Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Ethics Committees: Committees established by professional societies, health facilities, or other institutions to consider decisions that have bioethical implications. The role of these committees may include consultation, education, mediation, and/or review of policies and practices. Committees that consider the ethical dimensions of patient care are ETHICS COMMITTEES, CLINICAL; committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects are ETHICS COMMITTEES, RESEARCH.Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Ethics Consultation: Services provided by an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS) or an ethics team or committee (ETHICS COMMITTEES, CLINICAL) to address the ethical issues involved in a specific clinical case. The central purpose is to improve the process and outcomes of patients' care by helping to identify, analyze, and resolve ethical problems.Ethics, Clinical: The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ethics, Nursing: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of nurses themselves, their patients, and their fellow practitioners, as well as their actions in the care of patients and in relations with their families.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Ethics Committees, Clinical: Hospital or other institutional ethics committees established to consider the ethical dimensions of patient care. Distinguish from ETHICS COMMITTEES, RESEARCH, which are established to monitor the welfare of patients or healthy volunteers participating in research studies.Ethics, Institutional: The moral and ethical obligations or responsibilities of institutions.Principle-Based Ethics: An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Ethicists: Persons trained in philosophical or theological ethics who work in clinical, research, public policy, or other settings where they bring their expertise to bear on the analysis of ethical dilemmas in policies or cases. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Ethical Analysis: The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Ethical Review: A formal process of examination of patient care or research proposals for conformity with ethical standards. The review is usually conducted by an organized clinical or research ethics committee (CLINICAL ETHICS COMMITTEES or RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES), sometimes by a subset of such a committee, an ad hoc group, or an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS).Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Virtues: Character traits that are considered to be morally praiseworthy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Moral Development: The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Professional Autonomy: The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Professional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Philosophy, MedicalConfidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Committee Membership: The composition of a committee; the state or status of being a member of a committee.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Ethical Relativism: The philosophical view that conceptions of truth and moral values are not absolute but are relative to the persons or groups holding them. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed)Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.United StatesGreat BritainValue of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Ethics, Pharmacy: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the pharmacist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the pharmacist in health care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Euthanasia, Passive: Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.Burnout, Professional: An excessive stress reaction to one's occupational or professional environment. It is manifested by feelings of emotional and physical exhaustion coupled with a sense of frustration and failure.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Education, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Metaphysics: The branch of philosophy that treats of first principles, including ontology (the nature of existence or being) and cosmology (the origin and structure of the universe). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Whistleblowing: The reporting of observed or suspected PROFESSIONAL MISCONDUCT or incompetence to appropriate authorities or to the public.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Empirical Research: The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.Conscience: The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.Professional Impairment: The inability of a health professional to provide proper professional care of patients due to his or her physical and/or mental disability.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Helsinki Declaration: An international agreement of the World Medical Association which offers guidelines for conducting experiments using human subjects. It was adopted in 1962 and revised by the 18th World Medical Assembly at Helsinki, Finland in 1964. Subsequent revisions were made in 1975, 1983, 1989, and 1996. (From Encyclopedia of Bioethics, rev ed, 1995)Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Nursing: The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.Minors: A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Researcher-Subject Relations: Interaction between research personnel and research subjects.Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Humanism: An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.Torture: The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Therapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Child Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.Medical Futility: The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Judaism: The religion of the Jews characterized by belief in one God and in the mission of the Jews to teach the Fatherhood of God as revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Webster, 3d ed)Staff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.Jehovah's Witnesses: Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Euthanasia, Active: The act or practice of killing for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person or animal from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Third-Party Consent: Informed consent given by someone other than the patient or research subject.Professional-Family Relations: The interactions between the professional person and the family.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Narration: The act, process, or an instance of narrating, i.e., telling a story. In the context of MEDICINE or ETHICS, narration includes relating the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Physical Therapy Specialty: The auxiliary health profession which makes use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction of anatomic or physiological origin.Human Characteristics: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Role: The expected and characteristic pattern of behavior exhibited by an individual as a member of a particular social group.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Double Effect Principle: Guideline for determining when it is morally permissible to perform an action to pursue a good end with knowledge that the action will also bring about bad results. It generally states that, in cases where a contemplated action has such double effect, the action is permissible only if: it is not wrong in itself; the bad result is not intended; the good result is not a direct causal result of the bad result; and the good result is "proportionate to" the bad result. (from Solomon, "Double Effect," in Becker, The Encyclopedia of Ethics, 1992)Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Refusal to Treat: Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Confucianism: A school of thought and set of moral, ethical, and political teachings usually considered to be founded by Confucius in 6th-5th century B.C. China. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Life Support Care: Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Coercion: The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.
