Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Esthetics: The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.Smiling: A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Denture, Partial, Fixed: A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Diastema: An abnormal opening or fissure between two adjacent teeth.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Dental Veneers: The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic: The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Denture, Partial, Removable: A partial denture designed and constructed to be removed readily from the mouth.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Denture Design: The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Prosthesis Coloring: Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dental Abutments: Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Orthodontics, Corrective: The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Dental Implants, Single-Tooth: Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported: A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Denture Retention: The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Post and Core Technique: Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Tooth DiseasesDental Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Dental Waste: Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Dental Facilities: Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Stomatognathic Diseases: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.American Dental Association: Professional society representing the field of dentistry.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Legislation, Dental: Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Libraries, DentalDiagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Group Practice, Dental: Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Dental Pulp CalcificationTooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Dental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Mouth DiseasesAge Determination by Teeth: A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.Dental Disinfectants: Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Forensic Dentistry: The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Periodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.Manifest Anxiety Scale: True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Dental Deposits: Accumulations of microflora that lead to pathological plaque and calculus which cause PERIODONTAL DISEASES. It can be considered a type of BIOFILMS. It is subtly distinguished from the protective DENTAL PELLICLE.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Dental Pulp Capping: Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.Dentition, Permanent: The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.State Dentistry: Control, direction and financing of the total dental care of the population by a national government.Geriatric Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of older people.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Dental Caries Activity Tests: Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.School Dentistry: Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Focal Infection, Dental: Secondary or systemic infections due to dissemination throughout the body of microorganisms whose primary focus of infection lies in the periodontal tissues.Dental Cementum: The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Fluoridation: Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Oral Hygiene Index: A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.OdontoblastsDental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Diet, Cariogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It seeks to improve oral, dental and craniofacial health through research, research training, and the dissemination of health information by conducting and supporting basic and clinical research. It was established in 1948 as the National Institute of Dental Research and re-named in 1998 as the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research.Dental Pellicle: A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Odontometry: Measurement of tooth characteristics.Curing Lights, Dental: Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.Dentists, Women: Female dentists.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Education, Predental: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to dental school.Dental Restoration Repair: The process of repairing broken or worn parts of a PERMANENT DENTAL RESTORATION.Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Dental Casting Investment: Material from which the casting mold is made in the fabrication of gold or cobalt-chromium castings. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p168)
Dental Procedure Education System: The Dental Procedure Education System (DPES), is a web-based resource containing a collection of procedures from the dental disciplines. The procedures presented in DPES were developed by individual faculty members at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, in collaboration with a group of educational media and technology experts.Thread-locking fluid: Thread-locking fluid or threadlocker is a thin, single-component adhesive, applied to the threads of fasteners such as screws and bolts to prevent loosening, leakage, and corrosion.