EstersDennstaedtiaceae: The bracken fern plant family of the order Polypodiales, class Filicopsida, division Pteridophyta.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Phorbols: The parent alcohol of the tumor promoting compounds from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium).Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Caffeic Acids: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.EsterasesStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Carboxylesterase: Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Dental Implants, Single-Tooth: Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Tosylarginine Methyl Ester: Arginine derivative which is a substrate for many proteolytic enzymes. As a substrate for the esterase from the first component of complement, it inhibits the action of C(l) on C(4).DiglyceridesLipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.TriglyceridesNitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Phthalic Acids: A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Lateral Ventricles: Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Bryostatins: A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)KetonesTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Sulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Formic Acid EstersApolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Margarine: A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.TritiumDiterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Nitrophenols

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*  3[beta]-(substituted phenyl)tropan-2-carboxylic acid ester analogues of cocaine: synthesis and biochemical and pharmacological...

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*  Ester Castro

... made it into BuzzFeed's Top 100 on July 24, 2011! Their posts will now appear in the Just Launched section of the ...
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*  ester-**'s favorites | Flickr

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*  Ester Auðunsdóttir | Credits | AllMusic

Find Ester Auðunsdóttir credit information on AllMusic ...
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*  Polly Ester on Behance

Polly Ester hasn't uploaded any projects.. Please check back soon. Until then, you can explore other creative work in Discover ...
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*  Asam Karboksilat dan Ester

... pptx
mediafire.com/file/4v9d8xla2vt6p8d/Asam Karboksilat dan Ester.pptx

*  Patent US3567740 - Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid esters - Google Patents

The ester of claim 1 wherein R is 4-allylphenyl. 13. The ester of claim 1 which is S-benzyl-3-furylmethyl 2,2,3,3- ... Cyclopropane carboxylic acid esters. US3873716 *. Dec 3, 1973. Mar 25, 1975. Procter & Gamble. Insecticidal esters of ... esters of such alcohols with the present cyclopropanecarboxylic acids are more excellent in insecticidal activity than esters ... Allethronyl esters of certain cyclopropane-carboxylic acids as insecticides. US3716558 *. Apr 23, 1970. Feb 13, 1973. Sumitomo ...
google.com/patents/US3567740?dq=4316055

