two ethnic groups. The amount of ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Stereotypes-smokers-held-by-Hispanic/2793279.html

*  Racial and ethnic differences in determinants of intrauterine growth retardation and other compromised birth outcomes.

European Continental Ancestry Group* / statistics & numerical data. Female. Fetal Growth Retardation / ethnology*, genetics. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Racial-ethnic-differences-in-determinants/9431287.html

*  The increasing racial disparity in infant mortality: respiratory distress syndrome and other causes.

Although substantial declines in infant mortality rates have occurred across racial/ethnic groups, there has been a marked ... European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data*. Female. Humans. Infant Mortality / trends*. Infant, Low ... Although substantial declines in infant mortality rates have occurred across racial/ethnic groups, there has been a marked ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/increasing-racial-disparity-in-infant/15622954.html

*  Adelaide Research & Scholarship: Genetic heritage of the balto-slavic speaking populations: a synthesis of autosomal,...

European Continental Ancestry Group; Europe; Genetic Variation. Description: Genographic Consortium contributor: Alan Cooper ... A pattern of distribution of segments identical by descent between groups of East-West and South Slavs suggests shared ancestry ... central-east European' for West and East Slavs, and 'south-east European' for South Slavs. ... The Slavic branch of the Balto-Slavic sub-family of Indo-European languages underwent rapid divergence as a result of the ...
https://digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/handle/2440/97274

*  Ethnic Differences in Insulin Sensitivity, β-Cell Function, and Hepatic Extraction Between Japanese and Caucasians - Danish...

Asian Continental Ancestry Group; Blood Glucose; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; European Continental ... Ancestry Group; Female; Glucose Intolerance; Glucose Tolerance Test; Humans; Insulin; Insulin Resistance; Insulin-Secreting ... Hepatic extraction was similar in NGT and IGT groups but higher in Japanese type 2 diabetic subjects (P , .01). Despite ... the disposition indices were similar between the 2 ethnic groups at all glucose tolerance states. Furthermore, the overall ...
forskningsdatabasen.dk/catalog/269941027

*  i|SORBS1|/i| gene, a new candidate for diabetic nephropathy - Danish National Research Database-Den Danske Forskningsdatabase

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Diabetic Nephropathies; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Genetic Predisposition to ...
forskningsdatabasen.dk/catalog/273979539

*  Racial differences of lens transparency properties with aging and prevalence of age-related cataract applying a WHO...

Asian Continental Ancestry Group. en. dc.subject.mesh. Cataract. en. dc.subject.mesh. European Continental Ancestry Group. en. ... Ancestry, Socioeconomic Status, and Age-Related Cataract in Asians: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.Authors: ... The prevalence of nuclear opacification in Singaporeans was markedly higher than those of the two other groups for all ages. ... The prevalence of nuclear opacification in Singaporeans was markedly higher than those of the two other groups for all ages. ...
hirsla.lsh.is/lsh/handle/2336/5515

*  Adelaide Research & Scholarship: Mitochondrial genome sequencing in mesolithic North East Europe unearths a new sub-clade...

European Continental Ancestry Group; Europe; Genome, Mitochondrial. Rights: © 2014 Der Sarkissian et al. This is an open-access ... In order to obtain high-resolution data and shed light on the origin of this European Mesolithic C1 haplotype, we target- ... The human mitochondrial haplogroup C1 has a broad global distribution but is extremely rare in Europe today. Recent ancient DNA ... Mitochondrial genome sequencing in mesolithic North East Europe unearths a new sub-clade within the broadly distributed human ...
https://digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/handle/2440/95804

*  Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: Svante Paabo talk at NIH

when filtering out genomic regions of recent European ancestry due to admixture (dashed line in Figure 3, see Online Methods). ... The second group spread all over the world and interbred with the former group and well as other human archaics (e.g. ... This would only reduce the necessity of positing some continental migration-caused bottleneck to explain the low heterozygosity ... Probably 400-600kya Homo rhodesiensis migrated into Europe. Homo heidelbergensis is the European name for Rhodesian man.. This ...
dienekes.blogspot.com/2014/04/svante-paabo-talk-at-nih.html?showComment=1401708898722

North American Native Fishes Association: The North American Native Fishes Association (NANFA) is a non-profit, tax-exempt U.S.Vibe Australia: Vibe Australia Pty Ltd (Vibe) is an Aboriginal media, communications and events management agency. Located in Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, they work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people throughout Australia.GA²LENEuropean Union climate and energy package: The European plan on climate change consists of a range of measures adopted by the members of the European Union to fight against climate change. The plan was launched in March 2007, and after months of tough negotiations between the member countries, it was adopted by the European Parliament on December 2008.Atomic heraldry: Atomic heraldry is heraldry characterised by the appearance of charges including the atom or showing the motion of parts of the atom; more loosely, it may describe heraldry in which atoms or the component parts thereof are represented through a combination of other charges. Obviously, this is a late development in heraldry.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Population stratification: Population stratification is the presence of a systematic difference in allele frequencies between subpopulations in a population possibly due to different ancestry, especially in the context of association studies. Population stratification is also referred to as population structure, in this context.Genetic variation: right|thumbGene pool: The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Lampreado: thumb | 250px | right | LampreadoBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Disequilibrium (medicine): Disequilibrium}}Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Environment of Trinidad and Tobago: The environment of Trinidad and Tobago reflects the interaction between its biotic diversity, high population density, and industrialised economy.RV coefficient: In statistics, the RV coefficient

(1/13036) Heart rate and subsequent blood pressure in young adults: the CARDIA study.

