Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Reflex, Righting: The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Hydroxytryptophol: 5-Hydroxy-indole-3-ethanol.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Xylose

*  Activation of VEGF and Ras genes in gastric mucosa during angiogenic response to ethanol injury | Gastrointestinal and Liver...
We studied the angiogenic response and expression of VEGF and Ras in gastric mucosa after ethanol injury. Ethanol damage ... Expression of VEGF mRNA is increased following ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury.. VEGF mRNA expression after ethanol- ... Concurrently, the rats received, intragastrically, 1.5 ml 50% ethanol. Twenty-four hours after ethanol administration, the ... ethanol (Fig. 7 B). However, administration of 50% and 100% ethanol did result in significant increases in expression of VEGF ...
Using a chronic ethanol exposure model of alcohol liver disease that combines intragastric (iG) ethanol feeding and high fat ... These findings served the basis for the hypothesis that there is a functional link between P2X7Rs and chronic ethanol-induced ... 1_56 P2X7 RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM INHIBITS INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN BRAIN INDUCED BY EXPOSURE TO COMBINED ETHANOL AND HIGH-FAT DIET ... Collectively, the findings support a role for P2X7Rs in chronic ethanol-induced inflammatory response and suggest that P2X7R ...
*  Alcohol Based Hand Sanitizer: Can Frequent Use Cause an Elevated Blood Alcohol Level? - Full Text View -
Ethanol based hand sanitizers do not raise blood alcohol levels to a measurable amount. This study will determine to what ... Ethanol continues to be the most frequently abused intoxicant in the United States.4 Drug testing in various work environments ... ABHS are now found in most hospitals and health-care facilities.1,3 Only one human report of serum ethanol levels following ... Since alcohol breathalyzer testing is based upon exhaled portions of ethanol found within the blood stream, this method of ...
*  Heme Oxygenase-1 Mediates the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Acute Alcohol on IL-10 Induction Involving p38 MAPK Activation in...
The 25 mM ethanol in vitro concentration is equivalent to a 0.1 mg/dl in vivo blood ethanol level. Cell-free supernatants were ... HO-1 is involved in down-regulation of TNF-α by ethanol. Both HO-1 activation and acute ethanol inhibit TNF-α production (2, 11 ... 3⇓A). Although ethanol alone did not activate AP-1, LPS-induced AP-1 binding was augmented by ethanol treatment (p , 0.05) (Fig ... To evaluate the biological effect of ethanol on HO-1, next, we tested the effect of ethanol on HO-1 activity in monocytes. HO-1 ...
*  Functional and ultrastructural features of ethanol/bile salts interaction in the isolated perfused rat liver - Alvaro - 1995 -...
... ethanol, but increased threefold to fivefold by 1% ethanol in TCA-perfused livers. This cytolitic effect of ethanol was not ... ethanol). The inhibitory effect of ethanol on bile flow and BS secretion was significantly (P , .02) attenuated by perfusing ... Ethanol (0.1 or 1%) promoted a rapid decrease of bile flow and BS secretion in livers perfused with taurocholate (TCA), the ... In the presence of hydrophobic BS such as TDCA, the exposure to ethanol promotes a marked inhibition of bile secretion and ...
*  China Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol, Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Manufacturers, Suppliers |
Select 2017 high quality Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol products in best price from certified Chinese Ethyl manufacturers, Alcohol ... Ethanol 99.5%, Alcohol Ethanol, Industrial Grade Ethanol 99.5% Min. Order: 25 Tons ... Alcohol Ethanol Ethyl Acetate Chemical Polyvinyl Alcohol Methyl Alcohol Ethanol Food Grade Alcohol Hand Soap Pva Polyvinyl ... High quality Ethanol /ethyl alcohol / alcohol 99.9 % Electronic Grade FOB Price: $460 - $501 / Ton Min. Order: 16 Tons ...
*  Brain Sciences | Free Full-Text | Ethanol Neurotoxicity in the Developing Cerebellum: Underlying Mechanisms and Implications |...
... the cerebellum and cerebellar neurons are more susceptible to the damaging effects of ethanol. Ethanol's harmful effects ... Ethanol exposure during development impairs neuronal signaling mechanisms mediated by the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors ... Ethanol affects synaptogenesis and prevents proper brain development. In humans, synaptogenesis takes place during the third ... these ethanol effects disrupt cellular homeostasis, reduce the survival and migration of neurons, and lead to various ...
*  ZFIN Publication: Reimers et al., 2006
To evaluate ethanol metabolism dependent toxicity, chemical inhibitors of the ethanol metabolizing enzymes were utilized. ... Embryos co-exposed to ethanol and a combination of ethanol metabolism inhibitors led to a significant increase in the ... Cell death has been implicated as a potential explanation for ethanol-dependent toxicity. Using cell death assays, ethanol ... Ethanol/antagonists & inhibitors*; Ethanol/toxicity*; In Situ Nick-End Labeling; Oxidative Stress/drug effects; Pericardium/ ...
*  Effect of microbial pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of cotton stalks for ethanol production
Ethanol yields, up to 0.027 g ethanol g-1 initial cotton stalks, were low for all untreated and pretreated samples mainly due ... Ethanol yields, up to 0.027 g ethanol g-1 initial cotton stalks, were low for all untreated and pretreated samples mainly due ... Effect of microbial pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of cotton stalks for ethanol production [2009] Shi, ... Effect of microbial pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of cotton stalks for ethanol production ...
*  Washington Monthly | Ethanol?
