Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Durable Medical Equipment: Devices which are very resistant to wear and may be used over a long period of time. They include items such as wheelchairs, hospital beds, artificial limbs, etc.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Surgical Equipment: Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Maintenance: The upkeep of property or equipment.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Mouth Protectors: Devices or pieces of equipment placed in or around the mouth or attached to instruments to protect the external or internal tissues of the mouth and the teeth.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.United StatesQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Diagnostic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in examination.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Hospital Design and Construction: The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.Dental High-Speed Equipment: Tools used in dentistry that operate at high rotation speeds.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Technology, High-Cost: Advanced technology that is costly, requires highly skilled personnel, and is unique in its particular application. Includes innovative, specialized medical/surgical procedures as well as advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Consumer Product SafetyGloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Transportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Electronics, Medical: The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Epidemiologic Research Design: The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Endoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Radiation ProtectionEnglandFirst Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.Great BritainSoftware: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Animals, LaboratoryMedical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Cooking and Eating UtensilsHealth Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Mass Casualty Incidents: Events that overwhelm the resources of local HOSPITALS and health care providers. They are likely to impose a sustained demand for HEALTH SERVICES rather than the short, intense peak customary with smaller scale disasters.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.ComputersAttitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Respiratory Therapy Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration of diagnostic pulmonary function tests and of procedures to restore optimum pulmonary ventilation.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Incubators, Infant: Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Schools: Educational institutions.Ambulances: A vehicle equipped for transporting patients in need of emergency care.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of nuclear medicine services.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Facility Environment: Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Emergency Medical Technicians: Paramedical personnel trained to provide basic emergency care and life support under the supervision of physicians and/or nurses. These services may be carried out at the site of the emergency, in the ambulance, or in a health care institution.Radiation Equipment and Supplies: Instruments and apparatus for radiation applications and their components and associated expendables.Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Universal Precautions: Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Medical Errors: Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

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*  talks.cam : Requirement handling in medical equipment design

University of Cambridge , Talks.cam , Engineering Design Centre , Requirement handling in medical equipment design ... Requirement handling in medical equipment design. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using vCal ... CREATIVE DESIGN for INNOVATION in SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY ". His educational background is Industrial design with minors in ... This talk discusses the nature of requirements in engineering design through a case study performed at Danish Coloplast A/S, ...
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*  Photovoltaic Cell Manufacturing Equipment Design Businesses in the United States

... ... Photovoltaic Cell Manufacturing Equipment Design Businesses in the United States. Photovoltaic Cell Manufacturing Equipment ... Product types: battery manufacturing equipment, battery manufacturing equipment, photovoltaic cell manufacturing equipment.* ... Photovoltaic Cell Manufacturing Equipment Businesses in the World. Renewable Energy Design Businesses in the World. ...
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*  GlobalSpec Medical Equipment Design Online Trade Show and Event Draws More Than 1,100 Attendees

"Our Medical Equipment Design event was a unique opportunity for attendees to hear from speakers and interact with some of the ... The "Medical Equipment Design" online trade show and event on March 7 hosted by GlobalSpec drew more than 1,100 participants, ... GlobalSpec's "Medical Equipment Design" event provided educational opportunities to learn about the latest advances and ... GlobalSpec Medical Equipment Design Online Trade Show and Event Draws More Than 1,100 Attendees. ...
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*  Medical Equipment Design e-Newsletter | Volume 7 Issue 17 | Free Industry News from Engineering360

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*  Medical Device Design Services: Healthcare Product Design, Equipment Design | Mechanical 3D Modelling

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*  Restaurant Supplies, Equipment & Design - Bargreen Ellingson

Shop our large selection of restaurant supplies and kitchen equipment at wholesale prices. Fast shipping on all products and ... Family owned since 1960, Bargreen Ellingson is a leading Foodservice Supply and Restaurant Design company in the industry. We ...
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*  Equipment design

Choc-traction rod assembly ...
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*  Product: Equipment Sanitary Design Checklist (Portuguese): GMA | GMA

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*  Lighting equipment : Lighting Design

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*  Equipment | electronics design and production services

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*  Sample Valves & Equipment | Medical Design Technology

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*  Disability Medical Equipment Brochure Template Design

Get design ideas & examples. Download layouts with photos & artwork, edit & print! ... Make a great-looking disability medical equipment brochure. ... More design ideas and examples Health Care Health Insurance. ...
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*  Revision history of 'AU Biomaterials Design Lab:Equipment/Centrifuge' - OpenWetWare

