Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Elephantiasis: Hypertrophy and thickening of tissues from causes other than filarial infection, the latter being described as ELEPHANTIASIS, FILARIAL.Trichiasis: A disease of the eye in which the eyelashes abnormally turn inwards toward the eyeball producing constant irritation caused by motion of the lids.Catha: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. The leafy stems of khat are chewed by some individuals for stimulating effect. Members contain ((+)-norpseudoephedrine), cathionine, cathedulin, cathinine & cathidine.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Trachoma: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.LymphangitisToilet Facilities: Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.

*  Boston Ethiopia Families

Boston Ethiopia Families is a Restricted Group with 226 members.. *Boston Ethiopia Families ... This is a group for families in the Boston, MA area with a connection to Ethiopia. ... This list is for families with adopted children from Ethiopia. Information about Ethiopian culture, ...more ... MA area with a connection to Ethiopia. ...
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/BostonEthiopiaFamilies/info

*  Ethiopia : NPR

Ethiopia
npr.org/tags/145037031/ethiopia/archive?date=3-31-2010

*  Regions of Ethiopia - Wikipedia

Subdivisions of Ethiopia. References[edit]. *^ Yilmaz, Serdar; Venugopal, Varsha (2008). Local Government Discretion and ... This system of administrative regions replaced the provinces of Ethiopia in 1992 under the Transitional Government of Ethiopia ... Ethiopia is a federal state subdivided into ethno-linguistically based regional states (plural: kililoch; singular: kilil) and ... "Government of Ethiopia. 2012. Archived from the original on 15 August 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2015.. ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kililoch

*  Statistics | Ethiopia | UNICEF

UNICEF is committed to doing all it can to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in partnership with governments, civil society, business, academia and the United Nations family - and especially children and young people.. ...
https://unicef.org/infobycountry/ethiopia_statistics.html

*  Ethiopia and the IMF

Material about Ethiopia and its activities with the IMF ... Resident Representative Office in Ethiopia You may contact us ... The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: Financial Position in the Fund. Transactions with the Fund. Africa Training ... June 26, 2014 -- Press Release: Statement by an IMF Staff Mission on the 2014 Article IV Consultation with Ethiopia. ... July 04, 2013 -- Press Release: Statement by an IMF Staff Mission on the 2013 Article IV Consultation with Ethiopia. ...
imf.org/external/country/ETH/index.htm?type=8

*  1983-1985 famine in Ethiopia - Wikipedia

"LDS Church News - Country information: Ethiopia".. *^ Gill, Peter (2010). Famine and Foreigners: Ethiopia Since Live Aid. ... search for Ethiopia and browse to the 1984/1985 section for the document entitled Ethiopia: Security and Political Impact of ... de Waal, Alex (1991). Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia. New York & London: Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1- ... Gill, Peter (2010). Famine and Foreigners: Ethiopia since Live Aid. Oxford: University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-956984-7.. ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1984_-_1985_famine_in_Ethiopia

*  Transactions with the Fund, Ethiopia

Ethiopia: Transactions with the Fund. from May 01, 1984 to November 17, 2012 Download this file. ...
imf.org/external/np/fin/tad/extrans1.aspx?memberKey1=290&endDate=2012-11-17&finposition_flag=YES

*  Ethiopia: Doro wat - Hartford Courant

Christmas in Ethiopia is known as Ganna, and is celebrated on January 7. After spending hours praying and chanting, the people ... Christmas in Ethiopia is known as Ganna, and is celebrated on January 7. After spending hours praying and chanting, the people ... Christmas in Ethiopia is known as Ganna, and is celebrated on January 7. After spending hours praying and chanting, the people ... Christmas in Ethiopia is known as Ganna, and is celebrated on January 7. After spending hours praying and chanting, the people ...
courant.com/entertainment/sns-christmas-world-recipes-ethiopia-photo.html

*  Transactions with the Fund, Ethiopia

Ethiopia: Transactions with the Fund. from May 01, 1984 to August 06, 2014 Download this file. ...
imf.org/external/np/fin/tad/extrans1.aspx?memberKey1=290&endDate=2014-08-06&finposition_flag=YES

*  Sewedy Cables starts production in Ethiopia | Reuters

The remainder was financed through medium-term debt facilities raised in Ethiopia, El Sewedy said in a statement. ...
reuters.com/article/sewedycables-ethiopia-idUSLD61800520091013