ETHANOL?…Sheesh. James Fallows runs a contest to name "the stupidest manifestation of bipartisan public policy in the last 50 ... years" and not a single person even mentions the Tonkin Gulf resolution? Are ethanol subsidies really that bad? ...
*  Blog: Ethanol follies
Ethanol follies. By Ed Lasky. America has long had a relatively low price of food, a factor that, while contributing to the ... Now, the sharp price in the cost of corn -- brought about by ethanol mania -- has caused a spike in the price of corn that will ... Now, the sharp price in the cost of corn -- brought about by ethanol mania -- has caused a spike in the price of corn that will ...
*  Ethanol Folly
The Congressional Budget Office has now weighed in on ethanol mandates so I guess now it makes it official: they drive up food ... Federal ethanol-fuel policies forced consumers to pay an extra 0.5 percent to 0.8 percent in increased food prices in 2008, and ... The Congressional Budget Office has now weighed in on ethanol mandates so I guess now it makes it official: they drive up food ... Also, government-sponsored subsidies and mandates for ethanol to be mixed with gasoline are supposed to help foster U.S. energy ...
*  The Ethanol Question - WSJ
... a local company planning to build an ethanol plant is facing what is becoming an increasingly common battle against local ... The Ethanol Question. In a fading farm town about 40 miles north of Madison, Wis., a local company planning to build an ethanol ...
*  Ethanol kinetics
... Mon Jun 21 13:05:19 EST 1993 *Previous message: Ethanol kinetics ... I am given to understand that the metabolism of ethanol progresses linearly. , I.e it exhibits zero order kinetics? Does apply ...
*  Ethanol/Coumassie?
... Klavs Dolmer klavs Fri Aug 11 11:45:05 EST 1995 *Previous message: Ethanol/Coumassie? ... Hi We have used ethanol in stead of methanol with great succes for a long period of time. Stain: 0.25% CBB, 50% EtOH, 10% HAc ...
*  For Advanced Beverage Ethanol Distillers
... is a Public Group with 5198 members.. *For Advanced Beverage Ethanol Distillers ...
*  For Advanced Beverage Ethanol Distillers
... is a Public Group with 5198 members.. *For Advanced Beverage Ethanol Distillers ... As for importing the ethanol, yes he pretty much could be doing that and given the flavours that he sells, he could be just ... steeping the fruit in the ethanol. That could also be the reason for NOT wanting to taste test. ...
*  For Advanced Beverage Ethanol Distillers
... is a Public Group with 5203 members.. *For Advanced Beverage Ethanol Distillers ... of useful ethanol.. Cheers. Rob.. Cheers,. Rob.. __________________________________________________. Do You Yahoo!?. Tired of ...
*  Ethanol - Wikipedia
... surface tension of ethanol Ethanol History A look into the history of ethanol ChemSub Online: Ethyl alcohol Industrial ethanol ... Ethanol is a byproduct of the metabolic process of yeast. As such, ethanol will be present in any yeast habitat. Ethanol can ... The most ethanol-tolerant yeast strains can survive up to approximately 18% ethanol by volume. To produce ethanol from starchy ... Gasoline sold in Brazil contains at least 25% anhydrous ethanol. Hydrous ethanol (about 95% ethanol and 5% water) can be used ...
*  Deuterated ethanol - Wikipedia
Deuterated ethanol (C2D5OD) is a form (called an isotopologue) of ethanol (C2H5OH) in which the hydrogen atom ("H") is replaced ... "Ethanol-d6". Sigma-Aldrich. March, Raymond E.; Todd, John F. J. (2010). Practical Aspects of Trapped Ion Mass Spectrometry: ... with deuterium (heavy hydrogen) isotope ("D"). Deuterated ethanol is an uncommon solvent used in NMR spectroscopy. " ...
*  Ethanol precipitation - Wikipedia
Ethanol is much less polar than water, with a dielectric constant of 24.3 (at 25 °C). This means that adding ethanol to ... The Basics: How Ethanol Precipitation of DNA and RNA Works Zeugin JA, Hartley JL (1985). "Ethanol Precipitation ... "Ethanol Precipitation of DNA" (PDF). Focus. 7 (4): 1-2. Retrieved 2008-09-10. Crouse J, Amorese D (1987). "Ethanol ... Ethanol precipitation is a method used to purify and/or concentrate RNA, DNA, and polysaccharides such as pectin and xyloglucan ...
*  Ethanol (disambiguation) - Wikipedia
For ethanol specifically as a drug, see alcohol (drug). Ethanol may also refer to: Ethanol fuel, used to power vehicles. ...
*  Ethanol fuel - Wikipedia
Petroleum derived ethanol (synthetic ethanol) is chemically identical to bio-ethanol and can be differentiated only by ... Bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels Biodiesel Biomass Cellulosic ethanol Corn ethanol Common ethanol fuel mixtures ... see also Ethanol fuel by country). Most cars on the road today in the U.S. can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol, and ethanol ... This mixture is called hydrous ethanol and can be used as a fuel alone, but unlike anhydrous ethanol, hydrous ethanol is not ...
*  Cellulosic ethanol - Wikipedia
... emissions from corn ethanol and cellulosic ethanol compared with fossil fuels is drastic. Corn ethanol may reduce overall GHG ... The numbers behind ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, and biodiesel in the U.S. , Grist Ratliff E (2007). "One molecule could cure ... Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the ... The raw material to produce cellulosic ethanol is not only free, it has a negative cost-i.e., ethanol producers can get paid to ...
*  Corn ethanol - Wikipedia
Corn ethanol is ethanol produced from corn that is used as a biomass. Corn ethanol is produced by means of ethanol fermentation ... Cellulosic ethanol Ethanol fuel Ethanol fuel in the United States "Ethanol Market Penetration". Alternative Fuels and Advanced ... Others say that ethanol from corn, as a fuel available now, and cellulosic ethanol in the future, are both much better fuels ... Corn is the main feedstock used for producing ethanol fuel in the United States. There are two main types of corn ethanol ...

Ethanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.Prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase dimerisation domain: In molecular biology, prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase dimerisation domain is a protein domain found at the C-terminus of prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenases, it adopts a structure consisting of an alpha-beta-alpha-beta(3) core, which mediates dimerisation of the protein.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Research Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.Alcohol dehydrogenaseBenzodiazepine withdrawal syndromeLactic acid fermentationConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Alcohol intoxicationCyanamideAlcohol tolerance: Alcohol tolerance refers to the bodily responses to the functional effects of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. This includes direct tolerance, speed of recovery from insobriety and resistance to the development of alcoholism.Primary alcoholSelf-administration: Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to him-, her-, or itself. A clinical example of this is the subcutaneous "self-injection" of insulin by a diabetic patient.PhytomedicineSterling Clarren: Sterling K. Clarren is one of the world's leading researchers into Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), an umbrella term encompassing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, static encephalopathy:alcohol exposed and penatal alcohol exposed.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIFibroTest: FibroTest, known as FibroSure in the US, is a patented biomarker test that uses the results of six blood serum tests to generate a score that is correlated with the degree of liver damage in people with a variety of liver diseases. FibroTest has the same prognostic value as a liver biopsy.Chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy: Chronic solvent induced encephalopathy (CSE) is a condition induced by long-term exposure to organic solvents, typically in the workplace, that lead to a wide variety of persisting sensorimotor polyneuropathies and neurobehavioral deficits even after solvent exposure has been removed. This syndrome can also be referred to as "psycho-organic syndrome", "organic solvent syndrome", "chronic painter's syndrome", "occupational solvent encephalopathy", "solvent intoxication", "toxic solvent syndrome", "painters disease", "psycho-organic syndrome", "chronic toxic encephalopathy", and "neurasthenic syndrome".Methoxide: Methoxides are organic salts and the simplest alkoxides. Sodium methoxide and potassium methoxide have widespread use, though other metal-cation variants such as lithium methoxide, rubidium methoxide, caesium methoxide, and francium methoxide exist as well.Org 20599Canadian Renewable Fuels Association: The Canadian Renewable Fuels Association (CRFA) is a non-profit organization in Canada, created in 1984. Its stated purpose is to "promote renewable fuels for transportation through consumer awareness and government liaison activities", and its membership includes "representatives from all levels of the ethanol and biodiesel industry", including agricultural associations and producers of ethanol and biodiesel.D-xylose reductase: D-xylose reductase (, XylR, XyrA, msXR, dsXR, monospecific xylose reductase, dual specific xylose reductase, NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase, xylose reductase) is an enzyme with system name xylitol:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction

