Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Reflex, Righting: The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Hydroxytryptophol: 5-Hydroxy-indole-3-ethanol.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Xylose

*  For Advanced Beverage Ethanol Distillers

For Advanced Beverage Ethanol Distillers is a Public Group with 5192 members.. *For Advanced Beverage Ethanol Distillers ...
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Distillers/conversations/topics/10481?l=1

*  Ethanol Molecule Flask | ThinkGeek

This stainless steel flask is adorned with an ethanol molecule to remind you of just that. Just remember to imbibe responsibly ... Remember that your favorite booze is all about the ethanol. ... Have questions about Ethanol Molecule Flask or your order? We ... Remember that your favorite booze is all about the ethanol. This stainless steel flask is adorned with an ethanol molecule to ... Whether it's a fruity wine cooler with barely any ethanol or high-proof spirits, we bow down to the first human to figure this ...
thinkgeek.com/product/e376/

*  Sen. Clinton Pitches Ethanol Energy Plan

... a goal she said can be met with more ethanol-based fuel and a $50 billion research fund. ... Ethanol is popular in corn-producing states, especially Iowa, which holds the first caucus of the presidential primary. ... President Bush and other elected officials have called for a greater expansion of E-85, a fuel made of 85 percent ethanol that ... She also called for a massive expansion of ethanol, a corn-based fuel additive and substitute, which is currently only ...
washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/05/23/AR2006052300453.html?sub=AR

*  Unethical Ethanol Tariff

At the heart of the issue is U.S. ethanol policy. Despite the Bush Administration's explicit support for increased U.S. ethanol ... Brazilian ethanol production. If the United States were to eliminate its ethanol tariff, we would likely witness market changes ... consumption, the United States maintains a tariff of 54 cents per gallon for imported ethanol. This tariff limits U.S. ethanol ... Furthermore, since ethanol production in the United States is based on corn, the tariff also leads to a higher price of corn in ...
enn.com/top_stories/article/28285/print

*  Ethanol Waiver Sought Amid Drought - ABC News

"In fact, because ethanol plants also produce a high protein feed, limiting ethanol production will only further complicate ... the latest in the spat between some farming organizations and the ethanol industry. Opponents of the biofuel contend the ... the only beneficiary to an ethanol suspension would be oil companies. ... and poultry industry are petitioning the Obama administration to waive requirements for gasoline refineries to blend ethanol ...
abcnews.go.com/blogs/politics/2012/07/ethanol-waiver-amid-drought/

*  INEOS Bio Produces Cellulosic Ethanol At Commercial Scale

INEOS Bio Produces Cellulosic Ethanol At Commercial Scale. First facility in the world using new advanced... ... is now producing cellulosic ethanol at commercial scale. First ethanol shipments will be released in August. This is the first ... The biofuels produced in Florida will anchor the new production of cellulosic ethanol under the U.S. Renewable Fuels Standard ( ... The bio-chemical fermentation step is a highly selective and high yield synthesis of cellulosic ethanol from these gases at low ...
prnewswire.com/news-releases/ineos-bio-produces-cellulosic-ethanol-at-commercial-scale-217751181.html

*  Article downplayed benefits of ethanol

12 Associated Press story on 'The secret cost of U.S. ethanol policy' is fast and loose with its accusations, yet quite void of ... Ethanol has not been "far more damaging to the environment than politicians promised" nor caused farmers to "plow into pristine ... 12 Associated Press story on "The secret cost of U.S. ethanol policy" is fast and loose with its accusations, yet quite void of ... When all the greenhouse gas emissions related to producing corn and converting it into ethanol are tallied, average corn ...
dailyherald.com/article/20131123/discuss/711239933/

*  It's time to move past ethanol

Sustainability Features x solar x wind x biofuel x greenhouse gas emissions x ethanol x alternatives x Bill Jaeger x Energy ... broken down as 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol, 15 billion gallons of corn ethanol and 5 billion gallons of non- ... It's time to move past ethanol. Pete Danko EARTHTECHLING, 7th January 2012 ... Then there is the not-so-small matter of reality not meshing with hope when it comes to cellulosic ethanol. Despite support for ...
tgdaily.com/sustainability-features/60642-its-time-to-move-past-ethanol

*  2-(2-Chlorophenoxy)ethanol

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI=1S/C8H9ClO2/c9-7-3-1-2-4-8

*  Will the Real Ethanol Beneficiaries Please Stand Up? | EWG

It's poised to approve billions in additional federal subsidies to the corn ethanol industry in the lame duck session that ... How times have changed! Eight years ago, the ethanol industry was keeping up the pretence that corn ethanol was a "bridge" to ... The subsidies that flow to the ethanol producers come through a tax credit known as the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit, ... Subsidized corn growers and corn ethanol producers and blenders are reaping big profits, but the corn ethanol "bridge" will ...
ewg.org/news/news-releases/2010/11/16/will-real-ethanol-beneficiaries-please-stand

*  ALCOHOL REPORTS: Cytisine modulates chronic voluntary ethanol consumption and ethanol-induced striatal up-regulation of ΔFosB...