*  NSBE - Addis Ababa University - Course Hero

Discover the best homework help resource for NSBE at Addis Ababa University. Find NSBE study guides, notes, and practice tests for አዲስ አበባ
https://coursehero.com/sitemap/schools/4354-Addis-Ababa-University/departments/808973-NSBE/

*  Ethiopia - Country Profile - Nations Online Project

Ethiopia facts, Ethiopia geography, travel Ethiopia, Ethiopia internet resources, links to Ethiopia. Official web sites of Ethiopia, the capital of Ethiopia, art, culture, history, cities, airlines, embassies, tourist boards and newspapers
nationsonline.org/oneworld/ethiopia.htm

*  Ethiopia, May 2005 - Malnutrition in Southern Ethiopia | WFP | United Nations World Food Programme - Fighting Hunger Worldwide

Ethiopia, Wolayita, May 2003. More food has been sent to the region and food distributions are being stepped up to put the situation under control. In addition, WFP has sent more staff to the region to better monitor the situation. Photo: WFP/Melese Awoke. ...
wfp.org/photos/ethiopia-may-2005-malnutrition-southern-ethiopia

*  Gambella Medical Team Connection | Why Gambella?

Ethiopia is a country divided into nine regional states. Among the nine regions, Gambella is one of the poorest and most marginalized regional state located in the western part of Ethiopia about 770km from Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopian. It size is 25,802.01 square kilo meters with estimated population of over 306,916, consisting of 159,679 men and 147,237 women; urban inhabitants number 77,878 (25.37%) of the population. The main nationalities of the region are Anyuak, Komo, Mezhenger, Nuer, and Opo. Moreover, the other ethnic groups predominantly from highland of Ethiopia are living in the region. While most population of Gambella are christens, about 70% of them is Protestant, 16.8% Orthodox Christian, 3.8% practice traditional religions, 4.9% Muslim, 3.4% Catholic, and others constitute 1.1%.. Gambella has poor health status relative to other region of Ethiopia. This is largely due to attribute to preventable ...
gambellamed.org/why-gambella/

*  Constraints and prospects for apiculture research and development in Amhara region, Ethiopia

The major problems of honeybee production in the country can be tackled with the appropriate research and development. Researchers are needed for a number of investigation and strengthening simple and adaptive beekeeping practices that best suit the local condition and changing demands. In order to be effective, research must be targeted at the smallholder farmer. It must also be systems oriented, practical and adaptable. A careful assessment and analysis of the production environment is required in order to formulate apiculture development strategies that will lead to better use of local resources, improve the living standards of poor farmers and ensure the sustainable development of honeybee production. Inadequate feed sources (nectar, pollen, and water) due to drought and deforestation is a major limiting factor to honeybee production in Amhara region, particularly during the long dry season. Most of the honey plants flower and provide ample nectar and pollen sources after the main rainy ...
lrrd.org/lrrd21/10/ejig21172.htm

*  Ethiopian Parlament

Parliament of Ethiopia. The current political system is based on the framework of Federal parliamentary Republic which is headed by the Prime Minister and the executive power is held by the government. The parliament selects the Prime Minister and the Federal Legislative Power is held by the government and the two chambers of the parliament.. There are total 9 ethnically divided regions governed by the parliamentary system which includes Addis Ababa; Afar; Gambela; Amhara, Benishangul/Gumaz; Dire Dawa; Somali; Harar; Oromia; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region; Tigray.. Opposition parties There are many opposition parties in the Ethiopian parliament which includes the UEDF, Somali People's Democratic Party (SPDP), United Ethiopian Democratic Party-Medhin Party, Ethiopian Democratic League (EDL), All Ethiopian Unity Organization (AEUO), Gambela People's Democratic Movement (GPDM), Oromo Federalist Democratic ...
ethiopar.net

*  Health center and health post density (per 100,000 population) | PHCPI

Health center and health post density reflects the total number of health centers and health posts relative to population size (per 100,000 population). Health center and health post density helps measure physical access to outpatient health care services.
phcperformanceinitiative.org/indicator/health-center-and-health-post-density-100000-population

*  Men in rural Ethiopia show that family planning is not just a women's issue | UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund

SHEBEL BERENTA, Ethiopia - Sileshi Deguale was busy working alongside his family, preparing their land for planting season, but he paused to recall how difficult the work was last year. His wife had been too ill to help with the farming. It was around that time he made the biggest decision of his life, a choice that would help his wife regain her health by protecting her from unplanned pregnancies - he got a vasectomy.
unfpa.org/news/men-rural-ethiopia-show-family-planning-not-just-womens-issue