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*  Construction Equipment | Architecture And Design

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*  Madonna MDNA Lighting Equipment List | Live Design

Check out lighting designer Al Gurdon's lighting list for the Madonna MDNA Tour, provided by PRG.
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*  Kingpin Tattoo Supply - Tattoo Supplies and Equipment - Pro-Design

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*  Professional Motorsport Parts, Spares & Rally Equipment from Rally Design

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*  Corbett Industries, Inc. Industrial Process Heating and Manufacturing Equipment Design Sales Installation Renovation and Service

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*  Material Handling Equipment Storage Facility Design Guide (AMC) | WBDG Whole Building Design Guide

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*  Distinct logo for Test Equipment company | Logo design contest

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*  speaker design and evaluation equipment - what are my basic needs? - diyAudio

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Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Biological resistanceList of SEPTA Trolley and Interurban stations: The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority contains more than several trolley lines and one interurban line; These include five Subway–Surface Trolley Lines, and one Heritage trolley (Route 15), all of which were inherited from the former Philadelphia Transportation Company, and originally built by the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. Both systems are officially part of the City Transit Division.Home medical equipment: This article discusses the definitions and types of home medical equipment (HME), also known as durable medical equipment (DME), and durable medical equipment prosthetics and orthotics (DMEPOS).Arc Trainer: The Arc Trainer is a stationary, non-impact exercise machine, and is a registered trademark of Cybex International, Inc. The Arc Trainer is manufactured in Owatonna MN.Dispomix Technology: The Dispomix Technology is used for the homogenization of a chemical sample.Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992: The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 are set of regulations created under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 which came into force in Great Britain on 1 January 1993.Medical device: A medical device is an instrument, apparatus, implant, in vitro reagent, or similar or related article that is used to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or other conditions, and does not achieve its purposes through chemical action within or on the body (which would make it a drug).Summarised from the FDA's definition.Tuttlingen: Tuttlingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, capital of the district Tuttlingen. Nendingen, Möhringen and Eßlingen are three former municipalities that belong to Tuttlingen. The district (Kreis) includes several surrounding towns including Trossingen, Spaichingen, and Mühlheim an der Donau.Single-use bioreactor: A single-use bioreactor or disposable bioreactor is a bioreactor with a disposable bag instead of a culture vessel. Typically, this refers to a bioreactor in which the lining in contact with the cell culture will be plastic, and this lining is encased within a more permanent structure (typically, either a rocker or a cuboid or cylindrical steel support).Grayrigg derailmentSolumbra: Solumbra is a line of sun protection clothing and a patented fabric. Introduced in 1992, Solumbra was reviewed under medical device regulations by the U.Reuse of bottles: A reusable bottle is a bottle that can be reused, either for multiple trips to a bottler or is reused by a household. It is a common example of reusable packaging.TebisGlot-Up: A Glot-Up is type of dental equipment, something in between a mouth guard and an adult-sized pacifier.Madrasi chess: Madrasi chess is a chess variant invented in 1979 by Abdul Jabbar Karwatkar which uses the conventional rules of chess with the addition that when a piece is attacked by a piece of the same type but opposite colour (for example, a black queen attacking a white queen) it is paralysed and becomes unable to move, capture or give check. Most of the time, two like pieces attack each other mutually, meaning they are both paralysed (en passant pawn captures are an exception to this, since the attack is not mutual.Breathing tube (breathing apparatus): A breathing tube is a flexible tube for breathing through, as part of a scuba set or other breathing apparatus or a medical oxygen apparatus or anaesthetic apparatus (Here they are distinguished from the medium-pressure hoses which are often found as parts of modern breathing apparatus.)Eden Prairie Library: The Eden Prairie Library is located in Eden Prairie, Minnesota and is one of 41 libraries of the Hennepin County Library system. The 40,000 square foot building houses a collection of 150,000 items, an automated materials handling system (AMH) for check in and rough sortation of materials, 82 public computers, two meeting rooms, a reading lounge with fireplace, a teen area, a children's area with a Family Reading Lounge, and several installations of artwork.Mouthguard: A mouthguard is a protective device for the mouth that covers the teeth and gums to prevent and reduce injury to the teeth, arches, lips and gums. A mouthguard is most often used to prevent injury in contact sports, as a treatment for bruxism or TMD, or as part of certain dental procedures, such as tooth bleaching.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Rvs Eyewear: RVS Eyewear was launched in 2006 as the first eyewear brand to be based out of Istanbul, Turkey. Its founder, Vidal Erkohen, founded this company with a goal of bringing back the quality and originality that was put into the eyewear of the past.Cable fault location: Cable fault location is the process of locating periodic faults, such as insulation faults in underground cables, and is an application of electrical measurement systems. In this process, mobile shock discharge generators are among the devices used.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingVessel safety survey: Vessel safety surveys are important during the life of a vessel for better safety and security. These controls are directed by the classification societies and are very different (safety equipment, security, hoist, dock survey).National Dental Board of Anesthesiology: The National Dental Board of Anesthesiology (NDBA) is an American professional association established in 2001 by the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology. Based in Chicago, NDBA is the world's largest national dental board devoted to sedation and anesthesia.OneTouch UltraSterilization (microbiology): Sterilization (or sterilisation) is a term referring to any process that eliminates (removes) or kills (deactivates) all forms of life and other biological agents (such as prions, as well as viruses which some do not consider to be alive but are biological pathogens nonetheless), including transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, prions, spore forms, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.Isolation ward: In hospitals