*  Mildred Ester Mathias - Wikipedia

La abreviatura Mathias se emplea para indicar a Mildred Ester Mathias como autoridad en la descripción y clasificación ...
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ForskolinChlorophyllase: Chlorophyllase (klawr-uh-fil-eys)chlorophyllase - Definitions from Dictionary.com is the key enzyme in chlorophyll metabolism.Phorbol 12,13-dibutyratePHLPP: The PHLPP isoforms (PH domain and Leucine rich repeat Protein Phosphatases) are a pair of protein phosphatases, PHLPP1 and PHLPP2, that are important regulators of Akt serine-threonine kinases (Akt1, Akt2, Akt3) and conventional/novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. PHLPP may act as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer due to its ability to block growth factor-induced signaling in cancer cells.Steglich esterification: The Steglich esterification is a variation of an esterfication with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as a coupling reagent and 4-dimethylaminopyridine as a catalyst. The reaction was first described by Wolfgang Steglich in 1978.Carnauba wax: Carnauba ( or , , ), also called Brazil wax and palm wax, is a wax of the leaves of the palm Copernicia prunifera (Synonym: Copernicia cerifera), a plant native to and grown only in the northeastern Brazilian states of Piauí, Ceará, and Rio Grande do Norte. It is known as "queen of waxes" and in its pure state, usually comes in the form of hard yellow-brown flakes.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".NCEH1: Neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 (NCEH) also known as arylacetamide deacetylase-like 1 (AADACL1) or KIAA1363 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NCEH1 gene.CholesterolHeptadecanoic acidCaffeic acid phenethyl esterAsymmetric ester hydrolysis with pig-liver esterase: Asymmetric ester hydrolysis with pig liver esterase is the enantioselective conversion of an ester to a carboxylic acid through the action of the enzyme pig liver esterase (EC 3.1.Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation: Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (also called the Sharpless bishydroxylation) is the chemical reaction of an alkene with osmium tetroxide in the presence of a chiral quinine ligand to form a vicinal diol.Electron-capture mass spectrometry: Electron-capture mass spectrometry (EC-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that uses electron capture ionization (ECI) to form negative ions from chemical compounds with positive electron affinities. The approach is particularly effective for electrophiles.Triacylglycerol lipase: Triacylglycerol lipase (, lipase, butyrinase, tributyrinase, Tween hydrolase, steapsin, triacetinase, tributyrin esterase, Tweenase, amno N-AP, Takedo 1969-4-9, Meito MY 30, Tweenesterase, GA 56, capalase L, triglyceride hydrolase, triolein hydrolase, tween-hydrolyzing esterase, amano CE, cacordase, triglyceridase, triacylglycerol ester hydrolase, amano P, amano AP, PPL, glycerol-ester hydrolase, GEH, meito Sangyo OF lipase, hepatic lipase, lipazin, post-heparin plasma protamine-resistant lipase, salt-resistant post-heparin lipase, heparin releasable hepatic lipase, amano CES, amano B, tributyrase, triglyceride lipase, liver lipase, hepatic monoacylglycerol acyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name triacylglycerol acylhydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAtherosclerosisTriglycerideNitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent): Nitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent) (, nitric oxide synthetase, NO synthase) is an enzyme with system name L-arginine,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (nitric-oxide-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIVitamin WellHigh-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.Prodrug: A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e.Specificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Very low-density lipoprotein: Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver. VLDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein) that enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream.Diethyl phthalateEthyl groupPhospholipidYamaguchi esterification: The Yamaguchi esterification is the chemical reaction of an aliphatic carboxylic acid and 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride (TCBC, Yamaguchi reagent) to form a mixed anhydride which, upon reaction with an alcohol in the presence of stoichiometric amount of DMAP, produces the desired ester. It was first reported by Masaru Yamaguchi et al.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Hydrogen silsesquioxane: [T8 Cube.png|200px|thumbnail|right| Hydrogen silsesquioxane (R = H).Protein detoxification: Protein detoxification is the process by which proteins containing methylated arginine are broken down and removed from the body.Coles PhillipsConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Tumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry: right|300 px|Example of a GC-MS instrument|thumbAlkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Sustentacular cellGlycerideAcid catalysis: In acid catalysis and base catalysis a chemical reaction is catalyzed by an acid or a base. The acid is the proton donor and the base is the proton acceptor.AcyltransferaseCalcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.C4H7N3O3Fluorotelomer alcohol: Fluorotelomer alcohols, or FTOHs, are fluorotelomers with an alcohol functional group. They are volatile precursors to perfluorinated carboxylic acids, such as PFOA and PFNA, and other compounds.Mediated transportPlant stanol ester: Stanol esters are a heterogeneous group of phytosterol esters with a saturated sterol ring structure known to reduce the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in blood when ingested. Despite a well documented cholesterol lowering effect, there are no data available indicating that functional foods supplemented with plant sterol esters reduce cardiovascular events.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Molecular modificationSterol carrier protein: A:437-540 A:437-540 A:628-731DiketoneTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Apolipoprotein O: Apolipoprotein O also known as protein FAM121B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOO gene. APOO is a member of the apolipoprotein family.Isozyme: Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as Multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction. These enzymes usually display different kinetic parameters (e.New Zealand rabbitScavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein domain: In molecular biology, the protein domain SRCR is short for Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain. They are found solely in eukaryotes.Acylation: In chemistry, acylation (rarely, but more formally: alkanoylation) is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound. The compound providing the acyl group is called the acylating agent.TripalmitinEthyl sulfateLactone: Lactones are cyclic esters of hydroxycarboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure, or analogues having unsaturation or heteroatoms replacing one or more carbon atoms of the ring.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Methyl chloroformateApolipoprotein L: Apolipoprotein L (Apo L) belongs to the high density lipoprotein family that plays a central role in cholesterol transport. The cholesterol content of membranes is important in cellular processes such as modulating gene transcription and signal transduction both in the adult brain and during neurodevelopment.Chylomicron: Chylomicrons (from the Greek chylo, meaning juice or milky fluid, and micron, meaning small particle) are lipoprotein particles that consist of triglycerides (85–92%), phospholipids (6–12%), cholesterol (1–3%), and proteins (1–2%).M Mahmood Hussain: "Review Article: A proposed model for the assembly of chylomicrons"; Arterosclerosis; Vol.TrigonellinePlant stanols: Plant stanols are like cholesterol but for plants. They are commonly found in plant related foods.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Lithium 12-hydroxystearatePlanta Margarine: Planta is a brand of margarine produced by Unilever for Belgium, France, Malaysia and Portugal. It is made from vegetable oil: rapeseed, maize and sunflower.

(1/2031) Mechanistic alternatives in phosphate monoester hydrolysis: what conclusions can be drawn from available experimental data?