Therefore, we examined the effects of cytisine on chronic voluntary ethanol consumption and associated striatal ΔFosB up-regulation in C57BL/6J mice using behavioral and biochemical methods. Following the chronic voluntary consumption of 15% (v/v) ethanol under a 24-h two-bottle choice intermittent access (IA; 3 sessions/week) or continuous access (CA; 24 h/d and 7 d/week) paradigm, mice received repeated intraperitoneal injections of saline or cytisine (0.5 or 3.0 mg/kg). Ethanol and water intake were monitored for 24 h post-treatment. Pretreatment with cytisine (0.5 or 1.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced ethanol consumption and preference in both paradigms at 2 h and 24 h post-treatment. The ΔFosB levels in the ventral and dorsal striatum were determined by Western blotting 18-24 h after the last point of ethanol access. In addition, cytisine (0.5 mg/kg) significantly attenuated up-regulation of ΔFosB in the ventral and ...
alcoholreports.blogspot.com/2013/04/cytisine-modulates-chronic-voluntary.html

*  Uncertainty in estimating blood ethanol concentrations by analysis of vitreous humour | Journal of Clinical Pathology

After absorption into the bloodstream, ethanol distributes into the total body water and binding to plasma proteins is negligible.12 The amount of water in body fluids and tissues gives a good indication of the distribution of ethanol to be expected.7,12 However, an additional factor to consider is the ratio of blood flow to tissue mass, which impacts on the rate of ethanol equilibration, and considerable arteriovenous differences in ethanol concentrations might exist across some tissues (for example, skeletal muscle).13. In urine and cerebrospinal fluid, the blood-fluid distribution ratios depend to some extent on whether the absorption or postabsorptive stage of ethanol kinetics has been reached.7,8 Moreover, urine and cerebrospinal fluid are produced gradually over a period of time and stored in the bladder and lumbar space, during which time the blood ethanol concentration might change as a result of ...
jcp.bmj.com/content/54/9/699

*  An Early Complement-Dependent and TLR-4-Independent Phase in the Pathogenesis of Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

The innate immune system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Although innate immunity is usually considered an early response to injury, previous work implicating innate immunity in ethanol-induced liver injury focuses primarily on long-term ethanol exposure. We investigated the early period of ethanol exposure to determine whether there were temporal associations between activation of innate immune responses and known correlates of liver injury. Female C57BL/6 mice were allowed free access to an ethanol-containing Lieber-DeCarli diet or were pair-fed a control diet. Within 4 days of ethanol exposure, we observed a striking spike in expression of hepatic proinflammatory cytokines-including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6, and interferon-gamma-prior to hepatic triglyceride accumulation or increased plasma alanine aminotransferase activities, as well as before the ...
dare.ubvu.vu.nl/handle/1871/20482

*  Featured Articles about Blood Alcohol Level - Page 4 - latimes

Featured Blood Alcohol Level News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Blood Alcohol Level From The latimes (Page 4 of 5)
articles.latimes.com/keyword/blood-alcohol-level/featured/4

*  Chronic Intermittent Ethanol (CIE) Exposure Model | iniastress.org

March 2013. Subjects. This model has been predominantly been studied using adult (65-75 days of age) male C57BL/6J mice obtained from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). Although experimental parameters have been optimized using these mice, we have conducted studies with adult female C57BL/6J mice, as well as other inbred mouse strains including DBA/2J and C3H/Hecr, selectively bred HAP/LAP lines, and and BXD RI lines. Mice are acclimated to the facility for at least two weeks prior to experimental use. Mice are individually housed in standard polypropylene pans with wood-chip bedding and stainless steel wire lids. The mice are housed under a modified light/dark cycle (lights on at 0200 hr) to allow for behavioral testing to be conducted during the dark phase of the cycle. Rodent food (Wayne Lab-Blox) and water is available ad libitum at all times during the studies.. General Experimental Design and Strategy. The overall objective of this chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure model ...
iniastress.org/cie

*  Positive and negative modulatory sites for ethanol in alpha1 glycine receptors :: University of Southern California...

Ligand-gated ion channels of the cys-loop receptor family have received considerable attention as putative sites of action causing the behavioral effects of ethanol. Studies over the last decade identified several positions in the transmembrane domain critical for ethanol modulation of glycine receptors (GlyRs). Studies to date in the extracellular domain of alpha1GlyRs found that mutations at position 52 in Loop 2 change ethanol sensitivity, alter sensitivity to an ethanol antagonist and can eliminate subunit-dependent differences in ethanol sensitivity between alpha1 and alpha2GlyRs. These findings suggest that the extracellular domain also represents a target for ethanol in GlyRs. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the effect of cysteine substitutions at positions 52 and 267 on responses to n-alcohols and propyl methanethiosulfonate (PMTS) in alpha1GlyRs. We also tested the role of Loop 2 in ...
digitallibrary.usc.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15799coll127/id/528607/rec/11

*  Plus it

Animals. Age-matched wild-type (of mixed genetic background of C57/Bl/6, 129/SvEvTac, and DBA-2) (Wan et al., 2000a, 2003) and hepatocyte RXRα-deficient mice (10-12 weeks old) were used in all the experiments. Hepatocyte RXRα-deficient mice were generated by specifically mutating the RXRα gene in hepatocytes using cre/lox-mediated recombination as described previously (Wan et al., 2000a). The mice were housed individually in steel microisolator cages at 22°C with a 12/12-h light/dark cycle. After 2 days of feeding mice control liquid diet, mice were randomized into ethanol- or pair-fed groups (n = 6). The ethanol-fed group was allowed free access to ethanol-containing diets with increasing concentrations of ethanol over a 7-day period as described previously (McMullen et al., 2005). The ethanol concentration was kept thereafter at 5% for an additional 5 weeks. Ethanol comprised 27.5% of the total caloric ...
jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/324/2/443