Professional Ethics... Quality Teaching. Refugees and Migrants. Research. Safe Schools. Sexual Diversity. Status of Teachers. ... The EI Declaration on Professional Ethics represents the core values of the teaching profession itself. As a document drafted ... In 2001, Education International officially entered this debate when the Declaration on Professional Ethics (DPE) was adopted ... "Codes of ethics or of conduct should be established by the teachers' organizations, since such codes greatly contribute to ...
Browse - Business and Professional Ethics JournalBusiness and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 36 > Issue: 3 Notes on Contributors. view , rights & permissions , cited by ... Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 36 > Issue: 3 Mark S. Schwartz, W. Michael Hoffman, Ethical Decision Making ... Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 36 > Issue: 3 Edward J. Romar, Anthony Graybosch, The Dao of Business. ... Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 36 > Issue: 3 Gina Vega, Volkswagen: Business as Usual. abstract , view , ...
Professional Ethics - RoutledgeProfessional Ethics. *. Science and Technology Ethics. By Dr Raymond E.Spier, Raymond E. Spier ... The Ground of Professional Ethics. By Daryl Koehn. As each week beings more stories of doctors, lawyers and other professionals ... it is imperative that all practising professionals have an understanding of professional ethics.In The Ground of Profesional… ... the practice of ethics in the university ("academic ethics") and the teaching of practical or applied ethics in the university ...
Appraisal Institute Adopts Valuers Code Of Professional Ethics - Real Estate and Construction - United StatesInstitute Board of Directors at its July 30-31 meeting in Dallas adopted the proposed Valuers Code of Professional Ethics as a ... the Professional Standards and Guidance Committee (PSGC) started with the Appraisal Institute Code of Professional Ethics (CPE ... United States: Appraisal Institute Adopts Valuers Code Of Professional Ethics. Last Updated: September 1 2015 ... Valuers Code of Professional Ethics as a model code and approved making the VCPE available for use by non-AI professionals as a ...
mondaq.com/unitedstates/x/423944/real estate/Appraisal Institute Adopts Valuers Code Of Professional Ethics
FindACase | In re Opinion 710 of the Advisory Committee on Professional Ethics and Its Subsequent ClarificationWinder, of counsel; Michael J. Fasano, on the briefs).,IN RE OPINION 710 OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON PROFESSIONAL ETHICS AND ... IN RE OPINION 710 OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON PROFESSIONAL ETHICS AND ITS SUBSEQUENT CLARIFICATION. ... On petition for review of an opinion of the New Jersey Supreme Court Advisory Committee on Professional Ethics. ... The Advisory Committee on Professional Ethics (ACPE) received an inquiry seeking an advisory opinion on the ethical propriety ...
Professional EthicsThe EI Declaration on Professional Ethics represents the core values of the teaching profession itself. As a document drafted ... In 2001, Education International officially entered this debate when the Declaration on Professional Ethics (DPE) was adopted ... "Codes of ethics or of conduct should be established by the teachers' organizations, since such codes greatly contribute to ... The debate about the ethics of education that took place in the United States in the early 20th century has gained renewed ...
Organizational Restructuring & 'Rhetoric' Mission StatementsCode of Professional Ethics for Teachers. *. Special Education and Learning Difficulties. *. eLearning & Technology ...
