Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)Asian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.United StatesHawaii: A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.CaliforniaChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Mexican Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.IndiaIndians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.SingaporeCross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.LondonAfricaSuriname: A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Jews: An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.Arabs: Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.PhilippinesPolymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.PakistanGreat BritainPolymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.IsraelAcculturation: Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Population Groups: Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Puerto Rico: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)EnglandHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)American Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.Los AngelesCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Ethnology: The comparative and theoretical study of culture, often synonymous with cultural anthropology.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)TexasSocial Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.VietnamLaosPrejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Gypsies: Ethnic group originating in India and entering Europe in the 14th or 15th century.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Polynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)New York CityEuropeEmigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.MexicoObesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.JapanHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Southwestern United States: The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).New MexicoCivil Disorders: Deliberate and planned acts of unlawful behavior engaged in by aggrieved segments of the population in seeking social change.Trinidad and Tobago: An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Central AmericaMultivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Minority Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.BangladeshAlaskaRacism: Differential treatment or unequal access to opportunities, based on group membership such as origin or ethnicity.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Samoa: A group of islands in the southwest central Pacific, divided into AMERICAN SAMOA and the INDEPENDENT STATE OF SAMOA (Western Samoa). First European contact was made in 1722 by Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman. In 1768 they were named Navigators Islands by Louis de Bougainville. The present name may derive from that of a local chieftain or from a local word meaning place of the moa, a now-extinct island bird. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1061 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p481)Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.IranBrunei: An independent sultanate on the northeast coast of Borneo. Its chief products are oil and natural gas. Its name is Hindi, coming from the Sanskrit bhumi, land or region. It gave its name Brunei to Borneo. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p183 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p82)Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Albinism, Oculocutaneous: Heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders comprising at least four recognized types, all having in common varying degrees of hypopigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. The two most common are the tyrosinase-positive and tyrosinase-negative types.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Libya: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria, having southern border with Chad, Niger, and Sudan. Its capital is Tripoli.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.WalesRisk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Sympatry: In evolutionary theory, overlapping geographic distribution of diverging species. In sympatric GENETIC SPECIATION, genetic diversion occurs without geographic separation.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Indians, Central American: Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.TurkeyLinear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Inuits: Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.KuwaitLanguage: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Ceremonial Behavior: A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.IraqNames: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Hemoglobinopathies: A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Fiji: A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Suva. It was discovered by Abel Tasman in 1643 and was visited by Captain Cook in 1774. It was used by escaped convicts from Australia as early as 1804. It was annexed by Great Britain in 1874 but achieved independence in 1970. The name Fiji is of uncertain origin. In its present form it may represent that of Viti, the main island in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p396 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p186)

*  Distribution of Coronary Artery Calcium by Race, Gender, and Age | Circulation

... and 4 race/ethnic groups are represented. We observed substantial differences among the 4 race/ethnicity groups in terms of CAC ... Future analyses will determine the predictive power of specific CAC scores and percentiles in the 4 racial/ethnic groups. Raggi ... Ethnic differences in coronary calcification: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Circulation. 2005; 111: 1313- ... Results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Robyn L. McClelland, Hyoju Chung, Robert Detrano, Wendy Post, ...
circ.ahajournals.org/content/113/1/30?ijkey=83e85132f5306a0c035d3a9ca3be4ef9d4c00499&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

*  Ethnic Groups Gallery - Conservapedia

Photo galleries of ethnic groups in Asia.. *World Ethnic Groups. Country Profile and Demographics. (ordered listing of ethnic ... Ethnic Groups Gallery Just in Africa ethnic groups number in the hundreds; world's number is estimated in five thousand in 190 ... The Largest Ethnic Group in the World: Han Chinese of China.. * ... Ethnic groups in Europe. Map of ethnic groups in Medieval ... Retrieved from "http://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Ethnic_Groups_Gallery&oldid=1262996" ...
conservapedia.com/Ethnic_Groups_Gallery

*  Hola (ethnic group) - Wikipedia

Iran under the Shah was strict regarding different ethnic groups and maintained censuses on them. Most of the Hola families ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hola_(ethnic_group)&oldid=796219074" ... Related ethnic groups' needing confirmation. *Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hola_