(1/9751) Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures.

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

(2/9751) Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury.

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

(3/9751) Toxicological findings in a fatal ingestion of methamphetamine.

This paper presents the case history of a fatality caused by the complications brought about by the presence of methamphetamine and ethanol. Drug concentrations are reported from samples obtained approximately 15 min after the subject was last observed to be chewing what was then believed to be gum, 3 h after the initial toxic symptoms were displayed, 6, 11, and 22 h later. The subjects conditions deteriorated over the course of this time, and he was declared dead 33 h after the initial display of toxic symptoms. The toxicological findings and concentration levels of the reported biological specimens concurred with the expected findings in a case of methamphetamine toxicity.  (+info)

(4/9751) Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans.

BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism is postulated to take place via microbial oxidation in the colon, mediated by aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. AIMS: To evaluate the role of microbial ethanol oxidation in the total elimination rate of ethanol in humans by reducing gut flora with ciprofloxacin. METHODS: Ethanol was administered intravenously at the beginning and end of a one week period to eight male volunteers. Between ethanol doses volunteers received 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily. RESULTS: A highly significant (p=0.001) reduction in the ethanol elimination rate (EER) was detected after ciprofloxacin medication. Mean (SEM) EER was 107.0 (5.3) and 96.9 (4.8) mg/kg/h before and after ciprofloxacin, respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus sp. were totally absent after medication, and faecal acetaldehyde production capacity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased from 0.91 (0.15) to 0.39 (0.08) nmol/min/mg protein. Mean faecal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was significantly (p<0. 05) decreased after medication, but ciprofloxacin did not inhibit human hepatic ADH activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin treatment decreased the ethanol elimination rate by 9.4%, with a concomitant decrease in intestinal aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, faecal ADH activity, and acetaldehyde production. As ciprofloxacin has no effect on liver blood flow, hepatic ADH activity, or cytochrome CYP2E1 activity, these effects are probably caused by the reduction in intestinal flora.  (+info)