International Dentist Education Program (IDEP) | UT Health San AntonioProfessional Ethics. 0.5 Credit Hours.. This course provides a deeper understanding of the role that ethics plays in dental ... Introduction to Professional Ethics, Introduction to History Taking and Physical Exam Skills, Foundations of Professional ... as well as an understanding of the importance of dental research ethics, the role of ethics in the 'business' of dentistry, and ... It also provides a more thorough appreciation of the ethical principles and theory of normative ethics, ...
Competition and Professional EthicsIt is clear that professionals must be keenly aware of the antitrust laws in developing professional standards, for they are ... p>The relationship between professional ethical standards and the antitrust laws has undergone important changes in recent ... The previously accepted argument that competition among professionals is itself unreasonable was rejected by the Supreme Court ... As a result, the overall competitive effect of professional standards will be the ultimate determining factor concerning ...
Petition Marilyn Monroe-Estate: Breach of Professional Ethics and CRIMINAL EXTORTIONI hold these people and organizations accountable for BREACH OF PROFESSIONAL ETHICS AND CRIMINALLY COERCIVE FINANCIAL EXTORTION ... In no uncertain terms it is clear that both LEE STRASBERG and ANNA FREUD violated their professional relationship with Marilyn ...
Virtue ethics and professional roles (eBook, 2001) [WorldCat.org]Virtue ethics and professional roles. [Justin Oakley; Dean Cocking] ... Professional ethics. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Professional ethics" ;. .. ... professional_roles>. a schema:CreativeWork ;. rdfs:label "Virtue ethics and professional roles." ;. schema:description "Print ... professional_roles> ;. schema:name "Virtue ethics and professional roles" ;. schema:numberOfPages "188" ;. schema:productID " ...
Commerce California Legal Ethics And Professional Responsibility Legal Search Results | Martindale... law firm information and attorneys for Legal Ethics And Professional Responsibility in Commerce California. ...
Birmingham Alabama Legal Ethics And Professional Responsibility Legal Search Results | Martindale... law firm information and attorneys for Legal Ethics And Professional Responsibility in Birmingham Alabama. ...
PBA Legal Ethics and Professional Responsibility Committee UpdateMichael Temin moderated and spoke at the Ethics Potpourri, PBA Legal Ethics and Professional Responsibility Committee Update in ... PBA Legal Ethics and Professional Responsibility Committee Update. When: April 26, 2011 ...
Medical Council - Professional Conduct & EthicsGuide to Professional Conduct and Ethics for Registered Medical Practitioners. Guide to Professional Conduct and Ethics for ... Guide to Professional Conduct and Ethics for Registered Medical Practitioners.pdf In this edition of the Guide, the Medical ... A Video Introduction to the Guide to Professional Conduct and Ethics for Registered Medical Practitioners Dr Deidre Madden, ... An Introduction to the Guide for Professional Conduct and Ethics for Registered Medical Practitioners.pdf This guide assists ...
Medical Council - Professional Conduct & EthicsThe Guide provides guidance to doctors on matters related to professional conduct and ethics, including professional conduct, ... Professional Conduct & Ethics. The patient-doctor relationship is a privileged one that depends on the patient's trust in the ... The Medical Council gives guidance on all matters related to professional conduct and ethics for registered doctors and this ... The Medical Council publishes a Guide to Professional Conduct and Ethics for Registered Medical Practitioners. ...
Ethics and Professional Practice 1 - Courses and Programs - The University of Queensland, AustraliaPrograms, majors and courses on offer at The University of Queensland.
Essential Professional Conduct: Legal Ethics: Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Paperback) - RoutledgePresenting readers with a clear and concise guide to the key elements of legal ethics this book covers many of the broad topic ... this text provides students with a sound overview of legal ethics on which to build their knowledge and is also an ideal ...