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Dental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.Dental cariesOverjetStagemasterIron metallic discoloration: Iron metallic discoloration occurred more frequently in the past when soluble iron compounds were used in the treatment of allergic contact and other dermatitis, and in eroded areas iron was sometimes deposited in the skin, like a tattoo .James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).British Orthodontic Society: The British Orthodontic Society (BOS) is a membership organisation with over 1800 members in the United Kingdom. It is the largest of the dental specialist groups and dates back nearly a century to the formation of the British Society for the Study of Orthodontics.Micrurus diastemaMallow General Hospital: Mallow General Hospital is a public hospital located in Mallow, County Cork, Ireland.http://www.Veneer (dentistry): In dentistry, a veneer is a layer of material placed over a tooth, either to improve the aesthetics of a tooth or to protect the tooth's surface from damage. There are two main types of material used to fabricate a veneer: composite and dental porcelain.Pulp (tooth): The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts. The dental pulp is a part of the dentin–pulp complex (endodontium).Carl E. Misch: Carl E. Misch is an American prosthodontist recognized internationally for his clinical and academic contributions to the field of implant dentistry.Utah College of Dental HygienePorcelain: Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between . The toughness, strength and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises mainly from vitrification and the formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures.Crown (dentistry)Talon cuspCongenital lip pit: Congenital lip pits (also known as "Congenital sinus of the lower lip," "Lip sinus," and "Midline sinus of the upper lip") is a congenital disorder characterized by the presence of pits and possibly associated fistulas in the lips. They are often hereditary, and may occur alone or in association with cleft lip and palate, termed Van der Woude syndrome.Overeruption: In dentistry, overeruption is the physiological movement of a tooth lacking an opposing partner in the dental occlusion. Because of the lack of opposing force and the natural eruptive potential of the tooth there is a tendency for the tooth to erupt out of the line of the occlusion.International Association for Dental Research: The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) is a professional association that focuses on research in the field of dentistry. The aim of this association by constitution is to promote research in all fields of oral and related sciences, to encourage improvements in methods for the prevention and treatment of oral and dental disease, to improve the oral health of the public through research, and to facilitate cooperation among investigators and the communication of research findings and their implications throughout the world.Nordic Institute of Dental Materials: NorwayAbutment (dentistry): In dentistry, an abutment is a connecting element. This is used in the context of a fixed bridge (the "abutment teeth" referring to the teeth supporting the bridge), partial removable dentures (the "abutment teeth" referring to the teeth supporting the partial) and in implants (used to attach a crown, bridge, or removable denture to the dental implant fixture).Dental plaque: Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth. It appears as a white or pale yellow "slime layer", that is commonly found between the teeth and along the cervical margins.SOAP note: The SOAP note (an acronym for subjective, objective, assessment, and plan) is a method of documentation employed by health care providers to write out notes in a patient's chart, along with other common formats, such as the admission note. Documenting patient encounters in the medical record is an integral part of practice workflow starting with patient appointment scheduling, to writing out notes, to medical billing.Endodontic therapy: Endodontic therapy or root canal therapy is a sequence of treatment for the infected pulp of a tooth which results in the elimination of infection and the protection of the decontaminated tooth from future microbial invasion. Root canals and their associated pulp chamber are the physical hollows within a tooth that are naturally inhabited by nerve tissue, blood vessels and other cellular entities which together constitute the dental pulp.Glot-Up: A Glot-Up is type of dental equipment, something in between a mouth guard and an adult-sized pacifier.MFDS: MFDS is the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, a government department in South Korea. This is former KFDA, Korean Food and Drug Administration.Amalgam (chemistry): An amalgam is a substance formed by the reaction of mercury with another metal. Almost all metals can form amalgams with mercury, the notable exceptions being iron, platinum, tungsten, and tantalum.Equine malocclusion: An equine malocclusion is a misalignment between the upper and lower jaws of a horse or other equine. It results in a faulty bite with the upper and lower teeth failing to meet correctly.Running room (dentistry): In implant dentistry, running room refers to the apico-coronal distance between the platform of a dental implant and the gingival margin. It is a critical factor in restorative implant dentistry because it is effectively the "vertical distance [available subgingivaly] to make a transition from the smaller diameter prosthetic platform of an implant to the larger cross-sectional cervical shape of the tooth being restored.International Federation of Dental Anesthesiology Societies: The International Federation of Dental Anesthesiology Societies (IFDAS) is a professional association established in 1976. IFDAS is devoted solely to promoting the safe and effective use of sedation and anesthesia by educationally qualified dentists for their patients.Implant stability quotient: The implant stability quotient (ISQ) is the value on a scale that indicates the level of stability and osseointegration in