(5/9751) Acute effects of ethanol on kainate receptors with different subunit compositions.

Previous studies showed that recombinant homomeric GluR6 receptors are acutely inhibited by ethanol. This study examined the acute actions of ethanol on recombinant homomeric and heteromeric kainate (KA) receptors with different subunit configurations. Application of 25 to 100 mM ethanol produced inhibition of a similar magnitude of both GluR5-Q and GluR6-R KA receptor-dependent currents in Xenopus oocytes. Ethanol decreased the KA Emax without affecting the EC50 and its effect was independent of the membrane holding potential for both of these receptors subtypes. Ethanol also inhibited homomeric and heteromeric receptors transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. In these cells, the expression of heteromeric GluR6-R subunit-containing receptors was confirmed by testing their sensitivity to 1 mM alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid. Ethanol inhibited to a similar extent KA-gated currents mediated by receptors composed of either GluR6 or GluR6 + KA1 subunits, and to a slightly lesser extent receptors composed of GluR6 + KA2 subunits. Acute ethanol's effects were tested on GluR5 KA receptors that are expressed as homomers (GluR5-Q) or heteromers (GluR5-R + KA1 and GluR5-R + KA2). Homomeric and heteromeric GluR5 KA receptors were all inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol; however, there was slightly more inhibition of GluR5-R + KA2 receptors. Thus, recombinant KA receptors with different subunit compositions are all acutely inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol. In light of recent reports that KA receptors regulate neurotransmitter release and mediate synaptic currents, we postulate that these receptors may play a role in acute ethanol intoxication.  (+info)

(6/9751) Ethanol exposure differentially alters central monoamine neurotransmission in alcohol-preferring versus -nonpreferring rats.

Individual differences in ethanol preference may be linked to differences in the functional activity of forebrain monoamine systems or their sensitivity to modification by ethanol. To test this hypothesis, basal extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens as well as the effects of repeated ethanol pretreatment on the basal release of these transmitters were examined in alcohol-preferring (P), alcohol-nonpreferring (NP), and genetically heterogeneous Wistar rats. All animals received i.p. injections of ethanol (1.0 g/kg) or saline for 5 consecutive days. Fifteen hours after the final pretreatment, basal extracellular concentrations and "in vivo extraction fraction" values for DA and 5-HT were determined by no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis. In ethanol-naive rats, significant line differences were observed with high basal 5-HT release in P rats, low 5-HT release in NP rats, and intermediate 5-HT levels in Wistar rats. No differences among groups were noted in basal DA release. Ethanol pretreatment decreased basal extracellular 5-HT levels in P rats whereas increasing 5-HT efflux was seen in the Wistar and NP lines. In addition, ethanol pretreatment increased extracellular DA concentrations in Wistar and P rats, but not in NP rats. The results confirm a relationship between the functional status of forebrain DA and 5-HT systems and ethanol preference or aversion. Moreover, the data suggest that ethanol exposure can alter basal DA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and that vulnerability to ethanol-induced changes in monoamine neurotransmission may be a factor in genetically determined ethanol preference.  (+info)

(7/9751) Isocitrate lyase of Ashbya gossypii--transcriptional regulation and peroxisomal localization.