Bibliography on Professional Codes of Ethics | Ethics Codes CollectionSchwartz, M.S. "The Development of a Model Code for Ethics Professionals." Professional Ethics. 11: (2003) 3-16. ... Payne, D., & Landry, B. J. L. (2006). A UNIFORM CODE OF ETHICS: BUSINESS AND IT PROFESSIONAL ETHICS. Communications of the ACM ... "Similarities in Business and IT Professional Ethics: The Need for and Development of a Comprehensive Code of Ethics." Journal ... "Constructing a Code of Ethics: An Experimental Case of a National Professional Organization," Journal of Business Ethics. 95:1 ...
Insect Defenses: Adaptive Mechanisms and Strategies of Prey & Predators: Edited By: D Evans and JO Schmidt | NHBS Book ShopProfessional Hand and Kick Nets. *Aquatic Survey Nets. *Amphibian Survey. *View All (16) ...
Submissions on Stem Cell Line Research Ongoing | Scoop NewsTo professionals - Based on our Ethical Paywall model, professional 'at work' users of Scoop need to have a licence. This keeps ... The Ministry's proposed guidelines are intended to provide an ethical framework for use by ethics committees considering ...
Disingenuous Media ReactionHow many professional propagandists with additional tools in their imagery toolbox have already passed their work through ... to just a few years ago was given authority to self-police and assurances that such was done with stringent adherence to ethics ...
Under the Ubuntu Tree 2011 -2014 - Page 9 - SANParks.org ForumsThank you for friendly and professional service.. Thank you for passion and knowledge you share.. Thank you for long hours and ...
Normative Sexual Development and Behavior (9am-1pm) Childhood Sexual Abuse: Assessment and Behavior (2pm-6pm) | AASECT::...Locate a Professional. Search for a sexuality educator, counselor or therapist in your area. ... Ethics. *Contact. American Association of Sexuality Educators Counselors & Therapists (AASECT). All rights reserved. ...
HIV & AIDS Information :: HATIP #98, 21st December 2007 - Managing meningitis in people with HIV in resource-limited settings:...NAM's information is intended to support, rather than replace, consultation with a healthcare professional. Talk to your doctor ... consent and medical ethics , Travel , End-of-life issues , Experiences of stigma , Discrimination and the law , Human rights , ... NAM's information is intended to support, rather than replace, consultation with a healthcare professional. Talk to your doctor ...
Mark Siegler: Mark Siegler (born June 20, 1941) is an American physician who specializes in internal medicine. He is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chicago.Research ethics consultation: Analogous to clinical ethics consultation, Research Ethics Consultation (REC) describes a formal way for researchers to solicit and receive expert ethical guidance related to biomedical research. The first REC service was established at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center in 1997.Ageing Research Reviews: Ageing Research Reviews is a scientific journal covering ageing published by Elsevier. The editor in chief is Mark Mattson.Henry Lygon, 5th Earl Beauchamp: Henry Lygon, 5th Earl Beauchamp (13 February 1829 – 4 March 1866), styled Viscount Elmley between 1853 and 1863, was a British politician.The Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories: The Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories (1976) is a popular paper in ethics by Michael Stocker. The central claim of the paper is that some modern ethical theories fail to account for motive in their theories, producing a sort of schizophrenia because the agent is unable to use his reasons or motives as a basis for his actions.Dignitas Personae: Dignitas Personae is the title of a 2008 instruction by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith giving doctrinal directives on certain embryonic ethical controversies that had emerged since 1987, after Donum Vitae was released.Regulation of science: The regulation of science refers to use of law, or other ruling, by academic or governmental bodies to allow or restrict science from performing certain practices, or researching certain scientific areas. It is a bioethical issue related to other practices such as abortion and euthanasia; and areas of research such as stem-cell research and cloning synthetic biology.University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics: The University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics, or JCB, is an academic research centre located on the downtown campus of the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Joint Centre for Bioethics is a partnership between the University and 15 affiliated health care organizations in the Greater Toronto Area.Erga omnes: Erga omnes is a Latin phrase which means "towards all" or "towards everyone". In legal terminology, erga omnes rights or obligations are owed toward all.Morality and religion: Morality and religion is the relationship between religious views and morals. Many religions have value frameworks regarding personal behavior meant to guide adherents in determining between right and wrong.Upsilon Phi Delta: Upsilon Phi Delta (ΥΦΔ) is the national academic honor society for students in healthcare administration in the United States. The organization was formed in 1965 to further the profession of health administration and the professional competence and dedication of its members.Motivations for joining the Special OlympicsJump for the Cause: Jump for the Cause is a non-profit group