and other medical facilities, an isolation ward is a separate ward used to isolate patients suffering from infectious diseases. Several wards for individual patients are usually placed together in an isolation unit.Dental drill: A dental drill or dentist's drill is a small, high-speed drill used during dental procedures, usually to remove decay and shape tooth structure prior to the insertion of a filling or crown. A dental drill may also be used in the cleaning and shaping of root canals during endodontic treatment, or to remove old or temporary fillings or crowns prior to the insertion of new or permanent restorations.Full mouth disinfection: Full mouth disinfection typically refers to an intense course of treatment for periodontitis typically involving scaling and root planing in combination with adjunctive use of local antimicrobial adjuncts to periodontal treatment such as chlorhexidine in various ways of application. The aim is to complete debridement of all periodontal pocket areas within a short time frame such as 24 hours, in order to minimize the chance of reinfection of the pockets with pathogens coming from another oral niches like the tongue, tonsils and non-treated periodontal pocket.Decontamination foam: Decontamination foam (known commonly as Decon foam) is a spray-on cleaning solution that, due to its physical properties, has a longer residence time on contaminated surfaces than regular liquids and thus provides efficient decontamination of biological and chemical contaminants (e.g.Occupational fatality: An occupational fatality is a death that occurs while a person is at work or performing work related tasks. Occupational fatalities are also commonly called “occupational deaths” or “work-related deaths/fatalities” and can occur in any industry or occupation.Type 66 helmet: The Type 66 is a combat helmet that is used by the Japanese Self-Defense Forces. Other GSDF, MSDF and is also used.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Electron Microscopy Center: The Electron Microscopy Center is a scientific user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The EMC works to solve materials problems using their unique capabilities for electron beam characterization.Mayo HospitalNational Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.SyringePavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.Amy PetersonGas cylinder: A gas cylinder or tank is a pressure vessel used to store gases at above atmospheric pressure. High-pressure gas cylinders are also called bottles.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Hamid GhodseInfectious Disease Research Institute: The Infectious Disease Research Institute (IDRI) is a non-profit organization based in Seattle, in the United States, and which conducts global health research on infectious diseases.Analytical quality control: Analytical quality control, commonly shortened to AQC refers to all those processes and procedures designed to ensure that the results of laboratory analysis are consistent, comparable, accurate and within specified limits of precision.analytical quality control (AQC) program to ensure the highest level of confidence in reported data Constituents submitted to the analytical laboratory must be accurately described to avoid faulty interpretations, approximations, or incorrect results.List of software development philosophies: This is a list of approaches, styles, and philosophies in software development not included in the category tree of software development philosophies. It contains also software development processes, software development methodologies and single practices, principles and laws.Human factors and ergonomics: Human factors and ergonomics (HF&E), also known as comfort design, functional design, and user-friendly systems,Ergonomics in Thesaurus.com is the practice of designing products, systems or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them.Lakes District Technocity: The Lakes District Technocity(established in 2004) is a science park located on the campus of Süleyman Demirel University. The technocity is a full member of International Association of Science Parks.Isolation (health care): In health care facilities, isolation represents one of several measures that can be taken to implement infection control: the prevention of contagious diseases from being spread from a patient to other patients, health care workers, and visitors, or from outsiders to a particular patient (reverse isolation). Various forms of isolation exist, in some of which contact procedures are modified, and others in which the patient is kept away from all others.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Consumer Product Safety Act: The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted in 1972 by the United States Congress. The act established the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent agency of the United States federal government and defined its basic authority.Lumpers and splitters: Lumpers and splitters are opposing factions in any discipline which has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories. The lumper-splitter problem occurs when there is the need to create classifications and assign examples to them, for example schools of literature, biological taxa and so on.The Burial Plot Bidding WarCardiovascular technologistVenture capital in Israel: Venture capital in Israel refers to the financial capital provided to early-stage, high-potential, high risk, growth startup companies based in Israel. Israel's venture capital industry was born in the mid-1980s and has rapidly developed since.Bio Base EuropeEndoscopyRadiation protection of patients: Patients are exposed to ionizing radiations when they undergo diagnostic examinations using x-rays or radiopharmaceuticals, therapy of cancer or benign lesions using radiations emitted by radioisotopes or those by radiation generators; and in interventional procedures using fluoroscopy. There has been a tremendous increase in the use of ionizing radiation in medicine during recent decades.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Pet Emergency Management: == Concept and Background ==National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Mac OS X Server 1.0Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
List of truck types: This List of truck types is intended to classify trucks and to provide links to articles on the various types. The three main classifications for road truck by weight are light trucks, medium trucks, and heavy trucks.Circulation plan: A circulation plan is a schematic empirical projection/model of how pedestrians and/or vehicles flow through a given area, like, for example, a neighborhood or a Central Business District (CBD). Circulation plans are used by city planners and other officials to manage and monitor traffic and pedestrian patterns in such a way that they might discover how to make future improvements to the system.University of Santo Tomas Faculty of PharmacyNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Mains electricity by country: Mains electricity by country includes a list of countries and territories, with the plugs, voltages and frequencies they use for providing electrical power to small appliances and some major appliances. Every country has differing rules regarding distribution of electricity for portable appliances and lighting.