*  Metabolism of glycolipids in the rat brain during acute and chronic ethanol administration

Abstract: Increase in content of sulfatides I and II and a decrease in cerebrosides was found in brain of rats after acute alcoholization with 25% ethanol, 4 g/kg, intragastric administration. In this case incorporation of 1,2-14C-ethanol into cerebrosides II and III was decreased. Content of sulfatides I was increased, while specific radioactivity of cerebrosides III--decreased as a result of chronic alcohol intoxication (25% ethanol, intragastric administration, 7 g/kg daily within 21 days ...
pbmc.ibmc.msk.ru/index.php/en/article/PBMC-1989-35-5-75-en

*  PPT - people's alcohol action coalition PowerPoint Presentation - ID:6564499

people's alcohol action coalition. Presentation to the AMA National Alcohol Summit Canberra, October 2014, # AMAsummit John Boffa Chief Medical Officer Public Health, Central Australian Aboriginal Congress Adjunct Assoc Prof, National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University. 1. Slideshow 6564499 by jillian-adriano
slideserve.com/jillian-adriano/people-s-alcohol-action-coalition

*  Plus it

Building from a previous study (Yevenes et al., 2008), the present analyses indicate that the basic property of Lys385, reproduced in Arg385 and His385, is relevant for ethanol-induced modulation. All of the other mutations (K385E, K385Q, K385L, K385F, K385C, and K385A) were less sensitive to the allosteric actions of ethanol. The data also showed that mutants sensitive to ethanol were potentiated by G protein activation (WT and K385R) and mutants insensitive to ethanol (K385A and K385E) were insensitive to Gβγ modulation. These data are in good agreement with previous studies that examined a large number (n = 20) of chimeric and mutant GlyRs and showed a high correlation between GTPγS and ethanol modulations (Yevenes et al., 2008, 2010).. The correlation analysis between physicochemical properties (i.e., polarity, charge, hydropathy, hydrophilicity, and volume) and ethanol modulation showed that only charge ...
jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/340/2/339

*  Second-Generation Biofuels - Cellulosic Ethanol - PlanetSave

According to the EPA, no commercial volumes of cellulosic ethanol are currently being produced. However, several startups and advances are currently under way that could turn the tide," Aaron Levitt writes.. There is a growing band of companies in the US, Canada, and Europe that have begun investment and construction of facilities from which commercial production can grow.. "The cellulosic ethanol industry developed some new commercial-scale plants in 2008," Eric Martinot and Janet Sawin write in "Renewables Global Status Report - 2009 Update." Going on: "In the United States, plants totaling 12 million liters per year were operational, and an additional 80 million liters per year of capacity - in 26 new plants - was under construction. In Canada, capacity of 6 million liters per year was operational. In Europe, several plants were operational in Germany, Spain, and Sweden, and capacity of 10 million liters per year was under construction.. However, more recently, ongoing ...
planetsave.com/2012/05/07/second-generation-biofuels-cellulosic-ethanol-a-look-towards-sustainability-amongst-environmental-problems/

*  KEGG PATHWAY: Alcoholism

Alcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the rewarding effects of alcohol, dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have been identified. Acute exposure to alcohol stimulates dopamine release into the NAc, which activates D1 receptors, stimulating PKA signaling and subsequent CREB-mediated gene expression, whereas chronic alcohol exposure leads to an adaptive downregulation of this pathway, in particular of CREB function. The decreased CREB function in the NAc may promote the intake of drugs of abuse to achieve an increase in reward and thus may be involved in the regulation of positive affective states of addiction. PKA signaling also affects NMDA receptor activity and may play an important role in neuroadaptation in response to chronic alcohol exposure ...
kegg.jp/pathway/ko05034

*  Fuel Ethanol Workshop and Expo

Now in its 34th year, the FEW provides the ethanol industry with cutting-edge content and unparalleled networking opportunities in a dynamic business-to-business environment. As the largest, longest running ethanol conference in the world, the FEW is renowned for its superb programming-powered by Ethanol Producer Magazine-that maintains a strong focus on commercial-scale ethanol production, new technology, and near-term research and development. The 2017 event drew more than 2,000 people from over 48 countries and from nearly every ethanol plant in the United States and Canada.. ...
fuelethanolworkshop.com

*  NSUWorks - Health Professions Division Research Day: GEL-FORMING EXCIPIENTS TO SLOW ALCOHOL ABSORPTION INTO SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION

Objective. To preliminary study the alcohol absorption behavior of cross-linked polyacrylamide (CLP) in alcoholic and alcoholic-acidic media representing the gastric environment after ingestion. Background. Polymers which can swell in alcohol and quickly gel alcoholic drinks after ingestion are hypothesized to slow ethanol absorption into the bloodstream. With its 57 favorable structure for alcohol interactions, and rapid and high swelling in aqueous media, CLP was screened to be well suited for this purpose. Methods. CLP was commercially obtained (Hydrosource® CLP) and screened to a particle size retained on a 250 μm sieve. For swelling capacity measurement, 30 mg of CLP was allowed to soak in 10 mL of swelling media for 2 minutes. Using tea-bag and gravimetric methods, the volume and weight swelling ratios were then calculated in hydroalcoholic (5% to 80% v/v), acidic (pH 1 to pH 5), and acidic-hydroalcoholic solutions prepared by diluting acidic solutions with ethyl alcohol to 5% v/v. ...
nsuworks.nova.edu/hpdrd/2016/events/255/