of women who perform mass skydiving formations to raise money. A new world's record was set on Saturday, September 26, 2009; when 181 women from 31 countries jumped in formation.Human subject research legislation in the United States: Human subject research legislation in the United States can be traced to the early 20th century. Human subject research in the United States was mostly unregulated until the 20th century, as it was throughout the world, until the establishment of various governmental and professional regulations and codes of ethics.Indignation (novel): Indignation is a novel by Philip Roth, released by Houghton Mifflin on September 16, 2008. It is his twenty-ninth book.Swadeshi Jagaran Manch: The Swadeshi Jagaran Manch or SJM is an economic wing of Sangh Parivar that again took the tool of Swadeshi advocated in India before its independence to destabilize the British Empire. SJM took to the promotion of Swadeshi (indigenous) industries and culture as a dote against LPG.Hoya Corporation: TOPIX 100 ComponentAmerican Mixed Breed Obedience Registry: The American Mixed Breed Obedience Registry (AMBOR) is a registry for mixed-breed dogs to enable them to compete in obedience and dog agility.Medix UK Limited: Medix UK Limited is a UK-based market research consultancy providing online research in healthcare.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Injustice SocietyClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Modern Moral Philosophy: "Modern Moral Philosophy" is an influential article on moral philosophy by G. E.Islamic sexual hygienical jurisprudence: Islamic sexual hygienical jurisprudence is a prominent topic in Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) due to its everyday nature.British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal: The British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal is a quasi-judicial human rights body in British Columbia, Canada. It was established under the British Columbia Human Rights Code.Patient advocacyNever Come UndoneSamuel Bard (physician): Samuel Bard (April 1, 1742 – May 24, 1821) was an American physician. He founded the first medical school in New York.Oil imperialism theories: Oil imperialism theories assert that direct and indirect control of world petroleum reserves is a root factor in current international politics.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Research participant: A research participant, also called a human subject or an experiment, trial, or study participant or subject, is a person who participates in human subject research by being the target of observation by researchers.The Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.Libertarian perspectives on political alliances: Libertarian perspectives on political alliances vary greatly, with controversies among libertarians as to which alliances are acceptable or useful to the movement.John Smoke JohnsonEllen Lewis Herndon Arthur: Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur (August 30, 1837 – January 12, 1880) was the wife of the 21st President of the United States, Chester A. Arthur I.Appeal to accomplishment: Appeal to accomplishment is a genetic fallacy wherein Person A challenges a thesis put forward by Person B because Person B has not accomplished similar feats or accomplished as many feats as Person C or Person A.Manganin: Manganin is a trademarked name for an alloy of typically 86% copper, 12% manganese, and 2% nickel. It was first developed by Edward Weston in 1892, improving upon his Constantan (1887).Systematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentVoluntary euthanasia: Voluntary euthanasia is the practice of ending a life in a painless manner. Voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) have been the focus of great controversy in recent years.Essex School of discourse analysis: The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focuses predominantly on an in-depth analysis of political discourses in late modernity.Richard Wells (nurse): Richard J. Wells CBE, RN, FRCN (1950–1993) was a British nurse, nursing adviser and health care administrator.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.David S. Oderberg: Professor David S. Oderberg (born 1963) is an Australian philosopher of metaphysics and ethics based in Britain since 1987.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Rainer Moormann: Rainer Moormann (born 1950) is a German chemist and nuclear whistleblower. He grew up in Osnabrück.History of communication studies: Various aspects of communication have been the subject of study since ancient times, and the approach eventually developed into the academic discipline known today as communication studies.ATC code V07: ==V07A All other non-therapeutic products==Science and Conscience: Science and Conscience is a Canadian current affairs television miniseries which aired on CBC Television in 1968.Daesun Jinrihoe: Daesun Jinrihoe (Also transliterated as Daesunjinrihoe, Daesun Chillihoe, Taesunchillihoe, Daesoonjinrihoe, Daesoon Jinrihoe and Taesŏn Chillihoe) is a Korean new religious movement, founded in April 1969 by Park Han-gyeong (박한경) (1918–96). It is a splinter of the syncretic religion founded by Gang Il-Sun (1871–1909, also known as Chungsan Kang).Helsinki Roller DerbyScientific misconduct: Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. A Lancet review on Handling of Scientific Misconduct in Scandinavian countries provides the following sample definitions: (reproduced in The COPE report 1999.