The objective of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that baseline heart rate (HR) predicts subsequent blood pressure (BP) independently of baseline BP. In the multicenter longitudinal Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study of black and white men and women initially aged 18 to 30 years, we studied 4762 participants who were not current users of antihypertensive drugs and had no history of heart problems at the baseline examination (1985-1986). In each race-sex subgroup, we estimated the effect of baseline HR on BP 2, 5, 7, and 10 years later by use of repeated measures regression analysis, adjusting for baseline BP, age, education, body fatness, physical fitness, fasting insulin, parental hypertension, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, oral contraceptive use, and change of body mass index from baseline. The association between baseline HR and subsequent systolic BP (SBP) was explained by multivariable adjustment. However, HR was an independent predictor of subsequent diastolic BP (DBP) regardless of initial BP and other confounders in white men, white women, and black men (0.7 mm Hg increase per 10 bpm). We incorporated the part of the association that was already present at baseline by not adjusting for baseline DBP: the mean increase in subsequent DBP was 1.3 mm Hg per 10 bpm in white men, white women, and black men. A high HR may be considered a risk factor for subsequent high DBP in young persons.  (+info)

(2/13036) Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups.

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

(3/13036) Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups.

OBJECTIVE: To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. METHODS: Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. RESULTS: The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. CONCLUSION: Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups.  (+info)

(4/13036) Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in white and black patients with diabetes mellitus.

The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) and antibody (anti-HBS) was determined in 531 white and 519 black diabetic outpatients and in appropriate white and black control populations. There was no difference between the prevalence of either HBSAg or anti-HBS in either the white or black diabetics and that in the white and black controls. These findings make it unlikely that the vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus have either an increased susceptibility to infection by the hepatitis B virus or an impaired ability to clear the virus once they are infected.  (+info)

(5/13036) Biochemical indices of osteomalacia in pregnant Asian immigrants in Britain.

Serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase, and urinary calcium excretion were examined during the second trimester of uncomplicated normal pregnancy in Asian immigrants to Britain and in local Caucasians. The mean serum calcium was significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians, and the mean serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in Asians. The geometric mean of the urinary calcium excretion was highly significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians. The variances of the serum calcium, serum alkaline phosphatase, and urine calcium excretion did not differ significantly in the two populations. This indicates that there is a shift in values of immigrant Asians as a group compared with Caucasians. A comparison with figures obtained on normal nonpregnant persons of both suggests that the shift is not an inherent feature of the Asian population.  (+info)

(6/13036) Racial differences in the outcome of left ventricular dysfunction.

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have found that black patients with congestive heart failure have a higher mortality rate than whites with the same condition. This finding has been attributed to differences in the severity, causes, and management of heart failure, the prevalence of coexisting conditions, and socioeconomic factors. Although these factors probably account for some of the higher mortality due to congestive heart failure among blacks, we hypothesized that racial differences in the natural history of left ventricular dysfunction might also have a role. METHODS: Using data from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) prevention and treatment trials, in which all patients received standardized therapy and follow-up, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction among black and white participants. The mean (+/-SD) follow-up was 34.2+/-14.0 months in the prevention trial and 32.3+/-14.8 months in the treatment trial among the black and white participants. RESULTS: The overall mortality rates in the prevention trial were 8.1 per 100 person-years for blacks and 5.1 per 100 person years for whites. In the treatment trial, the rates were 16.7 per 100 person-years and 13.4 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for age, coexisting conditions, severity and causes of heart failure, and use of medications, blacks had a higher risk of death from all causes in both the SOLVD prevention trial (relative risk, 1.36; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.74; P=0.02) and the treatment trial (relative risk, 1.25; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.50; P=0.02). In both trials blacks were also at higher risk for death due to pump failure and for the combined end point of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure, our two predefined indicators of the progression of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Blacks with mild-to-moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction appear to be at higher risk for progression of heart failure and death from any cause than similarly treated whites. These results suggest that there may be racial differences in the outcome of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction.  (+info)

(7/13036) The effect of race and sex on physicians' recommendations for cardiac catheterization.