*  Guidelines for Setting up Communitybased Small Ruminants Breeding Programs in Ethiopia

These guidelines are designed for all those involved in planning and implementing sheep and goat breeding activities with resourcepoor farmers in developing countries This includes research centers nongovernmental organizations NGOs farmers associations and livestock development projects and government extension officials The guidelines address generic directions on designing and implementing communitybased breeding Communitybased breeding programs are proposed as an option for genetic improvement of livestock in developing countries Mueller et al 2015 This new approach has been tested in a few places with promising results eg with sheep and goat in Ethiopia dairy goats in Mexico llamas and alpacas in Bolivia and Peru sheep in Argentina They draw on practical experiences from implementing communitybased sheep and goat breeding programs in various agroecological zones in Ethiopia and provide guidance for continuing and outscaling the breeding program in ...
repo.mel.cgiar.org/handle/20.500.11766/6236

*  NCEH - Sharing Our Stories - Investigating Liver Disease in Ethiopia

This story explains an epidemiological investigation into the cause of widespread deadly liver disease in Ethiopia, featuring a team of epidemiologists from CDC/NCEH, Ethiopia health and environmental agencies and WHO-Ethiopia. For about five years, the team works together to determine the cause of this disease, by conducting surveillance, collecting human, animal, and plant samples, and using laboratory science. Investigation reveals the cause of the disease is a toxin found in weeds that grow and are harvested with grain crops, then eaten. Ethiopia launches education and awareness campaigns.
https://cdc.gov/nceh/stories/ethiopia.html

*  "Effects of parenting styles, academic self-efficacy, and achievement m" by Abesha A. Gota

The prime purpose of this study was to propose and test an integrated parental and social-cognitive model of academic achievement and examine the effects of parenting styles, academic self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on academic achievement by employing an ex-post facto prospective research design. The data on demographic characteristics, parenting styles, academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation were collected through self-report questionnaires from a sample of 2116 (763 females and 1353 males) undergraduate first year students selected via multi-stage cluster random sampling technique from Addis Ababa University, Kotebe College of Teacher Education, and Wolayta Soddo University in Ethiopia and accessing their second semester Grade-Point-Averages (GPAs) of 2008/09 academic year from the Registrars' Offices of the respective Higher Education Institutions. Preliminary analyses of the data consisted of percentage and correlational analyses. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) ...
ro.ecu.edu.au/theses/461/

*  Flag Counter » Ethiopia

Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front. A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea in the late 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, ...
s07.flagcounter.com/factbook/et

*  Determinants of nutritional status of women and children in ethiopia - Nutrition Blog

This assumes that each one the weight gained and lost is within the type of fats. Latest studies showed that consuming the eating regimen rich in lycopene can reduce the chance determinants of nutritional status of women and children in ethiopia lung, bladder, prostate most cancers, and stomach and skin cancers and likewise reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. The psychological benefits of excellent vitamin are robust reason to make the change to determinants of nutritional status of women and children in ethiopia eating. And more than snd, you must maintain the tags on the scale zero nufritional because the load will be chi,dren as quickly as you start eating normally again. Our actions embody scientific publishing, analysis and communication, and our aim is to bridge the hole between scientific knowledge and its software to actual life. 9(h)(three)(i) allows for the added vitamin data to be placed on an somen within the gift pack moderately than on each bundle ...
thebumblebeez.com/and-nutrition/determinants-of-nutritional-status-of-women-and-children-in-ethiopia.html

*  Migrations

Bangladesh and Ethiopia are two examples of countries where girls' independent migration is on the rise. This film explores the circumstances, decision-making, experiences and consequences of migration for adolescent girls in Bangladesh and Ethiopia. It is based on a research project "Time to look at girls: adolescent girls' migration and development" (January 2014-December 2015), that explores the links between migration of adolescent girls and economic, social and political factors that trigger their movements. It shows the agency and choices being made by adolescent girls in their diverse migration experiences.. More migrants move within their own country or region than migrate to Northern countries. Bangladesh and Ethiopia have been experiencing increasing high rates of the migration of adolescent girls to work. In Bangladesh they are found for example in garment and other manufacturing industries; working as maids; or in beauty parlours. In ...
cedejsudan.hypotheses.org/tag/migrations