Phosphate monoester hydrolysis reactions in enzymes and solution are often discussed in terms of whether the reaction pathway is associative or dissociative. Although experimental results for solution reactions have usually been considered as evidence for the second alternative, a closer thermodynamic analysis of observed linear free energy relationships shows that experimental information is consistent with the associative, concerted and dissociative alternatives.  (+info)

(2/2031) Effects of 2 low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines on serum cholesterol concentrations as part of a low-fat diet in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

BACKGROUND: Full-fat sitostanol ester-containing margarine reduces serum total and LDL cholesterol, but the effect of plant stanol ester-containing margarine as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the cholesterol-lowering effects of 2 novel, low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines as part of a low-fat diet recommended for hypercholesterolemic subjects. DESIGN: In a parallel, double-blind study, 55 hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly assigned after a 4-wk high-fat diet (baseline) to 3 low-fat margarine groups: wood stanol ester-containing margarine (WSEM), vegetable oil stanol ester-containing margarine (VOSEM), and control margarine (no stanol esters). The groups consumed the margarines for 8 wk as part of a diet resembling that of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Step II diet. The daily mean total stanol intake was 2.31 and 2.16 g in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively. RESULTS: During the experimental period, the reduction in serum total cholesterol was 10.6% (P < 0.001) and 8.1% (P < 0.05) greater and in LDL cholesterol was 13.7% (P < 0.01) and 8.6% (P = 0.072) greater in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively, than in the control group. Serum campesterol concentrations decreased 34.5% and 41.3% (P < 0.001) in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively. Serum HDL cholesterol, sitostanol, campestanol, beta-carotene, and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations did not change significantly from baseline. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the low-fat, plant stanol ester-containing margarines are effective cholesterol-lowering products in hypercholesterolemic subjects when used as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. They offer an additional, clinically significant reduction in serum cholesterol concentrations to that obtained with a low-fat diet alone.  (+info)

(3/2031) High-affinity binding of very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters to the peroxisomal non-specific lipid-transfer protein (sterol carrier protein-2).

Binding of fluorescent fatty acids to bovine liver non-specific lipid-transfer protein (nsL-TP) was assessed by measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the single tryptophan residue of nsL-TP and the fluorophore. Upon addition of pyrene dodecanoic acid (Pyr-C12) and cis-parinaric acid to nsL-TP, FRET was observed indicating that these fatty acids were accommodated in the lipid binding site closely positioned to the tryptophan residue. Substantial binding was observed only when these fatty acids were presented in the monomeric form complexed to beta-cyclodextrin. As shown by time-resolved fluorescence measurements, translocation of Pyr-C12 from the Pyr-C12-beta-cyclodextrin complex to nsL-TP changed dramatically the direct molecular environment of the pyrene moiety: i.e. the fluorescence lifetime of the directly excited pyrene increased at least by 25% and a distinct rotational correlation time of 7 ns was observed. In order to evaluate the affinity of nsL-TP for intermediates of the beta-oxidation pathway, a binding assay was developed based on the ability of fatty acyl derivatives to displace Pyr-C12 from the lipid binding site as reflected by the reduction of FRET. Hexadecanoyl-CoA and 2-hexadecenoyl-CoA were found to bind readily to nsL-TP, whereas 3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl-CoA and 3-ketohexadecanoyl-CoA bound poorly. The highest affinities were observed for the very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters (24:0-CoA, 26:0-CoA) and their enoyl derivatives (24:1-CoA, 26:1-CoA). Binding of non-esterified hexadecanoic acid and tetracosanoic acid (24:0) was negligible.  (+info)

(4/2031) Preparation of isolated intestinal villi useful for studying hydrolysis rates of penicillin and cephalosporin esters.

A method for the preparation of freeze-dried intestinal villi from hamsters and mice is described. The villi, consisting largely of epithelial cells rich in esterase activity, are useful for hydrolysis studies of penicillin and cephalosporin esters.  (+info)

(5/2031) Amplification of the antibody response by C3b complexed to antigen through an ester link.

Complement C3 has been described as playing an important role in the cell-mediated immune response. C3b has the capacity to covalently bind Ag and then to stimulate in vitro Ag presentation to T lymphocytes. To verify this observation in vivo, we prepared and purified covalent human C3b-Ag complexes using lysozyme (HEL) as Ag. The characterization of these HEL-C3b complexes indicates that they are representative of those susceptible to be generated in physiological conditions. Mice were immunized with 0.1 to 0.6 microgram of either free HEL, HEL + C3b, HEL-C3b, or HEL + CFA. Response was assessed after two i.p. injections by quantification of specific Ab production. Immunization with either HEL-C3b complexes or HEL + CFA leads to anti-HEL IgG production whereas free HEL or HEL + C3b was ineffective. Either HEL-C3b or HEL + CFA immunizations led to a similar Ig subclass patterns, including IgG1, IgG2a, IgA, and IgM. Our experiments provide the first evidence for modulation of specific Ab response by C3b when it is bound to Ag through a physiological-like link. Taken together with previous data concerning Ab response following recombinant HEL-C3d immunization, cellular events such as processing of C3b-Ag by APC and recognition by T lymphocytes, this present result underlines the importance of C3b and its fragments in stimulation of the immune system, through the multiplicity and complementarity of its interactions.  (+info)

(6/2031) Intermediates of myocardial mitochondrial beta-oxidation: possible channelling of NADH and of CoA esters.