The isocitrate lyase-encoding gene AgICL1 from the filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii was isolated by heterologous complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae icl1d mutant. The open reading frame of 1680 bp encoded a protein of 560 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 62584. Disruption of the AgICL1 gene led to complete loss of AgIcl1p activity and inability to grow on oleic acid as sole carbon source. Compartmentation of AgIcl1p in peroxisomes was demonstrated both by Percoll density gradient centrifugation and by immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections using specific antibodies. This fitted with the peroxisomal targeting signal AKL predicted from the C-terminal DNA sequence. Northern blot analysis with mycelium grown on different carbon sources as well as AgICL1 promoter replacement with the constitutive AgTEF promoter revealed a regulation at the transcriptional level. AgICL1 was subject to glucose repression, derepressed by glycerol, partially induced by the C2 compounds ethanol and acetate, and fully induced by soybean oil.  (+info)

(8/9751) Antisense RNA strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

We examined the effectiveness of antisense RNA (as RNA) strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) was developed to produce a 102-nucleotide asRNA with 87% complementarity to the butyrate kinase (BK) gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) exhibited 85 to 90% lower BK and acetate kinase specific activities than the control strain. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) also exhibited 45 to 50% lower phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and phosphotransacetylase specific activities than the control strain. This strain exhibited earlier induction of solventogenesis, which resulted in 50 and 35% higher final concentrations of acetone and butanol, respectively, than the concentrations in the control. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) was developed to putatively produce a 698-nucleotide asRNA with 96% complementarity to the PTB gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) exhibited 70 and 80% lower PTB and BK activities, respectively, than the control exhibited. It also exhibited 300% higher levels of a lactate dehydrogenase activity than the control exhibited. The growth yields of ATCC 824(pRD1) were 28% less than the growth yields of the control. While the levels of acids were not affected in ATCC 824(pRD1) fermentations, the acetone and butanol concentrations were 96 and 75% lower, respectively, than the concentrations in the control fermentations. The lower level of solvent production by ATCC 824(pRD1) was compensated for by approximately 100-fold higher levels of lactate production. The lack of any significant impact on butyrate formation fluxes by the lower PTB and BK levels suggests that butyrate formation fluxes are not controlled by the levels of the butyrate formation enzymes.  (+info)