*  Critics take aim at tax breaks for ethanol subsidies

Once heralded as the key to kicking America's foreign oil addiction by Republicans and Democrats alike, ethanol's political fortunes have faded and the industry's future is unclear amid a growing chorus of critics.. The industry lost more than $6 billion in annual tax breaks along with a valuable import tariff when Congress declined to renew the subsidies at the end of last year. Several trade groups are now attacking ethanol's last federal redoubt: The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates oil producers blend a certain amount of ethanol with traditional gasoline.. "I won't say this is the end of the [ethanol] mandate, but the momentum has been swinging against the industry and its lobby for a good year, and a variety of other lobbies are continuing to press the attack on a variety of fronts, making this a moment of great vulnerability for ethanol," auto industry analyst Edward Niedermeyer told the Free Beacon in an ...
freebeacon.com/politics/end-of-ethanol/

*  Far past drunk, did driver seek death? Man's blood alcohol level 5 times over limit, police say. - tribunedigital-baltimoresun

Charles County police say a Nanjemoy man had a blood-alcohol content nearly five times the legal limit on May 9 when his speeding car crashed head-on into another car on Md. 6, killing himself and
articles.baltimoresun.com/1991-05-22/news/1991142152_1_blood-alcohol-alcohol-level-knight

*  Court Dismisses Drunk Driving Charge, Cites Suspect's High Alcohol Tolerance « CBS Houston

A court in Sweden dismissed charges against a man who was caught driving while his blood alcohol level was five times higher than the legal limit, stating that his high tolerance allowed for him to drive safely despite the amount of liquor...
houston.cbslocal.com/2013/02/07/court-dismisses-drunk-driving-charge-cites-suspects-high-alcohol-tolerance/

*  Ethanol Producer Magazine - The Latest News and Data About Ethanol Production

Ethanol Producer Magazine is the longest running and premier source of news, data and information for and about ethanol producers and industry pros.
ethanolproducer.com

*  Ethanol misconceptions - tribunedigital-chicagotribune

The Tribune would like you to believe that ethanol causes food shortages ('Burning Dinner,' Feb. 24). But the facts simply aren't on their side. The Tribune neglects to mention that ethanol creates
articles.chicagotribune.com/2011-03-02/opinion/chi-110302thorne_briefs_1_ethanol-production-ethanol-industry-growth-energy

*  Editorial: Time to rethink ethanol - Times Union

The fields are plentiful from there to other rural corners of the Capital Region, though it's hard to tell the sweet corn, which you eat, from the field corn, which is used to feed livestock or make ethanol. The shift has been so dramatic - and the rise in corn prices and government subsidies so fast - that The Associated Press found in a recent analysis that farms are starting to gobble up conservation land. The AP report also offered a reminder of the foibles of ethanol being part of the Obama administration's 'all of the above' approach to energy policy. Mixing ethanol with gasoline was supposed to help reduce fossil fuel consumption and improve emissions, but there's evidence that over the full range of the production cycle from farm to tank, there's little if any gain in those areas.
timesunion.com/opinion/article/Editorial-Time-to-rethink-ethanol-5008466.php

*  Thompson in partnership to build ethanol plant ( Sharon Wis. - Global Renewable LLC ...)

Sharon Wis. - Global Renewable LLC a Whitewater Wis. partnership that includes former Gov. Tommy Thompson has unveiled plans to build and operate a $195 million ethanol plant in the Walworth County Village of Sharon . Pending municipal approvals the Sharon Ethanol Plant an,Thompson,in,partnership,to,build,ethanol,plant,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
bio-medicine.org/biology-technology/Thompson-in-partnership-to-build-ethanol-plant-2071-1/

*  ALCOHOL REPORTS: Binge-Pattern Ethanol Exposure During Adolescence, but Not Adulthood, Causes Persistent Changes in GABAA...

CIE reduced baseline tonic current amplitude in DGGCs from animals pretreated with EtOH during adolescence, but not in GCs from those pretreated with EtOH during young adulthood or adulthood. Similarly, the enhancement of tonic currents by acute EtOH exposure ex vivo was increased in GCs from animals pretreated with EtOH during adolescence, but not in those from animals pretreated during either of the other 2 developmental periods. ...
alcoholreports.blogspot.com/2013/02/binge-pattern-ethanol-exposure-during.html

*  Alcohol-Induced Epigenetic Changes in Stem Cells - Lorraine Gudas

Alcohol consumption causes damage to multiple organs, including the liver and brain, and ethanol can affect the epigenetic state of cells by modifying DNA methy...
grantome.com/grant/NIH/R21-AA021484-01

Ethanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.Prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase dimerisation domain: In molecular biology, prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase dimerisation domain is a protein domain found at the C-terminus of prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenases, it adopts a structure consisting of an alpha-beta-alpha-beta(3) core, which mediates dimerisation of the protein.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Research Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.Alcohol dehydrogenaseBenzodiazepine withdrawal syndromeLactic acid fermentationConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Alcohol intoxicationCyanamideAlcohol tolerance: Alcohol tolerance refers to the bodily responses to the functional effects of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. This includes direct tolerance, speed of recovery from insobriety and resistance to the development of alcoholism.Primary alcoholSelf-administration: Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to him-, her-, or itself. A clinical example of this is the subcutaneous "self-injection" of insulin by a diabetic patient.PhytomedicineSterling Clarren: Sterling K. Clarren is one of the world's leading researchers into Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), an umbrella term encompassing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, static encephalopathy:alcohol exposed and penatal alcohol exposed.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIFibroTest: FibroTest, known as FibroSure in the US, is a patented biomarker test that uses the results of six blood serum tests to generate a score that is correlated with the degree of liver damage in people with a variety of liver diseases. FibroTest has the same prognostic value as a liver biopsy.Chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy: Chronic solvent induced encephalopathy (CSE) is a condition induced by long-term exposure to organic solvents, typically in the workplace, that lead to a wide variety of persisting sensorimotor polyneuropathies and neurobehavioral deficits even after solvent exposure has been removed. This syndrome can also be referred to as "psycho-organic syndrome", "organic solvent syndrome", "chronic painter's syndrome", "occupational solvent encephalopathy", "solvent intoxication", "toxic solvent syndrome", "painters disease", "psycho-organic syndrome", "chronic toxic encephalopathy", and "neurasthenic syndrome".Methoxide: Methoxides are organic salts and the simplest alkoxides. Sodium methoxide and potassium methoxide have widespread use, though other metal-cation variants such as lithium methoxide, rubidium methoxide, caesium methoxide, and francium methoxide exist as well.Org 20599Canadian Renewable Fuels Association: The Canadian Renewable Fuels Association (CRFA) is a non-profit organization in Canada, created in 1984. Its stated purpose is to "promote renewable fuels for transportation through consumer awareness and government liaison activities", and its membership includes "representatives from all levels of the ethanol and biodiesel industry", including agricultural associations and producers of ethanol and biodiesel.D-xylose reductase: D-xylose reductase (, XylR, XyrA, msXR, dsXR, monospecific xylose reductase, dual specific xylose reductase, NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase, xylose reductase) is an enzyme with system name xylitol:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction

(1/9751) Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures.

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

(2/9751) Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury.

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

(3/9751) Toxicological findings in a fatal ingestion of methamphetamine.

This paper presents the case history of a fatality caused by the complications brought about by the presence of methamphetamine and ethanol. Drug concentrations are reported from samples obtained approximately 15 min after the subject was last observed to be chewing what was then believed to be gum, 3 h after the initial toxic symptoms were displayed, 6, 11, and 22 h later. The subjects conditions deteriorated over the course of this time, and he was declared dead 33 h after the initial display of toxic symptoms. The toxicological findings and concentration levels of the reported biological specimens concurred with the expected findings in a case of methamphetamine toxicity.  (+info)

(4/9751) Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans.

BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism is postulated to take place via microbial oxidation in the colon, mediated by aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. AIMS: To evaluate the role of microbial ethanol oxidation in the total elimination rate of ethanol in humans by reducing gut flora with ciprofloxacin. METHODS: Ethanol was administered intravenously at the beginning and end of a one week period to eight male volunteers. Between ethanol doses volunteers received 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily. RESULTS: A highly significant (p=0.001) reduction in the ethanol elimination rate (EER) was detected after ciprofloxacin medication. Mean (SEM) EER was 107.0 (5.3) and 96.9 (4.8) mg/kg/h before and after ciprofloxacin, respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus sp. were totally absent after medication, and faecal acetaldehyde production capacity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased from 0.91 (0.15) to 0.39 (0.08) nmol/min/mg protein. Mean faecal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was significantly (p<0. 05) decreased after medication, but ciprofloxacin did not inhibit human hepatic ADH activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin treatment decreased the ethanol elimination rate by 9.4%, with a concomitant decrease in intestinal aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, faecal ADH activity, and acetaldehyde production. As ciprofloxacin has no effect on liver blood flow, hepatic ADH activity, or cytochrome CYP2E1 activity, these effects are probably caused by the reduction in intestinal flora.  (+info)

(5/9751) Acute effects of ethanol on kainate receptors with different subunit compositions.

Previous studies showed that recombinant homomeric GluR6 receptors are acutely inhibited by ethanol. This study examined the acute actions of ethanol on recombinant homomeric and heteromeric kainate (KA) receptors with different subunit configurations. Application of 25 to 100 mM ethanol produced inhibition of a similar magnitude of both GluR5-Q and GluR6-R KA receptor-dependent currents in Xenopus oocytes. Ethanol decreased the KA Emax without affecting the EC50 and its effect was independent of the membrane holding potential for both of these receptors subtypes. Ethanol also inhibited homomeric and heteromeric receptors transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. In these cells, the expression of heteromeric GluR6-R subunit-containing receptors was confirmed by testing their sensitivity to 1 mM alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid. Ethanol inhibited to a similar extent KA-gated currents mediated by receptors composed of either GluR6 or GluR6 + KA1 subunits, and to a slightly lesser extent receptors composed of GluR6 + KA2 subunits. Acute ethanol's effects were tested on GluR5 KA receptors that are expressed as homomers (GluR5-Q) or heteromers (GluR5-R + KA1 and GluR5-R + KA2). Homomeric and heteromeric GluR5 KA receptors were all inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol; however, there was slightly more inhibition of GluR5-R + KA2 receptors. Thus, recombinant KA receptors with different subunit compositions are all acutely inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol. In light of recent reports that KA receptors regulate neurotransmitter release and mediate synaptic currents, we postulate that these receptors may play a role in acute ethanol intoxication.  (+info)

(6/9751) Ethanol exposure differentially alters central monoamine neurotransmission in alcohol-preferring versus -nonpreferring rats.