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have reported differences in the use of cardiovascular procedures according to the race and sex of the patient. Whether the differences stem from differences in the recommendations of physicians remains uncertain. METHODS: We developed a computerized survey instrument to assess physicians' recommendations for managing chest pain. Actors portrayed patients with particular characteristics in scripted interviews about their symptoms. A total of 720 physicians at two national meetings of organizations of primary care physicians participated in the survey. Each physician viewed a recorded interview and was given other data about a hypothetical patient. He or she then made recommendations about that patient's care. We used multivariate logistic-regression analysis to assess the effects of the race and sex of the patients on treatment recommendations, while controlling for the physicians' assessment of the probability of coronary artery disease as well as for the age of the patient, the level of coronary risk, the type of chest pain, and the results of an exercise stress test. RESULTS: The physicians' mean (+/-SD) estimates of the probability of coronary artery disease were lower for women (probability, 64.1+/-19.3 percent, vs. 69.2+/-18.2 percent for men; P<0.001), younger patients (63.8+/-19.5 percent for patients who were 55 years old, vs. 69.5+/-17.9 percent for patients who were 70 years old; P<0.001), and patients with nonanginal pain (58.3+/-19.0 percent, vs. 64.4+/-18.3 percent for patients with possible angina and 77.1+/-14.0 percent for those with definite angina; P=0.001). Logistic-regression analysis indicated that women (odds ratio, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.02) and blacks (odds ratio, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.02) were less likely to be referred for cardiac catheterization than men and whites, respectively. Analysis of race-sex interactions showed that black women were significantly less likely to be referred for catheterization than white men (odds ratio, 0.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.7; P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the race and sex of a patient independently influence how physicians manage chest pain.  (+info)

(8/13036) Genetic polymorphism and interethnic variability of plasma paroxonase activity.

A method for determining plasma paroxonase activity using an auto-analyser is described. Frequency distributions for British and Indian subjects show bimodality. A study of 40 British families confirms the presence of a genetic polymorphism with regard to plasma paroxonase activity. Two phenotypes can be defined, controlled by two alleles at one autosomal locus. The frequency of the low activity phenotype is less in the Indian population than in the British population. Malay, Chinese, and African subjects fail to show obvious bimodality.  (+info)



African Americans


  • In this study, we describe the associations of discrimination with income and education in elderly African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA). (bepress.com)
  • We have replicated the finding in four separate samples composed of individuals of Western European ancestry, African Americans, and children. (biomedsearch.com)

ethnic groups


  • 001). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests future research should focus less on differences between racial/ethnic groups and more on factors within minority populations that may contribute to healthcare disparities. (bepress.com)
  • We examined whether food insecurity was associated with BMI and obesity within gender and racial/ethnic groups in a large, diverse sample of low-income adults. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the association of food insecurity and obesity is limited to individuals of certain low-income, minority racial/ethnic groups. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although the white, Mexican-American, and black subjects differed on both psychometric and criminological variables, there was no statistically significant association between these predictors and criteria for either the total sample or the individual ethnic groups. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Distribution of apoE isoforms shows marked variation among various ethnic groups. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Only the Self-Presentation factor showed statistically significant differences between the two ethnic groups. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although substantial declines in infant mortality rates have occurred across racial/ethnic groups, there has been a marked increase in relative black-white disparity in the risk of infant death over the past two decades. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we characterize genetic variation in all extant ethnic groups speaking Balto-Slavic languages by analyzing mitochondrial DNA (n = 6,876), Y-chromosomes (n = 6,079) and genome-wide SNP profiles (n = 296), within the context of other European populations. (edu.au)

Adult


  • Scores on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) were analyzed in relation to violent versus nonviolent criminality and ethnic group membership within a sample of adult, male offenders. (biomedsearch.com)

Population Groups


  • The data have been compared with data found in other population groups. (biomedsearch.com)

populations


  • The rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs1573496 (ADH7) and rs441 (ALDH2) polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk overall in Western-European populations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This expansion-mainly to East Europe and the northern Balkans-resulted in the incorporation of genetic components from numerous autochthonous populations into the Slavic gene pools. (edu.au)

blood


  • SUBJECTS/METHODS: A nested case-control study (1269 cases matched to 2107 controls by sex, age, study centre and date of blood collection) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the impact of rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs1573496 (ADH7) and rs441 (ALDH2) polymorphisms on CRC risk. (biomedsearch.com)

distances


  • Statistically significant differences were found between the mean interocclusal distances of the two treatment groups, supporting the hypothesis that American Negroes have an average interocclusal distance which is less than that of Caucasians. (biomedsearch.com)

differences


  • Cephalometric analyses were performed on groups of American Negro and Caucasian subjects to establish whether or not there were differences in interocclusal distance attributable to ethnic origin. (biomedsearch.com)

Distribution


  • A pattern of distribution of segments identical by descent between groups of East-West and South Slavs suggests shared ancestry or a modest gene flow between those two groups, which might derive from the historic spread of Slavic people. (edu.au)

among


  • The frequency of the APOE*2 allele in Poles was among the lowest in Europe. (biomedsearch.com)