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  • blend
  • Ethanol fuel production peaked during World War II and, as German submarine attacks threatened oil supplies, the mandatory blend became as high as 50% in 1943. (
  • C2H5OH
  • Deuterated ethanol (C2D5OD) is a form (called an isotopologue) of ethanol (C2H5OH) in which the hydrogen atom ("H") is replaced with deuterium (heavy hydrogen) isotope ("D"). Deuterated ethanol is an uncommon solvent used in NMR spectroscopy. (
  • ethylene
  • Ethanol may be administered as an antidote to methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning. (
  • Ethanol may also be produced industrially from ethylene by hydration of the double bond in the presence of catalysts and high temperature. (
  • alcoholic
  • Ethanol, an alcohol found in nature and in alcoholic drinks, is metabolized through a complex catabolic metabolic pathway. (
  • greenhouse
  • The Congressional Budget Office has now weighed in on ethanol mandates so I guess now it makes it official: they drive up food prices and do nothing for greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • CBO also noted that pushing for ethanol could actually increase greenhouse gas emissions, with deforestation being one reason among many for that consequence. (
  • production
  • The first production car running entirely on ethanol was the Fiat 147, introduced in 1978 in Brazil by Fiat. (
  • Recent developments with cellulosic ethanol production and commercialization may allay some of these concerns. (
  • Absence of production of cellulosic ethanol in the quantities required by the regulation was the basis of a United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia decision announced January 25, 2013, voiding a requirement imposed on car and truck fuel producers in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency requiring addition of cellulosic biofuels to their products. (
  • The refurbished facility became fully operational with the production of the first batch of ethanol in June 2010. (
  • The focus in recent years has been on the improvement of the material, energy and life cycle assessment of the production of ethanol. (
  • Construction of the facility took place during 2006 with ethanol production beginning in February 2007. (
  • Ethanol Production Using Waste Heat" (PDF). (
  • alcohol
  • The term "alcohol" now refers to a wider class of substances in chemistry nomenclature, but in common parlance it remains the name of ethanol. (
  • Absolute ethanol may inactivate microbes without destroying them because the alcohol is unable to fully permeate the microbe's membrane. (
  • For ethanol specifically as a drug, see alcohol (drug). (
  • It is also important to note that step 1 on this reaction is endothermic, requiring 47.2 kJ/mol of alcohol, or about 3 molecules of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) per molecule of ethanol. (
  • In human adults, ethanol is oxidized to acetaldehyde using NAD+, mainly via the hepatic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase IB (class I), beta polypeptide (ADH1B, EC (
  • aqueous
  • Ethanol precipitation is a method used to purify and/or concentrate RNA, DNA, and polysaccharides such as pectin and xyloglucan from aqueous solutions by adding ethanol as an antisolvent. (
  • enzymes
  • In fact, certain amino acid sequences in the enzymes used to oxidize ethanol are conserved all the way back to single cell bacteria. (
  • In human embryos and fetuses, ethanol is not metabolized via this mechanism as ADH enzymes are not yet expressed to any significant quantity in human fetal liver (the induction of ADH only starts after birth, and requires years to reach adult levels). (
  • The facility has been designed and engineered to process 40 tons of wheat straw per day into ethanol using enzymes made in an adjacent enzyme manufacturing facility. (
  • water
  • Ethanol is much less polar than water, with a dielectric constant of 24.3 (at 25 °C). This means that adding ethanol to solution disrupts the screening of charges by water. (
  • As a result of the increasing use of ethanol, together with the exploitation of domestic deep water oil sources, Brazil reached in 2006 a volumetric self-sufficiency in oil supply, but is not effectively self-sufficient, since most of its locally extracted oil is heavy. (
  • energy
  • According to the International Energy Agency, cellulosic ethanol could allow ethanol fuels to play a much bigger role in the future. (
  • Distributed by Statoil, the Bio95 2G mixture uses ethanol derived from wheat straw collected on Danish fields after harvest and produced by Inbicon (a div. of DONG Energy), using enzyme technology from Novozymes. (
  • process
  • Centrifugation can be done either at room temperature or in 4 °C or 0 °C. During centrifugation precipitated DNA has to move through ethanol solution to the bottom of the tube, lower temperatures increase viscosity of the solution and larger volumes make the distance longer, so both those factors lower efficiency of this process requiring longer centrifugation for the same effect. (
  • The first attempt at commercializing a process for ethanol from wood was done in Germany in 1898. (
  • In Canada, Iogen Corp. is a developer of cellulosic ethanol process technology. (
  • year
  • Federal ethanol-fuel policies forced consumers to pay an extra 0.5 percent to 0.8 percent in increased food prices in 2008, and the government itself could end up paying nearly $1 billion more this year for food stamps because of ethanol use, according to a new government report. (
  • American Ethanol has sponsored Austin Dillon and Kenny Wallace during several races, including Dillon's rookie year in Sprint Cup. (
  • In 2006 the Blue Flint Ethanol project was awarded the Project of the Year Award by Governor John Hoeven. (
  • vehicles
  • Furthermore, many cars today's are flexible-fuel vehicles able to use 100% ethanol fuel. (
  • Since the start of the 2011 season, the American Ethanol logo is visible on the fuel ports of all racing vehicles in the Sprint Cup Series, XFINITY Series and Camping World Truck Series. (
  • Next
  • In the next step, 70% ethanol is added to the pellet, and it is gently mixed to break the pellet loose and wash it. (
  • waste
  • The feed-stock is milled, cooked, fermented, distilled and dehydrated resulting in ethanol fuel and the remaining waste material is processed into a high protein feed supplement. (