dental implants. The scale ranges from 1 to 100 and is measured by implant stability meters instruments using resonance frequency analysis (RFA) technique.Ocular prosthesisDental radiographyPostgraduate training in general dentistry: ==Australia==Sydney Dental HospitalZirconium phosphate: Zirconium phosphates (zirconium hydrogen phosphate) are acidic, inorganic cation exchange materials that have a layered structure with formula Zr(HPO4)2∙nH2O.Clearfield, A.American Dental Society of Anesthesiology: The American Dental Society of Anesthesiology (ADSA) is an American professional association established in 1953 and based in Chicago.Dental fluorosisUniversity of the East College of Dentistry: The University of the East College of Dentistry was first established as a unit of the Philippine College of Commerce and Business Administration in 1948. The college is one of the pioneers of dental education and labeled as one of the top dental schools in the Philippines.Coronation Dental Specialty GroupDenturist: A Denturist in the United States and Canada, clinical dental technician in the UK or (in Australia) a dental prosthetist, is a member of the oral health care team who provides an oral health examination, takes impressions of the surrounding oral tissues, constructs and delivers removable oral prosthesis (dentures and partial dentures) directly to the patient.American Academy of denturitry.Outline of dentistry and oral health: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to dentistry and oral health:Cephalogram: A cephalogram is an X-ray of the craniofacial area. A cephalometric analysis could be used as means for measuring growth in children.Tufting (composites): In the field of composite materials, tufting is an experimental technology to locally reinforce continuous fibre-reinforced plastics along the z-direction, with the objective of enhancing the shear and delamination resistance of the structure.Human tooth: The human teeth function in mechanically breaking down items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digestion. There are four different types of teeth, namely incisors, canines, molars and premolars.Blue colour works: A blue colour works () is a paintworks where blue paint for use in glassmaking is produced. Usually the pigment, cobalt blue, needed for this purpose, was manufactured from cobalt-containing ore as in the case of the factories listed below.Cork University Hospital: Cork University Hospital (Irish: Ospidéal Ollscoil Chorcaí), abbreviated as CUH, is the largest university teaching hospital in Ireland and is the only Level 1 trauma center in the country due to the presence of over 40 different medical and surgical specialties on the campus. It is operated by the Health Service Executive.
(1/251) In vitro comparison of the retention capacity of new aesthetic brackets.
Tensile bond strength and bond failure location were evaluated in vitro for two types of aesthetic brackets (non-silanated ceramic, polycarbonate) and one stainless steel bracket, using bovine teeth as the substrate and diacrylate resin as the adhesive. The results show that metallic bracket had the highest bond strength (13.21 N) followed by the new plastic bracket (12.01 N), which does not require the use of a primer. The non-silanated ceramic bracket produced the lowest bond strength (8.88 N). Bond failures occurred mainly between bracket and cement, although a small percentage occurred between the enamel-cement interface with the metal and plastic brackets and within the cement for the plastic bracket. With the ceramic bracket all the failures occurred at the bracket-cement interface. This suggests that the problems of enamel lesions produced by this type of bracket may have been eliminated. The results also show that the enamel/adhesive bond is stronger than the adhesive/bracket bond in this in vitro study. (+info)
(2/251) Motivation for and satisfaction with orthodontic-surgical treatment: a retrospective study of 28 patients.
Motivation for starting treatment and satisfaction with treatment results were evaluated on the basis of replies to a 14-item questionnaire and clinical examination of 28 orthognathic patients from 6 months to 2 years after treatment. The most common reasons for seeking professional help were problems in biting and chewing (68 per cent). Another major reason was dissatisfaction with facial appearance (36 per cent). Many patients also complained of temporomandibular joint symptoms (32 per cent) and headache (32 per cent). Women (8/19) were more often dissatisfied with their facial appearance than men (2/9), but the difference was not statistically significant. In agreement with earlier studies, the results of orthognathic treatment fulfilled the expectations of almost every patient. Nearly 100 per cent of the patients (27/28) were satisfied with treatment results, although 40 per cent experienced some degree of numbness in the lips and/or jaw 1 year post-operatively. The most satisfied patients were those who stated temporomandibular disorders as the main reason for seeking treatment and whose PAR-index had improved greatly. The majority of the patients experienced the orthodontic treatment as painful and as the most unpleasant part of the whole treatment, but all the patients were satisfied with the pre-treatment information they were given on orthodontics. Orthodontic-surgical therapy should be of a high professional standard technically, but the psychological aspects are equally important in the treatment protocol. The professionals should make efforts to understand the patient's motivations for and expectations of treatment. Patients should be well prepared for surgery and supported for a long time after to help them to adjust to post-surgical changes. (+info)
(3/251) The classification of smile patterns.