Individual differences in ethanol preference may be linked to differences in the functional activity of forebrain monoamine systems or their sensitivity to modification by ethanol. To test this hypothesis, basal extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens as well as the effects of repeated ethanol pretreatment on the basal release of these transmitters were examined in alcohol-preferring (P), alcohol-nonpreferring (NP), and genetically heterogeneous Wistar rats. All animals received i.p. injections of ethanol (1.0 g/kg) or saline for 5 consecutive days. Fifteen hours after the final pretreatment, basal extracellular concentrations and "in vivo extraction fraction" values for DA and 5-HT were determined by no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis. In ethanol-naive rats, significant line differences were observed with high basal 5-HT release in P rats, low 5-HT release in NP rats, and intermediate 5-HT levels in Wistar rats. No differences among groups were noted in basal DA release. Ethanol pretreatment decreased basal extracellular 5-HT levels in P rats whereas increasing 5-HT efflux was seen in the Wistar and NP lines. In addition, ethanol pretreatment increased extracellular DA concentrations in Wistar and P rats, but not in NP rats. The results confirm a relationship between the functional status of forebrain DA and 5-HT systems and ethanol preference or aversion. Moreover, the data suggest that ethanol exposure can alter basal DA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and that vulnerability to ethanol-induced changes in monoamine neurotransmission may be a factor in genetically determined ethanol preference.  (+info)

(7/9751) Isocitrate lyase of Ashbya gossypii--transcriptional regulation and peroxisomal localization.

The isocitrate lyase-encoding gene AgICL1 from the filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii was isolated by heterologous complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae icl1d mutant. The open reading frame of 1680 bp encoded a protein of 560 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 62584. Disruption of the AgICL1 gene led to complete loss of AgIcl1p activity and inability to grow on oleic acid as sole carbon source. Compartmentation of AgIcl1p in peroxisomes was demonstrated both by Percoll density gradient centrifugation and by immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections using specific antibodies. This fitted with the peroxisomal targeting signal AKL predicted from the C-terminal DNA sequence. Northern blot analysis with mycelium grown on different carbon sources as well as AgICL1 promoter replacement with the constitutive AgTEF promoter revealed a regulation at the transcriptional level. AgICL1 was subject to glucose repression, derepressed by glycerol, partially induced by the C2 compounds ethanol and acetate, and fully induced by soybean oil.  (+info)

(8/9751) Antisense RNA strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

We examined the effectiveness of antisense RNA (as RNA) strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) was developed to produce a 102-nucleotide asRNA with 87% complementarity to the butyrate kinase (BK) gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) exhibited 85 to 90% lower BK and acetate kinase specific activities than the control strain. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) also exhibited 45 to 50% lower phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and phosphotransacetylase specific activities than the control strain. This strain exhibited earlier induction of solventogenesis, which resulted in 50 and 35% higher final concentrations of acetone and butanol, respectively, than the concentrations in the control. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) was developed to putatively produce a 698-nucleotide asRNA with 96% complementarity to the PTB gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) exhibited 70 and 80% lower PTB and BK activities, respectively, than the control exhibited. It also exhibited 300% higher levels of a lactate dehydrogenase activity than the control exhibited. The growth yields of ATCC 824(pRD1) were 28% less than the growth yields of the control. While the levels of acids were not affected in ATCC 824(pRD1) fermentations, the acetone and butanol concentrations were 96 and 75% lower, respectively, than the concentrations in the control fermentations. The lower level of solvent production by ATCC 824(pRD1) was compensated for by approximately 100-fold higher levels of lactate production. The lack of any significant impact on butyrate formation fluxes by the lower PTB and BK levels suggests that butyrate formation fluxes are not controlled by the levels of the butyrate formation enzymes.  (+info)



cellulosic ethanol


  • INEOS Bio fuels will anchor new production of cellulosic ethanol under the US Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS). (prnewswire.com)
  • VERO BEACH, Fla. , July 31, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- INEOS Bio today announced that its Indian River BioEnergy Center (Center) is now producing cellulosic ethanol at commercial scale. (prnewswire.com)
  • It will have an annual output of eight million gallons (24kta) of cellulosic ethanol and six megawatts (gross) of renewable power. (prnewswire.com)
  • The biofuels produced in Florida will anchor the new production of cellulosic ethanol under the U.S. Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS). (prnewswire.com)
  • An even bigger win followed: The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 [ PDF ] extended and enlarged the RFS, mandating 36 billion gallons of biofuels by 2022, broken down as 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol, 15 billion gallons of corn ethanol and 5 billion gallons of non-cellulosic advanced biofuels, including at least 1 billion gallons of biodiesel. (tgdaily.com)
  • Then there is the not-so-small matter of reality not meshing with hope when it comes to cellulosic ethanol. (tgdaily.com)
  • Despite support for the sector - which continued in 2011 with loan guarantees for new plants in Iowa and in Kansas - cellulosic ethanol has so far been a huge bust. (tgdaily.com)
  • A higher Renewable Fuel Standard, greater access to renewable fuel pumps, more research and development of cellulosic ethanol, and perhaps most importantly, approval of intermediate ethanol blends are critical to the growth and sustainability of the ethanol industry. (csnews.com)