(1/9738) Energy cost of propulsion in standard and ultralight wheelchairs in people with spinal cord injuries.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wheelchair- and subject-related factors influence the efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to compare wheelchair propulsion in ultralight and standard wheelchairs in people with different levels of spinal cord injury. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four subjects (mean age=26.2 years, SD=7.14, range=17-50) with spinal cord injury resulting in motor loss (30 with tetraplegia and 44 with paraplegia) were studied. METHOD: Each subject propelled standard and ultralight wheelchairs around an outdoor track at self-selected speeds, while data were collected at 4 predetermined intervals. Speed, distance traveled, and oxygen cost (VO2 mL/kg/m) were compared by wheelchair, group, and over time, using a Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: In the ultralight wheelchair, speed and distance traveled were greater for both subjects with paraplegia and subjects with tetraplegia, whereas VO2 was less only for subjects with paraplegia. Subjects with paraplegia propelled faster and farther than did subjects with tetraplegia. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The ultralight wheelchair improved the efficiency of propulsion in the tested subjects. Subjects with tetraplegia, especially at the C6 level, are limited in their ability to propel a wheelchair.  (+info)

(2/9738) Filter-based coded-excitation system for high-speed ultrasonic imaging.

We have recently presented a new algorithm for high-speed parallel processing of ultrasound pulse-echo data for real-time three-dimensional (3-D) imaging. The approach utilizes a discretized linear model of the echo data received from the region of interest (ROI) using a conventional beam former. The transmitter array elements are fed with binary codes designed to produce distinct impulse responses from different directions in ROI. Image reconstruction in ROI is achieved with a regularized pseudoinverse operator derived from the linear receive signal model. The reconstruction operator can be implemented using a transversal filter bank with every filter in the bank designed to extract echoes from a specific direction in the ROI. The number of filters in the bank determines the number of image lines acquired simultaneously. In this paper, we present images of a cyst phantom reconstructed based on our formulation. A number of issues of practical significance in image reconstruction are addressed. Specifically, an augmented model is introduced to account for imperfect blocking of echoes from outside the ROI. We have also introduced a column-weighting algorithm for minimizing the number of filter coefficients. In addition, a detailed illustration of a full image reconstruction using subimage acquisition and compounding is given. Experimental results have shown that the new approach is valid for phased-array pulse-echo imaging of speckle-generating phantoms typically used in characterizing medical imaging systems. Such coded-excitation-based image reconstruction from speckle-generating phantoms, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported previously.  (+info)

(3/9738) Ex vivo evaluation of a Taylor-Couette flow, immobilized heparinase I device for clinical application.