*  Ethiopia: Sexual Related Health in Ethiopia - allAfrica.com

For ages , as a cultural taboo, most Ethiopians used to frown upon sex-related issues and ways of alleviating female's pain that comes with giving birth. Especially, mothers in rural areas of the country often suffered the brunt of the tragedy related to giving birth. The inavailability of health centres close by was one of the formidable factors ascribed to the higher maternal death. Apart from warding off women's physical and psychological problems regarding sexual related health, partners open and frank
allafrica.com/stories/201704110337.html

*  Ethiopedia or Encyclopedia for Ethiopia: November 2010

The Ethiopian Beauty Pageant contestants were listed in the booklet with their names, date of birth, education and interests. A brief account of their backgrounds was also listed. There was no uniform pattern in the photographs and it seems that either they provided whatever photos they could get hold of from the contestants or there was a photo shot taken by the organizers. Thus there seems to be two or three classes of appearances, the Western look, the traditional look and the business-like look. One contestant even appears in blue jeans. Regardless, the photos in the booklet was for information only but it could have been an influence in the selection for the winner of Miss Ethiopia by the judges ...
ethiopedia.blogspot.com/2010_11_01_archive.html

*  US gives Ethiopia $121m food aid

A top US aid official says they will donate more than $121m to Ethiopia to fight food insecurity amid a drought in the East African nation.
news24.com/Africa/News/US-gives-Ethiopia-121m-food-aid-20111004

*  Ethiopia

The World Bank is helping to fight poverty and improve living standards in Ethiopia. Goals include promoting rapid economic growth and improving service delivery.
worldbank.org/en/country/ethiopia

*  Choice under Uncertainty: Evidence from Ethiopia, India and Uganda - Harrison - 2009 - The Economic Journal - Wiley Online...

We review experimental evidence collected from risky choice experiments using poor subjects in Ethiopia, India and Uganda. Using these data we estimate that just over 50% of our sample behaves in accordance with expected utility theory and that the rest subjectively weight probability according to prospect theory. Our results show that inferences about risk aversion are robust to whichever model we adopt when we estimate each model separately. However, when we allow both models to explain portions of the data simultaneously, we infer risk aversion for subjects behaving according to expected utility theory and risk-seeking behaviour for subjects behaving according to prospect theory. ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0297.2009.02303.x/abstract

*  UPDATE 1-Ethiopia aims to offer foreigners stakes in some state firms | Reuters

* Ethiopia has relied on state-led investment* Prime minister aims to sell stake in logistics firm* No details on what other stakes might be
in.reuters.com/article/ethiopia-economy-idINL5N1EZ4SR

*  Ethiopia: The Journey by Amastara (Paperback) - Lulu

Buy Ethiopia: The Journey by Amastara (Paperback) online at Lulu. Visit the Lulu Marketplace for product details, ratings, and reviews.
lulu.com/shop/amastara/ethiopia-the-journey/paperback/product-22892210.html

*  Goat newsletter :: Documents.OK.Gov

Winter can be depressing for many but as I sit in my office on this gloomy, rainy, winter day, I am filled with hope and optimism. After a long and parched year, the rains are a welcome sight. According to the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, 2011 has been the 6th driest year since 1921. Last winter, our rains didn't really come and that trend continued on into spring. Generally, summer is very dry in Okla-homa but this year was even drier than normal and the ex-cessive heat only exacerbated the drought. This summer was the warmest summer on record with nearly 100 days above 100°F. Only since this last October have we returned to normal or above normal precipitation and temperatures. The short-term prediction is Goat Newsletter Cooperative Extension Program Langston University The Newsletter of the E (Kika) de la Garza American Institute for Goat Research Winter 2011The Cooperative Extension Program at Langston University provides educational programs to individuals regardless of race, color, ...
digitalprairie.ok.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/stgovpub/id/3445/rec/4

*  12″ iBook G3 (Early 2003) | Low End Mac

The Early 2003 iBooks are the first with the opaque white color scheme across the board, replacing the earlier translucent white.. MacInTouch has called the dual USB G3 iBooks Apple's most unreliable notebooks ever. According to their survey of iBook and PowerBook Reliability:. …by affected percentage of models, the G3 iBooks were the worst by far, with more than half requiring logic board replacements. Apple created a warranty extension program for some versions, but not all. (MacInTouch readers are still reporting newly failed iBook G3s, and the warranty extension program has ended.). The white 12″ iBook G3 series became much less reliable through its first five revisions, reaching a 73% failure percentage! The last revision dropped to a 49% failure percentage - much improved over the previous model, but still unconscionably high. The problems appear to have been solved, for the most part, in the newer iBook G4 series.. Keep in mind that Apple had an extended replacement program on many ...
lowendmac.com/2003/12-ibook-g3-900-mhz-early-2003/