(1/153) Ethical issues among Finnish occupational physicians and nurses.
A postal survey was conducted among 200 Finnish occupational physicians and nurses on their ethical values and problems. Both groups considered 'expertise' and 'confidentiality' as the most important core values of occupational health services (OHS) corresponding with newly published national ethical guidelines for occupational physicians and nurses in Finland. Nearly all respondents had encountered ethically problematic situations in their work, but ethical problems with gene testing in the near future were not considered likely to occur. Only 41% of the nurses and 36% of the physicians had received some training in the ethics of OHS, and 76% of all respondents never used available ethical guidelines. According to the results, even if ethics play a vital role in OHS, the ability to critically evaluate one's own performance seems quite limited. This creates a need for further training and more practicable national guidelines. (+info)
(2/153) From a philosopher's perspective, how should animal scientists meet the challenge of contentious issues?
This article reviews how professional ethics can be useful in helping animal scientists meet new responsibilities. The transition to a postindustrial period in animal production signals a shift in the nature of contentious issues that animal producers face. Whereas farm income was once the most controversial issue in animal production, producers and animal scientists now face complex risk issues that have overlapping constituencies. Animal scientists need to develop a professional ethic that will stress open and active debate on these issues. Discussion of these issues must take place in the animal science classroom. The new professional ethic should be based on core values required for scientific research. However, departments and professional societies must develop institutions that will permit the values and methods of rationality and truth seeking to be applied in areas where measurement and experimental method are unlikely to resolve disputes, (i.e., to controversial issues that require public discussion and debate). Several specific proposals for such institution building are discussed. (+info)
(3/153) Ethics instruction at schools of public health in the United States. Association of Schools of Public Health Education Committee.
OBJECTIVES: A survey of US schools of public health was undertaken in 1996 and 1997 to obtain a general picture of public health ethics curricula. METHODS: An explanatory letter with a list of questions for discussion was sent to the deans of the accredited US schools of public health. The deans were asked that at least 1 individual at their school who "is most knowledgeable about ethics curricula" review the list of questions and complete an ethics survey contact form. RESULTS: Ethics instruction was required for all students at only 1 (4%) of the 24 schools surveyed, while 7 schools required ethics instruction for some students. Two of the schools had no ethics courses. Ethics instruction was required for all MPH students at 9 (38%) of the schools and for all doctoral students at 4 (17%) of the schools. Most of the schools (19 of 24, or 79%) offered short courses, seminar series, or invited lectures on ethical topics, and 23 (96%) included lectures on ethics topics in other courses such as health law. CONCLUSIONS: Training programs at US schools of public health vary greatly in how much attention is given to ethics instruction. Model curricula in public health ethics should be developed to help fill this gap. (+info)
(4/153) League tables, institutional success and professional ethics.