*  Bolivia - Ethnic Groups

Ethnic Groups. Bolivia Table of Contents The conquest of the Inca Empire brought the Spanish into contact with a stratified and ... Terminology varied by the region, class, and ethnic affiliation of the speaker. A number of minority groups also existed. The ... Bolivia's principal groups were a small number of whites, a larger, more fluid and diverse group of mestizos, and a majority of ... Ethnic identity--always somewhat fluid--became considerably more so following the changes of the 1952 Revolution. The ethnic ...
countrystudies.us/bolivia/29.htm

*  Afghanistan - Ethnic Groups

11.4 of whom are of the Durrani tribal group and 13.8 percent of the Ghilzai group. Tajiks make up the second largest ethnic ... Ethnic Groups. Afghanistan Table of Contents In 1996, approximately 40 percent of Afghans were Pashtun, ... Like a number of other Afghan ethnic groups, the Pushtun extend beyond Afghanistan into Pakistan where they constitute a major ... Enclaves of Pashtun also live scattered among other ethnic groups throughout the nation, where they have settled at various ...
countrystudies.us/afghanistan/38.htm

*  Ethnic Groups

... s guidelines for relations with the ethnic groups ... Ethnic Groups* Ethnic Groups Information. * Ethnic Communities ... Ecopetrol´s guidelines for relations with the ethnic groups are within the framework of corporate values oriented to protect ... industry and ethnic groups, which creates greater awareness amongst actors, commitment of companies is strengthened in relation ... in line with universal human rights and specific rights recognized for ethnic groups. Thus, in the pursuit of intercultural ...
ecopetrol.com.co/wps/portal/web_es/ecopetrol-web/corporate-responsibility/human-rights/human-rights-practices/ethnic-groups/

*  Arizona Ethnic Groups Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Retrieved from "https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/index.php?title=Arizona_Ethnic_Groups&oldid=206087" ...
https://familysearch.org/wiki/en/index.php?title=Arizona_Ethnic_Groups&oldid=206087

*  Taiwan Ethnic groups - Demographics

Facts and statistics about the Ethnic groups of Taiwan. Updated as of 2017. ... Ethnic groups: more than 95% Han Chinese (including Hoklo, who compose approximately 70% of Taiwan's population, Hakka, and ... Definition: This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent ... note: there are 16 officially recognized indigenous groups: Amis, Atayal, Bunun, Hla'alua, Kanakaravu, Kavalan, Paiwan, Puyuma ...
indexmundi.com/taiwan/ethnic_groups.html

*  Haiti Ethnic groups - Demographics

Facts and statistics about the Ethnic groups of Haiti. Updated as of 2017. ... Ethnic groups: black 95%, mulatto and white 5%. Definition: This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting ...
indexmundi.com/haiti/ethnic_groups.html

*  Guinea Ethnic groups - Demographics

Facts and statistics about the Ethnic groups of Guinea. Updated as of 2017. ... Ethnic groups: Fulani (Peul) 33.9%, Malinke 31.1%, Susu 19.1%, Guerze 6%, Kissi 4.7%, Toma 2.6%, other/no answer 2.7% (2012 est ... Definition: This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent ...
indexmundi.com/guinea/ethnic_groups.html

*  Cuba Ethnic groups - Demographics

Facts and statistics about the Ethnic groups of Cuba. Updated as of 2017. ... Ethnic groups: white 64.1%, mulatto or mixed 26.6%, black 9.3%. note: data represent racial self-identification from Cuba's ... Definition: This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent ...
indexmundi.com/cuba/ethnic_groups.html

*  Somalia Ethnic groups - Demographics

Facts and statistics about the Ethnic groups of Somalia. Updated as of 2017. ... Definition: This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent ... Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including 30,000 Arabs). ...
indexmundi.com/somalia/ethnic_groups.html

*  Asian American ethnic groups Bills - GovTrack.us

Asian American ethnic groups-related bills in the U.S. Congress. ... Asian American ethnic groups. Use this page to browse bills in ... Congress related to the subject Asian American ethnic groups, as determined by the Library of Congress. ...
https://govtrack.us/congress/bills/subjects/asian_american_ethnic_groups/4475?congress=96

*  HSFA Ethnic Groups Index

see also the names of individual ethnic groups). Naulila (?), AF-83.11.2. Navajo, NA-77.5.1, NA-84.18.1, NA-87.3.1, NA-90.7.2, ...
anthropology.si.edu/naa/hsfa/hsfa_pages/film_ethnic_groups.htm