abandoning ethanol production


  • Despite the above criticisms of biofuel consumption and free trade, the key to higher living standards for the poor of Latin America does not lie in protectionist trade measures or abandoning ethanol production. (enn.com)

gasoline


  • President Bush and other elected officials have called for a greater expansion of E-85, a fuel made of 85 percent ethanol that can be used in vehicles built to run on both regular unleaded gasoline and E-85. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Imports of Brazilian ethanol could be a major step toward achieving Bush's goal of reducing American gasoline consumption by 20 percent over the next ten years. (enn.com)
  • Groups representing the livestock and poultry industry are petitioning the Obama administration to waive requirements for gasoline refineries to blend ethanol into their fuel production for one year. (go.com)
  • When all the greenhouse gas emissions related to producing corn and converting it into ethanol are tallied, average corn ethanol reduces emissions by 34 percent compared to gasoline -- that's according to Argonne National Laboratory and its scientists. (dailyherald.com)
  • Designed to make the fuel more cost competitive, the tax credit pays refiners, including BP, Shell and Exxon, 45 cents a gallon to blend ethanol with gasoline. (ewg.org)
  • Mixing ethanol with gasoline was supposed to help reduce fossil fuel consumption and improve emissions, but there's evidence that over the full range of the production cycle from farm to tank, there's little if any gain in those areas. (timesunion.com)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency recently proposed reducing the amount of ethanol required to be mixed with gasoline for the first time since 2007, when President George W. Bush signed the requirement into law. (timesunion.com)
  • Congress and the Administration need to work together with the ethanol and automotive industries to approve intermediate blends of ethanol-blended gasoline for non flex-fuel vehicles," he said. (csnews.com)

corn-based


  • She also called for a massive expansion of ethanol, a corn-based fuel additive and substitute, which is currently only available at a small percentage of gas stations in the United States. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Congress is weighing pulling back subsidies for corn-based ethanol. (timesunion.com)
  • the current infrastructure chugs along producing more and more corn based ethanol daily. (dailytech.com)

gallons


  • The plant will produce 70 million gallons of ethanol fuel annually from about 25 million bushels of corn. (washingtontimes.com)

America's


  • As the world's largest producer of sugar and a pioneer in the production of ethanol, Brazil is a key ally in Bush's plan to reduce America's foreign oil dependence and environmental footprint. (enn.com)
  • This destruction only adds to the concern about the wisdom and supposed benefits of America's national policy on ethanol, which many view as surviving only as a political favor to farming interests in the Midwest. (timesunion.com)
  • ST. PAUL, Minn. -- National and state policymakers championed ethanol's benefits for America's agriculture, economy, environment and energy security at the American Coalition for Ethanol's (ACE) 20th annual Ethanol Conference & Trade Show. (csnews.com)
  • But America's farmers and ethanol producers are meeting the challenge. (csnews.com)

producers


  • As ethanol can be produced from sugar, increased consumption of the fuel in the United States could also lead to a higher commodity price for sugar producers in Brazil, with the potential to lift thousands out of poverty. (enn.com)
  • If the United States were to increase imports of Brazilian ethanol, the additional demand could lift the price paid to Brazilian sugar producers from a recent low of only nine cents per pound. (enn.com)
  • By limiting market access for Brazilian ethanol producers, who would benefit from increased exports, the U.S. tariff also limits the subsequent benefits that would accrue to Brazilian sugar producers. (enn.com)
  • The subsidies that flow to the ethanol producers come through a tax credit known as the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit, or VEETC. (ewg.org)
  • Subsidized corn growers and corn ethanol producers and blenders are reaping big profits, but the corn ethanol "bridge" will become a "destination" if the industry gets its wish from Congress. (ewg.org)

nation's


  • E-85 is currently available in less than one percent of the country's gas stations, and Clinton wants to accelerate the spread of the fuel to half of the nation's gas stations by 2015 by offering a 50 percent tax credit for station owners who install ethanol pumps. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Fully 40 percent of the nation's corn crop was set aside for ethanol production last year. (timesunion.com)
  • ACE is the nation's largest ethanol association, with nearly 2,000 members nationwide. (csnews.com)

growers


  • Congress should dial back on subsidies to corn-for-ethanol growers as part of an overall revisiting of our country's energy policy. (timesunion.com)

subsidies


  • It's poised to approve billions in additional federal subsidies to the corn ethanol industry in the lame duck session that began this week. (ewg.org)

Opponents


  • PIERRE, S.D. (AP) - A judge has handed a setback to opponents of an ethanol plant just outside of Onida. (washingtontimes.com)