League tables are just one example of the growing importance of "institutional success" in the health service. What are the implications of attaching importance to institutional success, and what impact might this have on professional ethics? This paper considers these issues and argues that public policy processes which centre on institutional performance, and which co-opt professional loyalties to this end, shift the balance between person-centred and impersonal standpoints in health care (from the former and towards the latter). There is no attempt to make a global ethical appraisal of this putative shift but rather to raise a matter of concern for those committed to a person-centred conception of professional ethics. (+info)
(5/153) Ethical review of regulatory toxicology guidelines involving experiments on animals: the example of endocrine disrupters.
The safety assessment of new chemicals (including medicines, pesticides, food additives, and industrial chemicals) relies on the results of animal experiments. Because the safety of those exposed to these products and the welfare of the experimental animals used are considered critically important, both testing requirements and the welfare of experimental animals are controlled by law. In the U.K., projects that propose to use animals for experimental purposes, including for the testing of chemicals, have been controlled by law for over a century, with the most recent legislation (Animals [Scientific Procedures] Act of 1986) requiring a cost/benefit assessment before it may proceed. New regulations introduced in 1998 will require an ethical review process for all projects from April 1999. Such ethical review will have to take account of the toxicity testing methods and schemes that are required by the legislation aimed at protecting human health. Neither national nor international proposals for toxicity testing methods and schemes are generally subjected to ethical review from the point of protecting animal welfare. The international nature of the chemical and pharmaceutical industry means that testing requirements from one of the major national regulatory agencies (USA, EU, or Japan) or the international organizations (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]or the International Conference on Harmonization [ICH]) have an impact on the testing carried out by industrial organizations in all countries. The recent proposals for screening and testing chemicals to identify endocrine disrupters (ED) from the Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are used as an example of the interaction between regulatory proposals and animal welfare issues. The current proposals are the most extravagant in the use of animals. Between 0.6 and 1.2 million animals would be required for each 1000 chemicals tested. The EPA, before incorporating them into regulation, is subjecting the recommendations to further review. This will undoubtedly moderate the number of animals actually used from the worst-case calculation. The variables that have the greatest impact on the number of animals required for testing are the prevalence of ED chemicals in the chemicals to be tested, and the sensitivity and specificity of the testing methods. The modeling demonstrates, for example, that increasing the prevalence from 10 to 50% reduces the number of animals used to detect one ED from 10,000 to 2700. Knowledge of the prevalence of EDs in the chemicals to be tested would allow rational selection of tier one screening based on the sensitivity and specificity of the screening tests. The EDSTAC proposals are difficult to justify from an ethical perspective, as equally effective detection rates may be achieved with fewer animals. National and international regulatory testing proposals should be subjected to formal independent ethical review before they are finalized, with a view to improving animal welfare. (+info)
(6/153) For debate: the virtuous public health physician.
This paper argues that although public health physicians have shown interest in ethical dilemmas relating to specific problems within the specialty, few have addressed the central ethical dilemma in public health, namely the conflict between the rights of the individual and the responsibilities of society for all its members. The paper reviews a number of public health programmes, where different approaches have been taken to this central dilemma. It then examines a number of schools of ethics, in an attempt to resolve the problem. Of these, only virtue ethics, perhaps supported by the insights of feminism and the ethics of care, appear to help with an irreconcilable conflict. The paper then makes an attempt to apply the concept of virtue ethics in public health medicine and to answer the question, 'what would a virtuous public health physician look like?' Finally, it lists some of the consequences of such an approach. (+info)
(7/153) Would you like to know what is wrong with you? On telling the truth to patients with dementia.
OBJECTIVES: To discover what dementia sufferers feel is wrong with them; what they have been told and by whom, and what they wish to know about their illness. BACKGROUND: Ethical guidelines regarding telling truth appear to be equivocal. Declarations of cognitively intact subjects, attitudes of family members and current psychiatric practice all vary, but no previous research has been published concerning what patients with dementia would in fact like to know about their diagnosis and prognosis. DESIGN: Questionnaire study of the patients' opinions. SETTING: Old Age Psychiatry Service in Worcester. PARTICIPANTS: 30 consecutive patients with dementia. RESULTS: The quality of information received has been poor and many patients have no opportunity to discuss their illness with anybody. Despite that almost half of the participants in this study had adequate insight and a majority declared that they would like to know more about their predicament. CONCLUSIONS: Although many patients would like to know the truth, the rights of those who do not want to know should also be respected. Therefore the diagnosis of dementia should not be routinely disclosed but (just as in other disorders) health care professionals should seek to understand their patients' preferences and act appropriately according to their choice. (+info)
(8/153) Death--whose decision? Euthanasia and the terminally ill.