*  Basque Ethnic Group Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Retrieved from "https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/index.php?title=Basque_Ethnic_Group&oldid=1036261" ...
https://familysearch.org/wiki/en/index.php?title=Basque_Ethnic_Group&oldid=1036261

*  Ethnic Groups - china.org.cn

The population of this ethnic group in China is 2,960,293. Situated no more than 300 km north of the Tropic of Cancer, the area ... The most favorite tree of the people of this ethnic group is fir, which is grown very extensively. Whenever a child is born, ... The establishment of autonomous counties enhanced relations between various ethnic groups and eliminated misunderstanding, ... feudal oppression under which members of this ethnic group had been groaning for centuries.. ...
china.org.cn/e-groups/shaoshu/shao-2-dong.htm

*  Ethnic Groups - china.org.cn

The language contains a large number of Chinese words due to the Bais' long contact with the majority Chinese ethnic group--Han ... The architectural group in the Jizushan Temple, with bow-shaped crossbeams, bracket-inserted columns, and gargoyles ... and mercilessly plundered other ethnic nationalities through warfare. Productivity was thus seriously harmed. This caused slave ...
china.org.cn/e-groups/shaoshu/shao-2-bai.htm

*  Ethnic Groups - china.org.cn

... language of the Salar ethnic group.. The Salar people have a rich and colorful tradition of folklore. Many of the legends, ... Xunhua County, which the largest group of the Salars live, is a mountainous area situated along the banks of the Yellow River ... During the Yuan Dynasty, a Salar headman bearing the surname of Han was made hereditary chief of this ethnic minority. With the ... Women of the Salar ethnic minority in the past suffered tremendously under religious strictures and feudal ethics. Unmarried ...
china.org.cn/e-groups/shaoshu/shao-2-salar.htm

*  Ethnic Groups - china.org.cn

It was not until the birth of New China that the Yaos realized equality with other ethnic groups as well as among themselves.. ... The headmen obeyed the central government, which was always dominated by the Han or other large ethnic groups. After the ... Here farming methods and social relations very much resembled those of the Han and Zhuang ethnic groups.. ... While the group is working, a young man stands out in the fields, beating a drum and leading the singing. Everyone sings after ...
china.org.cn/e-groups/shaoshu/shao-2-yao.htm

*  Ethnic Groups - china.org.cn

People of this ethnic group were oppressed, bullied and discriminated against by the Tibetan local government, manorial lords ... They were not allowed to leave their areas without permission and were forbidden to do business with other ethnic groups. ... The population of this ethnic group kept declining before liberation in 1951.. ... They could only become 'wubus' -- a group of people having a slightly higher position than the 'niebas.' Young men and women of ...
china.org.cn/e-groups/shaoshu/shao-2-lhoba.htm

*  Largest Ethnic Groups In Djibouti - WorldAtlas.com

Afar Ethnic Group. The second largest ethnic group is the Afar at 35% of the population. The northern region of Djibouti is ... Somali Ethnic Group. The Somali ethnic group makes up 60% of the population of Djibouti. These individuals mainly belong to sub ... Largest Ethnic Groups In Djibouti. Rank. Ethnic Group or Nationality. Share of Djiboutian Population. ... Largest Ethnic Groups In Djibouti. Djibouti has a Somali majority, a significant minority of Afar people, and lesser numbers of ...
worldatlas.com/articles/largest-ethnic-groups-in-djibouti.html

*  The Tajik Ethnic Group

... old tomb and funeral rites they revealed show that the Tajik ethnic group has been a member of the big family of ethnic groups ... That is how "Tajik" came to be the name of the ethnic group inhabiting this area. So, the Tajik people who had lived in various ... The origin of the Tajik ethnic group can be traced to tribes speaking eastern Iranian who had settled in the eastern part of ... It is the place where the ancient Tajik ethnic group has lived generation after generation. Most of the 41,028 Tajiks live in ...
china.org.cn/english/features/EthnicGroups/136950.htm

*  Ethnic group targeted after Guinea election

Guinea's armed forces aligned themselves with the Malinke group, from which the new president comes. ... Ethnic group targeted after Guinea election. 2010-12-01 15:09 Conakry - A puddle of blood runs down a sloping road here where ... The stain marked the spot where a young man from the Peul ethnic group was shot dead by police of another ethnicity. It also ... Resentment has grown against the ethnic group because they control a large share of the economy, including the majority of ...
news24.com/Africa/News/Ethnic-group-targeted-after-Guinea-election-20101201

*  Different Teams, Common Goals: Camaraderie, Competition Unite Area Ethnic Groups

In the Washington region, where so many ethnic enclaves share a passion for the sport, soccer fields can sometimes feel like ...
washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/07/27/AR2009072702787.html

*  Medicine: The Ephedra Supplement: Alternative M...