*  Addis Bed and Breakfast, Cheap Hotel and Guest House Accommodation

Find a Addis Bed and Breakfast in Addis. Full details of Guest Houses, Cheap Hotel and B&B Accommodation in Addis with live prices, availability and online booking.
bedandbreakfasts.co.uk/addis/

*  Reducing Birth Defect Rates? There's an App for That | University of Michigan

Quinonez and his colleagues traveled to Ethiopia this summer to launch the app, which is available on the Android platform, the most commonly used operating system in the country.. SEE ALSO: Developmental Differences in Late Preemies May Not Emerge Until After Age 2. "We have a well-established relationship with St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College in Ethiopia," says Quinonez, adding: "The potential to save lives by starting there is significant.". The country's incidence of birth defects - 54.4 per 1,000 live births - is among the reasons it was a good place to launch the program. In a country with a higher incidence rate, such as Sudan, an emphasis on improved perinatal care might be more beneficial first, Quinonez says. (For perspective, the incidence rate of birth defects in the U.S. is 47.8.). "For many high-risk mothers and families, simple steps like limiting exposure to environments that may increase risk of infection can go a long way toward reducing the ...
labblog.uofmhealth.org/health-tech/reducing-birth-defect-rates-theres-an-app-for

(1/1130) Enterotoxin-producing bacteria and parasites in stools of Ethiopian children with diarrhoeal disease.

Enterotoxinogenic bacteria were isolated from 131 (37%) of 354 Ethiopian infants and children with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. Only one of these isolates belonged to the classical enteropathogenic serotypes of Esch. coli. Two colonies from each patient were isolated and tested for production of enterotoxin by the rabbit ileal loop test, the rabbit skin test, and an adrenal cell assay. However, only 38% of the isolated enterotoxinogenic strains were Esch. coli; the others belonged to Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Citrobacter, Serratia, and Aeromonas. In 18 patients both isolates were toxinogenic and belonged to different species. The incidence of intestinal parasites was 35% with no apparent correlation to the occurrence of toxinogenic bacteria in the stools.  (+info)

(2/1130) Health policy development in wartime: establishing the Baito health system in Tigray, Ethiopia.

This paper documents health experiences and the public health activities of the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF). The paper provides background data about Tigray and the emergence of its struggle for a democratic Ethiopia. The origins of the armed struggle are described, as well as the impact of the conflict on local health systems and health status. The health-related activities and public health strategies of the TPLF are described and critiqued in some detail, particular attention is focused on the development of the baito system, the emergent local government structures kindled by the TPLF as a means of promoting local democracy, accountability, and social and economic development. Important issues arise from this brief case-study, such as how emerging health systems operating in wartime can ensure that not only are basic curative services maintained, but preventive and public health services are developed. Documenting the experiences of Tigray helps identify constraints and possibilities for assisting health systems to adapt and cope with ongoing conflict, and raises possibilities that in their aftermath they leave something which can be built upon and further developed. It appears that promoting effective local government may be an important means of promoting primary health care.  (+info)

(3/1130) Reduced naive and increased activated CD4 and CD8 cells in healthy adult Ethiopians compared with their Dutch counterparts.

To assess possible differences in immune status, proportions and absolute numbers of subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were compared between HIV- healthy Ethiopians (n = 52) and HIV- Dutch (n = 60). Both proportions and absolute numbers of naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were found to be significantly reduced in HIV Ethiopians compared with HIV- Dutch subjects. Also, both proportions and absolute numbers of the effector CD8+ T cell population as well as the CD4+CD45RA-CD27- and CD8+CD45RA-CD27- T cell populations were increased in Ethiopians. Finally, both proportions and absolute numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 were significantly reduced in Ethiopians versus Dutch. In addition, the possible association between the described subsets and HIV status was studied by comparing the above 52 HIV- individuals with 32 HIV+ Ethiopians with CD4 counts > 200/microliter and/or no AIDS-defining conditions and 39 HIV+ Ethiopians with CD4 counts < 200/microliter or with AIDS-defining conditions. There was a gradual increase of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, a decrease of CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 and a decrease of effector CD8+ T cells when moving from HIV- to AIDS. Furthermore, a decrease of naive CD8+ T cells and an increase of memory CD8+ T cells in AIDS patients were observed. These results suggest a generally and persistently activated immune system in HIV- Ethiopians. The potential consequences of this are discussed, in relation to HIV infection.  (+info)

(4/1130) Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids.