Despite


  • Despite the Bush Administration's explicit support for increased U.S. ethanol consumption, the United States maintains a tariff of 54 cents per gallon for imported ethanol. (enn.com)

biofuels


  • Eight years ago, the ethanol industry was keeping up the pretence that corn ethanol was a "bridge" to advanced biofuels. (ewg.org)

Environmental Protec


  • Thune has focused heavily on the issue of higher ethanol blends, urging the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to act quickly on Minnesota's forthcoming application for the approval of E20. (csnews.com)

production


  • For instance, due to its use in the production of ethanol, corn prices have risen more than 80 percent since last summer, from $2.17 to nearly $4 a bushel. (enn.com)
  • The use of sugar in ethanol production has the potential to benefit thousands of rural farmers in Latin America who depend on the commodity's price. (enn.com)
  • Furthermore, since ethanol production in the United States is based on corn, the tariff also leads to a higher price of corn in the United States. (enn.com)
  • In these ways, it is the U.S. tariff on ethanol imports that may have caused higher tortilla prices in Mexico and slowed the growth of Brazilian ethanol production. (enn.com)
  • In fact, because ethanol plants also produce a high protein feed, limiting ethanol production will only further complicate drought related feed issues and costs. (go.com)
  • Ethanol production has been blasted by everyone from academia to the UN for its undesirable effect of raising food crop prices . (dailytech.com)
  • It involves growing fungi in leftovers of ethanol production . (dailytech.com)
  • Hans van Leeuwen, an Iowa State professor of civil, construction and environmental engineering and the leader of the research project states, "The process could change ethanol production in dry-grind plants so much that energy costs can be reduced by as much as one-third. (dailytech.com)
  • The Iowa research seeks to fine tune dry-grind ethanol production. (dailytech.com)

renewable


  • Bob Dineen of the Renewable Fuels Association says while they understand the farmers' plight, the only beneficiary to an ethanol suspension would be oil companies. (go.com)
  • An Environmental Working Group (EWG) analysis of data compiled by the industry's own trade association, the Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), revealed some interesting facts about the state of the corn ethanol industry and just who's getting the taxpayer-funded subsidy dollars. (ewg.org)

fuel


  • WASHINGTON -- Democratic Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton on Tuesday called for cutting U.S. dependence on foreign oil in half by nearly 8 million barrels a day by the year 2025 _ a goal she said can be met with more ethanol-based fuel and a $50 billion research fund. (washingtonpost.com)

plants


  • And over that same period, farmers went from owning about half of all ethanol plants to just 19 percent today. (ewg.org)

farmers


  • Ethanol has not been "far more damaging to the environment than politicians promised" nor caused farmers to "plow into pristine prairies, releasing carbon dioxide that had been locked in the soil. (dailyherald.com)

Associated Press


  • Your Nov. 12 Associated Press story on "The secret cost of U.S. ethanol policy" is fast and loose with its accusations, yet quite void of facts and distorting. (dailyherald.com)

industry


  • The petition comes little over a week since poultry groups lost a challenge to the mandate in federal court, the latest in the spat between some farming organizations and the ethanol industry. (go.com)
  • This year's ethanol conference brought together not only industry founders, but also new faces who are coming to the table in support of ethanol," Brian Jennings, ACE executive vice president, said in a news release. (csnews.com)
  • We need to have effective public policy in place that keeps the ethanol industry growing in a sustainable and productive manner," he said. (csnews.com)

growth


  • Barring a dramatic change of course, it seems unlikely that the growth of corn ethanol will stop in the short term. (dailytech.com)

percent


  • According to EPA's latest Greenhouse Gas Inventory, no new grassland has been converted to cropland since 2005 and grassland sequestered 14 percent more carbon in 2011 (latest data available) than in 1990 -- pre-ethanol. (dailyherald.com)

Price


  • This tariff limits U.S. ethanol imports and creates a higher domestic price than would otherwise result from a more open market. (enn.com)
  • Oil and gas companies get this tax subsidy regardless of the price of ethanol or how large their profits are. (ewg.org)

issue


  • At the heart of the issue is U.S. ethanol policy. (enn.com)

policy


  • The AP report also offered a reminder of the foibles of ethanol being part of the Obama administration's "all of the above" approach to energy policy. (timesunion.com)
  • Ethanol is a five-fold win on national security, on economic stability, on rural economic development, on environment policy, and importantly on agriculture and farm policy as well," he said. (csnews.com)

Iowa


  • Ethanol is popular in corn-producing states, especially Iowa, which holds the first caucus of the presidential primary. (washingtonpost.com)

federal


  • In fact, a majority of scientists and U.S. federal agencies recognize the benefits of ethanol. (dailyherald.com)

toward


  • On that basis alone, the public investment, the public encouragement toward ethanol is worth it -- and then some. (csnews.com)

sugar


  • Ever since we realized that sugar could be fermented into ethanol, the fun began. (thinkgeek.com)

energy


  • There is a tremendous energy in the ethanol movement right now, and that spirit was evident during the conference. (csnews.com)
  • Pawlenty, who chairs the National Governors Association and has selected a clean energy future as the year's group topic, called ethanol a "win" on many fronts. (csnews.com)

future


  • Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and U.S. President Bush met last week at Camp David to discuss the future of ethanol. (enn.com)

members


  • For Advanced Beverage Ethanol Distillers is a Public Group with 5192 members. (yahoo.com)