Adult rat heart mitochondria were isolated and incubated with [U-14C]hexadecanoyl-CoA or unlabelled hexadecanoyl-CoA. The accumulating CoA and carnitine esters and [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio were measured by HPLC or tandem mass spectrometry. Despite minimal changes in the intramitochondrial [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio, 2, 3-unsaturated and 3-hydroxyacyl esters were observed as well as saturated acyl-CoA and acylcarnitine esters. In addition to acetylcarnitine, significant amounts of butyryl-, hexanoyl-, octanoyl- and decanoylcarnitines were detected and measured. Rat myocardial beta-oxidation is subject to control at the level of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase but this control is not due to a simple lack of oxidised NAD. We hypothesise a pool of NAD in contact between the trifunctional protein of beta-oxidation and complex I of the respiratory chain, the turnover of which is responsible for some of the control of beta-oxidation flux. In addition, short- and medium-chain acylcarnitine esters were detected whereas only small amounts of long-chain acylcarnitines were present. This may imply the presence of a mitochondrial carnitine octanoyl transferase or may reflect channelling of long-chain CoA esters so that they are not available for carnitine palmitoyl transferase II activity.  (+info)

(7/2031) Serum sterols during stanol ester feeding in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population.

We investigated the changes of cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterol metabolism during plant stanol ester margarine feeding in 153 hypercholesterolemic subjects. Rapeseed oil (canola oil) margarine without (n = 51) and with (n = 102) stanol (2 or 3 g/day) ester was used for 1 year. Serum sterols were analyzed with gas-liquid chromatography. The latter showed a small increase in sitostanol peak during stanol ester margarine eating. Cholestanol, campesterol, and sitosterol proportions to cholesterol were significantly reduced by 5-39% (P < 0.05 or less for all) by stanol esters; the higher their baseline proportions the higher were their reductions. The precursor sterol proportions were significantly increased by 10- 46%, and their high baseline levels predicted low reduction of serum cholesterol. The decrease of the scheduled stanol dose from 3 to 2 g/day after 6-month feeding increased serum cholesterol by 5% (P < 0. 001) and serum plant sterol proportions by 8-13% (P < 0.001), but had no consistent effect on precursor sterols. In twelve subjects, the 12-month level of LDL cholesterol exceeded that of baseline; the non-cholesterol sterol proportions suggested that stimulated synthesis with relatively weak absorption inhibition contributed to the non-responsiveness of these subjects. In conclusion, plant stanol ester feeding lowers serum cholesterol in about 88% of subjects, decreases the non-cholesterol sterols that reflect cholesterol absorption, increases the sterols that reflect cholesterol synthesis, but also slightly increases serum plant stanols. Low synthesis and high absorption efficiency of cholesterol results in the greatest benefit from stanol ester consumption.  (+info)

(8/2031) Oxidation of medium-chain acyl-CoA esters by extracts of Aspergillus niger: enzymology and characterization of intermediates by HPLC.

The activities of beta-oxidation enzymes were measured in extracts of glucose- and triolein-grown cells of Aspergillus niger. Growth on triolein stimulated increased enzyme activity, especially for acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. No acyl-CoA oxidase activity was detected. HPLC analysis after incubation of triolein-grown cell extracts with decanoyl-CoA showed that beta-oxidation was limited to one cycle. Octanoyl-CoA accumulated as the decanoyl-CoA was oxidized. Beta-oxidation enzymes in isolated mitochondrial fractions were also studied. The results are discussed in the context of methyl ketone production by fungi.  (+info)



caffeic acid phenethyl ester


  • Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a strong antioxidant extracted from honeybee hive propolis. (mdpi.com)
  • The study used caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a caffeic acid derivative. (healthline.com)

cholesteryl


  • The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor, evacetrapib (Eva), did not reduce cardiovascular events in the ACCELERATE trial when added to high intensity statin despite favorable plasma lipid changes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Crucial for the intracellular hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides that have been internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoprotein particles. (mybiosource.com)
  • Important in mediating the effect of LDL (low density lipoprotein) uptake on suppression of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and activation of endogenous cellular cholesteryl ester formation. (mybiosource.com)
  • Below are the list of possible Lysosomal acid lipase/cholesteryl ester hydrolase products. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Lysosomal acid lipase/cholesteryl ester hydrolase (Acid cholesteryl ester hydrolase) (LAL) (Cholesteryl esterase) (Lipase A) (Sterol esterase). (mybiosource.com)
  • LIPA: Crucial for the intracellular hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides that have been internalized via receptor- mediated endocytosis of lipoprotein particles. (mybiosource.com)
  • WOD is a severe manifestation of LIPA deficiency, leading to the accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in most tissues of the body. (mybiosource.com)
  • Defects in LIPA are the cause of cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). (mybiosource.com)