Ethnic Inexpensively. *Make Your Own. *Mix Recipes ⟹ *All Mix Recipes. *Beverage Mixes ⟹ *ALL Beverage Mixes ... Social Groups. *Contacts & Friends *Group Memberships. Recommended Links *GroceryBudget101.com. *$50 Weekly Menus *Mix Recipes ...
budget101.com/showthread.php/337065-The-Ephedra-Supplement-Alternative-M

Postage stamps and postal history of the Danish West Indies: [Danish West Indies 1866 3c.jpg|thumb|120px|right|3 cent stamp, 1866]African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Miss Asia Pacific 2005Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act of 1983Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom: People from various ethnic groups reside in the United Kingdom. Migration from Northern Europe has been happening for millennia, with other groups such as British Jews also well established.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,List of law enforcement agencies in Hawaii: This is a list of law enforcement agencies in Hawaii.Yamtuan Besar: Yamtuan Besar, also known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar, is the royal title of the ruler of the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan. The ruler of Negeri Sembilan is selected by a council of ruling chiefs in the state, or the datuk-datuk undang.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.San Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityRobinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California: The Robinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California is a federally recognized tribe of Eastern Pomo people in Lake County, California.California Indians and Their Reservations.Vibe Australia: Vibe Australia Pty Ltd (Vibe) is an Aboriginal media, communications and events management agency. Located in Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, they work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people throughout Australia.Tan Tock Seng HospitalRoyal London Hospital for Integrated MedicineMIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009Transport in Suriname: The Republic of Suriname () has a number of forms of transport.Lampreado: thumb | 250px | right | LampreadoJewish Community Council of Victoria: The Jewish Community Council of Victoria Inc (JCCV) is the peak representative body for Victorian Jewry, representing nearly 60 Jewish community organisations and over 52,000 Victorian Jews. The JCCV’s mission is to represent the Victorian Jewish community, the largest Jewish community in Australia, on all matters that affect its status, welfare and interests.National Arab American Medical Association: United StatesPhoenix Petroleum Philippines, Inc.: Phoenix}}WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.University of Hassan II CasablancaAga Khan University Hospital, Karachi: The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) in Karachi, established in 1985, is the primary teaching site of the Aga Khan University’s (AKU) Faculty of Health Sciences. Founded by His Highness the Aga Khan, the hospital provides a broad range of secondary and tertiary care, including diagnosis of disease and team management of patient care.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Gene polymorphismTel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center: Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (commonly referred to as Ichilov Hospital) is the main hospital serving Tel Aviv, Israel, and its metropolitan area. It is the third-largest hospital complex in the country.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.San Juan River (Vancouver Island): The San Juan River is a river on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, draining into the Pacific Ocean at Port San Juan, the harbour for Port Renfrew,BCGNIS entry "San Juan River" which is at the limit of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, which lies south and southeast of the river. Its name is derived from that or Port San Juan, which is also the namesake of San Juan Ridge, which lies on the south side of the river's final W-E course.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Dorjee KhanduIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Papa MaliMicrohyla berdmoreiMECACAR: Operation MECACAR (currently known as MECACAR New Millennium) is a multi-national immunization program launched in 1995 by the World Health Organization to coordinate polio vaccination efforts (currently it is also used to coordinated measles and rubella vaccination efforts). The name of the operation was derived from the names of the regions participating in the operation: Eastern Mediterranean, Caucasus, Central Asian Republics and Russia.North American Native Fishes Association: The North American Native Fishes Association (NANFA) is a non-profit, tax-exempt U.S.Los Angeles County Department of Public HealthClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory: Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.Salvia nemorosa: Salvia nemorosa (woodland sage, Balkan clary) is a hardy herbaceous perennial plant native to a wide area of central Europe and Western Asia.Shunri: Shunris () are a Bengali Hindu caste whose traditional occupation is the distillation and selling of country wine. The Shunris, except those having family name Saha are listed as Scheduled Castes by the Government of India and Government of West Bengal.University of Texas Health Science Center at HoustonRelative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Genetic variation: right|thumbInstitut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City: The Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City is a Vietnamese national institute initially created by the French in 1891 under the name Pasteur Institute - Sai Gon, in 1975 renamed the Institute of Epidemiology, and in 1991 given the current name.Health in Laos: Healthcare in Laos was poor in the early 1990s. Although diets are not grossly inadequate, chronic moderate vitamin and protein deficiencies are common, particularly among upland ethnic groups.Pride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls: Pride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls (2010) is a parody novel by Steve Hockensmith. It is a prequel to Seth Grahame-Smith's 2009 novel Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, focusing on "the early life and training of Elizabeth Bennet, heroine of the earlier Pride and Prejudice and Zombies as she strove to become a gifted zombie hunter, with some mishaps in her early romantic encounters also included.List of rivers in Western Sahara: This is a list of rivers in Western Sahara. This list is arranged north to south by drainage basin, with respective tributaries indented under each larger stream's name.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Disequilibrium (medicine): Disequilibrium}}Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Manuae (Cook Islands): Manuae is an uninhabited atoll in the southern group of the Cook Islands, 100 kilometres south-east of Aitutaki. It is administratively part of Aitutaki, but does not belong to any district or tapere of Aitutaki.Pacific Islands Families Study: The Pacific Islands Families Study is a long-running, cohort study of 1398 children (and their parents) of Pacific Islands origin born in Auckland, New Zealand during the year 2000.List of bus routes in Brooklyn: The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) operates a number of bus routes in Brooklyn, New York, United States; one minor route is privately operated under a city franchise. Many of them are the direct descendants of streetcar lines (see list of streetcar lines in Brooklyn); the ones that started out as bus routes were almost all operated by the Brooklyn Bus Corporation, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, until the New York City Board of Transportation took over on June 5, 1940.GA²LENInequality within immigrant families in the United States: Inequality within immigrant families refers to instances in which members of the same family have differing access to resources. Much literature focuses on inequality between families, but inequality often exists within families as well.Old Portal de Mercaderes (Mexico City): Old Portal de Mercaderes in the historic center of Mexico City was and is the west side of the main plaza (otherwise known as the "Zócalo"). This side of the plaza has been occupied by commercial structures since the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in 1521.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: A newly identified and potentially treatable form of monogenic diabetes is the neonatal diabetes caused by activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene, which codes for the Kir6.2 subunit of the beta cell KATP channel.