In Australia and Oregon, USA, legislation to permit statutory sanctioned physician-assisted dying was enacted. However, opponents, many of whom held strong religious views, were successful with repeal in Australia. Similar opposition in Oregon was formidable, but ultimately lost in a 60-40% vote reaffirming physician-assisted dying. This paper examines the human dilemma which arises when technological advances in end-of-life medicine conflict with traditional and religious sanctity-of-life values. Society places high value on personal autonomy, particularly in the United States. We compare the potential for inherent contradictions and arbitrary decisions where patient autonomy is either permitted or forbidden. The broader implications for human experience resulting from new legislation in both Australia and Oregon are discussed. We conclude that allowing autonomy for the terminally ill, within circumscribed options, results in fewer ethical contradictions and greater preservation of dignity. (+info)
- Provide contact information for all UK clinical ethics committees. (ukcen.net)
- Provide up to date and reliable information on ethical issues that commonly present to clinical ethics committees or arise in clinical practice. (ukcen.net)
- Are you wanting to establish a new clinical ethics committee? (ukcen.net)
- The Clinical Ethics Immersion at the John J. Lynch MD, Center for Ethics at MedStar Washington Hospital Center is the original experiential and simulation-based education program designed for professionals who want to advance their practice in clinical ethics. (bioethics.net)
- The Center for Ethics is one of the oldest, elite clinical ethics programs in the country. (bioethics.net)
- Participants will have the opportunity to round with clinical ethicists in intensive care units, respond to case consultations as they naturally arise, simulate a family meeting, develop chart note skills, and discuss clinical ethics practice with program faculty as it occurs in various parts of the hospital. (bioethics.net)
- The Appraisal Institute Board of Directors at its July 30-31 meeting in Dallas adopted the proposed Valuers Code of Professional Ethics as a model code and approved making the VCPE available for use by non-AI professionals as a companion document to the Appraisal Institute Standards of Valuation Practice. (mondaq.com)
- The Guide provides guidance to doctors on matters related to professional conduct and ethics, including professional conduct, responsibilities to patients, medical records and confidentiality, consent to medical treatment and professional practice. (medicalcouncil.ie)
- The Immersion helps participants better understand how clinicians, who must exercise sound, independent, ethical judgment, work together with clinical ethicists and members of their ethics committee to continually improve the care of their hospitalized patients. (bioethics.net)
- AI explained, "To develop the proposed VCPE, the Professional Standards and Guidance Committee (PSGC) started with the Appraisal Institute Code of Professional Ethics (CPE), removed obligations and terminology unique to Appraisal Institute professionals (e.g., cooperating with an Appraisal Institute peer review committee) and adjusted remaining language to ensure universality. (mondaq.com)
- The Medical Council's duty is to maintain the highest ethical standards and professional competence amongst registered doctors in the Republic of Ireland. (medicalcouncil.ie)
- The Immersion is an intensive 3 ½ day course for physicians, nurses, social workers, and other health care professionals who want an in depth, hands-on experience. (bioethics.net)
- Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. (uptodate.com)
- The Medical Council gives guidance on all matters related to professional conduct and ethics for registered doctors and this guide is regularly updated Guide to Professional Conduct and Ethics for Doctors.pdf . (medicalcouncil.ie)
- The Medical Council publishes a Guide to Professional Conduct and Ethics for Registered Medical Practitioners. (medicalcouncil.ie)
- Yet a solution that works in adults, and possibly might work in children, has poor professional acceptance within paediatric medicine itself. (ukcen.net)