Although "smile therapy" is still in its infancy, society has already placed a great demand on dentists to evaluate and treat smiles. The smile classification scheme and vocabulary presented in this article will aid in discussions between patient and dentist regarding esthetic treatment. (+info)
(4/251) Diagnostic provisional restorations in restorative dentistry: the blueprint for success.
There is no question that patients today demand a sophisticated level of restorative dentistry, in terms of both esthetics and function. No elective restorative dentistry should be undertaken without a clear understanding of the patient's expectations and the limitations of restorative therapy. The dentist should have a clear picture in mind of the final results before initiating irreversible therapy. The use of mounted diagnostic casts, diagnostic wax-ups and provisional restorations permits patient acceptance to be obtained before the definitive phase is initiated. Too often the dentist does not take advantage of this important restorative option, with disastrous results when definitive restorations are viewed by the patient for the first time. By following the plan of treatment outlined in this article, such disasters can be avoided. (+info)
(5/251) A review of glass ionomer restorations in the primary dentition.
Glass ionomer cements are tooth-coloured materials that bond chemically to dental hard tissues and release fluoride for a relatively long period. They have therefore been suggested as the materials of choice for the restoration of carious primary teeth. However, the clinical performance of conventional and metal-reinforced glass ionomer restorations in primary molars is disappointing. And although the handling and physical properties of the resin-modified materials are better than their predecessors, more clinical studies are required to confirm their efficacy in the restoration of primary molars. (+info)
(6/251) The influence of dental to facial midline discrepancies on dental attractiveness ratings.
This study investigated the perception of discrepancies between the dental and facial midlines by orthodontists and young laypeople. A smiling photograph of a young adult female was modified by moving the dental midline relative to the facial midline. Twenty orthodontists (10 males and 10 females) and 20 young adult laypeople (10 males and 10 females) scored the attractiveness of the smile on the original image and each of the modified images using a 10-point scale. The results showed that the images were scored as less attractive both by the orthodontists and laypeople as the size of the dental to facial midline discrepancy increased. The scores were unrelated to the direction of the midline discrepancy (left or right) or to the gender of the judge. Further analysis revealed that the orthodontists were more sensitive than laypeople to small discrepancies between the dental and facial midline. It was estimated that the probability of a layperson recording a less favourable attractiveness score when there was a 2-mm discrepancy between the dental and facial midlines was 56 per cent. (+info)
(7/251) Post-extraction remodeling of the adult mandible.
Following tooth loss, the mandible shows an extensive loss of bone in some individuals. This may pose a significant problem in the prosthodontic restoration of function and esthetics. The many factors which have been proposed as being responsible for the inter-individual variation in post-extraction remodeling mean that a perfunctory analysis of the literature, in which well-controlled, relevant studies are scarce, may not provide the whole story. This article reviews the local and systemic factors which may play a role in the post-extraction remodeling of the mandible. Since severe residual ridge resorption may occur even when the bone status in the rest of the skeleton is good and vice versa, it is concluded that local functional factors are of paramount significance. It is now essential to determine how they can be modified and applied to help maintain ridge height and quality in our aging, edentulous population. (+info)
(8/251) The reliability of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need over time.
The aim of this investigation was to establish whether the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need is reliable over time between the ages of 11 and 19 years. It consisted of a longitudinal sample of 314 11- and 15-year-old and 142 19-year-old subjects who had not received orthodontic treatment or extractions. The changes in the aesthetic component (AC) and the dental health component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) were measured between the ages of 11 and 19 years. The results suggested that the dental health component of IOTN was reliable over time between the ages of 11-19 years despite temporal changes in the separate occlusal traits that comprise the index. The aesthetic component of IOTN tended to show an improvement over time. The Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need is a reliable index over time when taking into account occlusal changes that are occurring during the 11-19-year age range. The study provides some reassurance to clinicians that an IOTN grading at age 11 years is unlikely to change by the time the patient is 19 years. Refereed Scientific Paper (+info)