The Hata Member of the Bouri Formation is defined for Pliocene sedimentary outcrops in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia. The Hata Member is dated to 2.5 million years ago and has produced a new species of Australopithecus and hominid postcranial remains not currently assigned to species. Spatially associated zooarchaeological remains show that hominids acquired meat and marrow by 2.5 million years ago and that they are the near contemporary of Oldowan artifacts at nearby Gona. The combined evidence suggests that behavioral changes associated with lithic technology and enhanced carnivory may have been coincident with the emergence of the Homo clade from Australopithecus afarensis in eastern Africa.  (+info)

(5/1130) Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia.

The lack of an adequate hominid fossil record in eastern Africa between 2 and 3 million years ago (Ma) has hampered investigations of early hominid phylogeny. Discovery of 2.5 Ma hominid cranial and dental remains from the Hata beds of Ethiopia's Middle Awash allows recognition of a new species of Australopithecus. This species is descended from Australopithecus afarensis and is a candidate ancestor for early Homo. Contemporary postcranial remains feature a derived humanlike humeral/femoral ratio and an apelike upper arm-to-lower arm ratio.  (+info)

(6/1130) Immunohematological reference ranges for adult Ethiopians.

A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 485 healthy working adult Ethiopians who are participating in a cohort study on the progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection to establish hematological reference ranges for adult HIV-negative Ethiopians. In addition, enumeration of absolute numbers and percentages of leukocyte subsets was performed for 142 randomly selected HIV-negative individuals. Immunological results were compared to those of 1,356 healthy HIV-negative Dutch blood donor controls. Immunohematological mean values, medians, and 95th percentile reference ranges were established. Mean values were as follows: leukocyte (WBC) counts, 6.1 x 10(9)/liter (both genders); erythrocyte counts, 5.1 x 10(12)/liter (males) and 4.5 x 10(12)/liter (females); hemoglobin, 16.1 (male) and 14.3 (female) g/dl; hematocrit, 48.3% (male) and 42.0% (female); platelets, 205 x 10(9)/liter (both genders); monocytes, 343/microl; granulocytes, 3, 057/microl; lymphocytes, 1,857/microl; CD4 T cells, 775/microl; CD8 T cells, 747/microl; CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio, 1.2; T cells, 1, 555/microl; B cells, 191/microl; and NK cells, 250/microl. The major conclusions follow. (i) The WBC and platelet values of healthy HIV-negative Ethiopians are lower than the adopted reference values of Ethiopia. (ii) The absolute CD4 T-cell counts of healthy HIV-negative Ethiopians are considerably lower than those of the Dutch controls, while the opposite is true for the absolute CD8 T-cell counts. This results in a significantly reduced CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio for healthy Ethiopians, compared to the ratio for Dutch controls.  (+info)

(7/1130) Distribution of fluoride and fluorosis in Ethiopia and prospects for control.

A review and mapping of fluoride test data for 270 water sources in 126 communities and examination of the literature of fluorosis distribution in Ethiopia show that this health problem extends beyond the Rift Valley into some highland communities. Fluoride concentrations above 5.0 mg/l in the Rift Valley were found mostly in hot springs (100% of all sources), lakes (78%), shallow wells (54%) and boreholes (35%) and the lowest concentrations (below 1.5 mg/l) in springs and rivers. Analysis of hydrochemical, economic and demographic factors in the spatial distribution of high-fluoride domestic water sources indicates that the fluorosis problem has become more serious in the Rift Valley in recent decades. Considerable spatial variation in the occurrence of fluoride, even within the same communities, and the presence of some low-fluoride water sources in the Rift Valley offer possibilities for geochemical exploration for acceptable domestic sources. The defluoridation programme in the Wonji irrigation scheme illustrates the problems faced by a large rural community in a developing country. Possibilities for control are examined and recommendations made for the development of alternative water sources and promising defluoridation methods using locally available materials and technologies.  (+info)

(8/1130) Pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in a children's hospital in Ethiopia: serotypes and susceptibility patterns.

Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are responsible for most pyogenic meningitis cases in children in Ethiopia. Resistance of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae to penicillin and chloramphenicol respectively has been reported globally. Resistance has been related to specific serotypes of S. pneumoniae or to beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae strains. This study describes the serotypes/ serogroups and susceptibility pattern of the two organisms causing meningitis in Ethiopian children. There were 120 cases of meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae (46) and H. influenzae (74) over a period of 3 years (1993-95). Nineteen children died from pneumococcal and 28 from haemophilus meningitis. Penicillin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis (4/8 = 50%) caused a greater mortality rate than penicillin-susceptible pneumococcal meningitis (15/38 = 39%). Common serotypes accounting for 76% of S. pneumoniae were type 14, 19F, 20, 1, 18 and 5; and serotypes 14, 19F and 7 (accounting for 17% of strains) showed intermediate resistance to penicillin G. 97% of the H. influenzae isolates were type b, and in only two cases beta-lactamase-producing. 72% of isolates of the S. pneumoniae we identified belong to serotypes preventable by a 9-valent vaccine. Our study highlights the possibility of resistant pyogenic meningitis in children in Ethiopia due to emerging resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae isolates.  (+info)



Addis Ababa


  • They came from the Ethiopia Ministry of Health and Ethiopia Health and Nutrition Research Institute (EHNRI), the Ethiopia Ministry of Agriculture, WHO-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa and Mekele Universities, Tigray Regional Health Bureaus and Tigray Agricultural and Rural Development Bureau. (cdc.gov)
  • Ethiopia is a federal parliamentary republic located in the Horn of Africa with its capital in Addis Ababa which is also the largest city in the country. (worldatlas.com)

Tigray


  • A strange new illness was spreading throughout Tigray, the northern region of Ethiopia. (cdc.gov)
  • Arid, mountainous terrain of Tigray, Ethiopia. (cdc.gov)
  • A home in rural area of Tigray, Ethiopia. (cdc.gov)
  • This was the situation in Tigray in 2007, when the Ethiopia Ministry of Health and EHNRI asked CDC and other partners to join the multidisciplinary team and help them investigate the outbreak of what was then called "unidentified liver disease (ULD). (cdc.gov)
  • They have been working with local partners in the Tigray region of northern Ethiopia to treat people with trachoma, the leading cause of infectious blindness in the world. (voanews.com)
  • At the May Keya Primary and First Cycle School in Dedeba Village in the Tigray Region of northern Ethiopia, healthworker Gebre Selassie said they dispense antibiotics for prevention of Trachoma and provide vital information regarding eye health. (voanews.com)

Ethiopian


  • Light for the World , a confederation of NGOs trying to eradicate trachoma from Ethiopia and the world, says 1.3 million Ethiopian adults are in need of eyelid surgery. (voanews.com)

Eritrea


  • Before the 1983-85 famine, two decades of wars of national liberation and other anti-government conflict had raged throughout Ethiopia and Eritrea. (wikipedia.org)

Arid


  • This large size makes Ethiopia an ecologically diverse ranging from arid areas to tropical forests in the south. (worldatlas.com)

country


  • Ethiopia: The Journey is a richly illustrated and very personal account of a trip into the ancient country of Ethiopia, a country where the author finds the best things are hidden under the surface and where the spiritual lessons can be profound and unexpected. (lulu.com)

known


  • Christmas in Ethiopia is known as Ganna, and is celebrated on January 7. (courant.com)
  • Almost 1,000 species of birds are known to occur in Ethiopia. (worldatlas.com)

people


  • In this area of Ethiopia, people lead very basic lives. (cdc.gov)

area


  • This is a group for families in the Boston, MA area with a connection to Ethiopia. (yahoo.com)

Agreement


  • Starbucks Corp. said it has moved a step closer to signing a licensing agreement with Ethiopia for its regional coffee names. (wsj.com)
  • WSJ's Janet Adamy reports on Starbucks Corp.'s licensing agreement with Ethiopia for its regional coffee names. (wsj.com)

Death


  • He was sentenced to death in Ethiopia for crimes committed during his regime but he currently lives in exile in Zimbabwe . (wikipedia.org)

economy


  • Ethiopia is Africa's second-most populous nation, and although the economy have been steadily growing, the vast majority of Ethiopia remains impoverished. (mercycorps.org)

children


  • This list is for families with adopted children from Ethiopia. (yahoo.com)