(1/6687) Vitamin D status in different subgroups of British Asians.

To assess the effect of religious dietary practices and social customs on the vitamin D status of Asian immigrants, we kept records of the dietary intake and time spent out of doors of 81 Ugandan Asian men, women, and girls (9-19 years old). Sera were analysed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3), and 28% of the subjects were found to have levels below the lower limit of normal. The (vegetarian) Hindus had the lowest dietary intakes, least time out of doors, and lowest serum 25-OHD3. The Goan (Roman Catholic) Asians, despite more pigmentation, had 25-OHD3 levels similar to those found among indigenous British people and had the most satisfactory vitamin D intakes. Among Asians, whose exposure to sunlight may be limited, dietary vitamin D becomes the major determinant of serum 25-OHD3.  (+info)

(2/6687) Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older.

Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups.  (+info)

(3/6687) Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups.

OBJECTIVE: To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. METHODS: Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. RESULTS: The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. CONCLUSION: Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups.  (+info)

(4/6687) Cancer incidence in the south Asian population of England (1990-92).

Cancer incidence among English south Asians (residents in England with ethnic origins in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh) is described and compared with non-south Asian and Indian subcontinent rates. The setting for the study was areas covered by Thames, Trent, West Midlands and Yorkshire cancer registries. The study identified 356 555 cases of incident cancer (ICD9:140-208) registered between 1990 and 1992, including 3845 classified as English south Asian. The main outcome measures were age specific and directly standardized incidence rates for all cancer sites (ICD9:140-208). English south Asian incidence rates for all sites combined were significantly lower than non-south Asian rates but higher than Indian subcontinent rates. English south Asian rates were substantially higher than Indian subcontinent rates for a number of common sites including lung cancer in males, breast cancer in females and lymphoma in both sexes. English south Asian rates for childhood and early adult cancer (0-29 years) were similar or higher than non-south Asian rates. English south Asian rates were significantly higher than non-south Asian rates for Hodgkin's disease in males, cancer of the tongue, mouth, oesophagus, thyroid gland and myeloid leukaemia in females, and cancer of the hypopharynx, liver and gall bladder in both sexes. The results are consistent with a transition from the lower cancer risk of the country of ethnic origin to that of the country of residence. They suggest that detrimental changes in lifestyle and other exposures have occurred in the migrant south Asian population.  (+info)

(5/6687) Biochemical indices of osteomalacia in pregnant Asian immigrants in Britain.

Serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase, and urinary calcium excretion were examined during the second trimester of uncomplicated normal pregnancy in Asian immigrants to Britain and in local Caucasians. The mean serum calcium was significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians, and the mean serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in Asians. The geometric mean of the urinary calcium excretion was highly significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians. The variances of the serum calcium, serum alkaline phosphatase, and urine calcium excretion did not differ significantly in the two populations. This indicates that there is a shift in values of immigrant Asians as a group compared with Caucasians. A comparison with figures obtained on normal nonpregnant persons of both suggests that the shift is not an inherent feature of the Asian population.  (+info)

(6/6687) Incidence and duration of hospitalizations among persons with AIDS: an event history approach.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze hospitalization patterns of persons with AIDS (PWAs) in a multi-state/multi-episode continuous time duration framework. DATA SOURCES: PWAs on Medicaid identified through a match between the state's AIDS Registry and Medicaid eligibility files; hospital admission and discharge dates identified through Medicaid claims. STUDY DESIGN: Using a Weibull event history framework, we model the hazard of transition between hospitalized and community spells, incorporating the competing risk of death in each of these states. Simulations are used to translate these parameters into readily interpretable estimates of length of stay, the probability that a hospitalization will end in death, and the probability that a nonhospitalized person will be hospitalized within 90 days. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In multivariate analyses, participation in a Medicaid waiver program offering case management and home care was associated with hospital stays 1.3 days shorter than for nonparticipants. African American race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with hospital stays 1.2 days and 1.0 day longer than for non-Hispanic whites; African Americans also experienced more frequent hospital admissions. Residents of the high-HIV-prevalence area of the state had more frequent admissions and stays two days longer than those residing elsewhere in the state. Older PWAs experienced less frequent hospital admissions but longer stays, with hospitalizations of 55-year-olds lasting 8.25 days longer than those of 25-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: Much socioeconomic and geographic variability exists both in the incidence and in the duration of hospitalization among persons with AIDS in New Jersey. Event history analysis provides a useful statistical framework for analysis of these variations, deals appropriately with data in which duration of observation varies from individual to individual, and permits the competing risk of death to be incorporated into the model. Transition models of this type have broad applicability in modeling the risk and duration of hospitalization in chronic illnesses.  (+info)

(7/6687) Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic.

Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogenous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival.  (+info)

(8/6687) HLA and HIV-1: heterozygote advantage and B*35-Cw*04 disadvantage.

A selective advantage against infectious disease associated with increased heterozygosity at the human major histocompatibility complex [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II] is believed to play a major role in maintaining the extraordinary allelic diversity of these genes. Maximum HLA heterozygosity of class I loci (A, B, and C) delayed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) onset among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1), whereas individuals who were homozygous for one or more loci progressed rapidly to AIDS and death. The HLA class I alleles B*35 and Cw*04 were consistently associated with rapid development of AIDS-defining conditions in Caucasians. The extended survival of 28 to 40 percent of HIV-1-infected Caucasian patients who avoided AIDS for ten or more years can be attributed to their being fully heterozygous at HLA class I loci, to their lacking the AIDS-associated alleles B*35 and Cw*04, or to both.  (+info)



minority


  • A number of minority groups also existed. (countrystudies.us)
  • During the Yuan Dynasty, a Salar headman bearing the surname of Han was made hereditary chief of this ethnic minority. (china.org.cn)
  • The 2,965 people of the Lhoba ethnic minority have their homes mainly in Mainling, Medog, Lhunze and Nangxian counties in southeastern Tibet. (china.org.cn)

Somali


  • The Somali ethnic group makes up 60% of the population of Djibouti. (worldatlas.com)

Zhuang


  • Here farming methods and social relations very much resembled those of the Han and Zhuang ethnic groups. (china.org.cn)

population


  • This conscripted labor, coming at a time when European diseases caused unprecedented epidemics among the Indian population, ruptured many communities and Indian kin-groups. (countrystudies.us)
  • This group, added to the offspring of Spanish-Indian unions, rapidly gave rise to a population of mestizos of uncertain social position. (countrystudies.us)
  • This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population. (indexmundi.com)
  • The population of this ethnic group in China is 2,960,293. (china.org.cn)
  • The population of this ethnic group kept declining before liberation in 1951. (china.org.cn)
  • The second largest ethnic group is the Afar at 35% of the population. (worldatlas.com)

indigenous


  • Thus, in the pursuit of intercultural understanding, Ecopetrol promotes the realization of tripartite dialogue between government, industry and ethnic groups, which creates greater awareness amongst actors, commitment of companies is strengthened in relation to implementing best practices to preserve the ethnic, cultural and environment integrity of indigenous communities, and trust and relations are consolidated under a framework of respect and cordiality. (ecopetrol.com.co)

Hispanic


  • Mestizo offspring of marriages recognized by the dominant Hispanic rulers were frequently assimilated by the ruling group. (countrystudies.us)
  • They swelled the ranks of a distinct social group that was Spanish speaking and closer in culture to the rulers than to the mass of rural Indians, yet clearly separate from the Hispanic elite. (countrystudies.us)

rulers


  • During that period of time, while maintaining a good relationship with the central government, the rulers cruelly oppressed the slaves and mercilessly plundered other ethnic nationalities through warfare. (china.org.cn)

among


  • Enclaves of Pashtun also live scattered among other ethnic groups throughout the nation, where they have settled at various times since the end of the nineteenth century as shifts in populations, some forced, some voluntary, occurred in response to political expediency and economic opportunities (see Abdur Rahman Khan, 1880-1901, ch.1). (countrystudies.us)
  • Amateur theatrical troupes, and song and dance groups are flourishing among the Salar people. (china.org.cn)

Chinese


  • The language contains a large number of Chinese words due to the Bais' long contact with the majority Chinese ethnic group--Han. (china.org.cn)
  • Nowadays, most young and middle-aged Salars know how to speak Chinese, which is also accepted as the written language of the Salar ethnic group. (china.org.cn)

majority


  • Bolivia's principal groups were a small number of whites, a larger, more fluid and diverse group of mestizos, and a majority of Quechua or Aymara Indians. (countrystudies.us)

people


  • The most favorite tree of the people of this ethnic group is fir, which is grown very extensively. (china.org.cn)
  • People of this ethnic group were oppressed, bullied and discriminated against by the Tibetan local government, manorial lords and monasteries under feudal serfdom in Tibet. (china.org.cn)
  • They could only become 'wubus' -- a group of people having a slightly higher position than the 'niebas. (china.org.cn)

largest


  • The largest and traditionally most politically powerful ethnic group, the Pashtun (or Pakhtun in northern Pakhtu dialects), is composed of many units totalling in 1995 an estimated 10.1 million, the most numerous being the Durrani and the Ghilzai. (countrystudies.us)
  • Xunhua County, which the largest group of the Salars live, is a mountainous area situated along the banks of the Yellow River in southeastern Qinghai Province. (china.org.cn)

region


  • Terminology varied by the region, class, and ethnic affiliation of the speaker. (countrystudies.us)

government


  • Afar interests are represented by the rebel group Afar Revolutionary Democratic Front Party who started a civil war with the government in 1991 that lasted until 1994. (worldatlas.com)

HISTORY


  • The country is considered multi-ethnic and has a rich history. (worldatlas.com)
  • To understand the ethnic diversity of this country, a brief summary of its history is first necessary. (worldatlas.com)

communities


  • Ecopetrol´s guidelines for relations with the ethnic groups are within the framework of corporate values oriented to protect the environment and the integrity of individuals and communities, in line with universal human rights and specific rights recognized for ethnic groups. (ecopetrol.com.co)

percent


  • In 1996, approximately 40 percent of Afghans were Pashtun, 11.4 of whom are of the Durrani tribal group and 13.8 percent of the Ghilzai group. (countrystudies.us)

rise


  • The ethnic hierarchy with whites at the pinnacle and the mass of Indians at the bottom continued, although the possibilities for those at the lower level to rise improved. (countrystudies.us)

women


  • Young men and women of these different groups could not marry due to strict class distinctions. (china.org.cn)

young


  • While the group is working, a young man stands out in the fields, beating a drum and leading the singing. (china.org.cn)