Efficient and safe heparin anticoagulation has remained a problem for continuous renal replacement therapies and intermittent hemodialysis for patients with acute renal failure. To make heparin therapy safer for the patient with acute renal failure at high risk of bleeding, we have proposed regional heparinization of the circuit via an immobilized heparinase I filter. This study tested a device based on Taylor-Couette flow and simultaneous separation/reaction for efficacy and safety of heparin removal in a sheep model. Heparinase I was immobilized onto agarose beads via cyanogen bromide activation. The device, referred to as a vortex flow plasmapheretic reactor, consisted of two concentric cylinders, a priming volume of 45 ml, a microporous membrane for plasma separation, and an outer compartment where the immobilized heparinase I was fluidized separately from the blood cells. Manual white cell and platelet counts, hematocrit, total protein, and fibrinogen assays were performed. Heparin levels were indirectly measured via whole-blood recalcification times (WBRTs). The vortex flow plasmapheretic reactor maintained significantly higher heparin levels in the extracorporeal circuit than in the sheep (device inlet WBRTs were 1. 5 times the device outlet WBRTs) with no hemolysis. The reactor treatment did not effect any physiologically significant changes in complete blood cell counts, platelets, and protein levels for up to 2 hr of operation. Furthermore, gross necropsy and histopathology did not show any significant abnormalities in the kidney, liver, heart, brain, and spleen.  (+info)

(4/9738) An animal exposure system using ultrasonic nebulizer that generates well controlled aerosols from liquids.

Various aerosol generators have been developed for animal inhalation experiments and the performance tests of measuring instruments and respirators. It has been, however, difficult to generate aerosols from an aqueous solution or suspension keeping the concentration and particle size distribution constant for a long time. Resolving such difficulties, the present study developed an animal exposure system that generates well-controlled and stable aerosols from liquids. The exposure system consists of an aerosol generator using ultrasonic nebulizer, a mixing chamber and an exposure chamber. The validity of this system was confirmed in the generation of NiCl2 and TiO2 aerosol from solution and suspension, respectively. The concentration levels of NiCl2 aerosol were kept at 3.2 mg/m3 and 0.89 mg/m3 for 5 hours with good coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively. For TiO2 aerosol, the concentration levels of 1.59 mg/m3 and 0.90 mg/m3 were kept for 5 hours with small CVs of 1.3% and 2.0%, respectively. This exposure system could be sufficiently used for inhalation experiments with even high toxic aerosols such as NiCl2 because a momentary high concentration possibly affects results and an extremely stable concentration is required.  (+info)

(5/9738) Penetrating sledding injuries to the lower torso--2 case reports.

Sledding accidents are frequent and vary in severity. Penetrating sledding injuries are uncommon but may be devastating. Snow-racers--sleds with both steering and braking devices--may be associated with an increased rate of injury. The authors present 2 cases of lower-torso penetrating trauma associated with the use of snow-racers. Both cases involved penetration--of the perineum in one case and the inguinal area in the other--by wooden sticks. Both patients recovered fully after prompt surgical intervention. The authors suggest that the absence of a protective panel at the front of the snow-racer may result in the sledder's lower torso being more exposed to objects encountered while sledding. The injuries reported raise concerns about the safety of modern sleds and the possibility that design changes are needed.  (+info)

(6/9738) Balloon-artery interactions during stent placement: a finite element analysis approach to pressure, compliance, and stent design as contributors to vascular injury.

Endovascular stents expand the arterial lumen more than balloon angioplasty and reduce rates of restenosis after coronary angioplasty in selected patients. Understanding the factors involved in vascular injury imposed during stent deployment may allow optimization of stent design and stent-placement protocols so as to limit vascular injury and perhaps reduce restenosis. Addressing the hypothesis that a previously undescribed mechanism of vascular injury during stent deployment is balloon-artery interaction, we have used finite element analysis to model how balloon-artery contact stress and area depend on stent-strut geometry, balloon compliance, and inflation pressure. We also examined superficial injury during deployment of stents of varied design in vivo and in a phantom model ex vivo to show that balloon-induced damage can be modulated by altering stent design. Our results show that higher inflation pressures, wider stent-strut openings, and more compliant balloon materials cause markedly larger surface-contact areas and contact stresses between stent struts. Appreciating that the contact stress and contact area are functions of placement pressure, stent geometry, and balloon compliance may help direct development of novel stent designs and stent-deployment protocols so as to minimize vascular injury during stenting and perhaps to optimize long-term outcomes.  (+info)

(7/9738) Endovascular stent graft repair of aortopulmonary fistula.

Two patients who had aortopulmonary fistula of postoperative origin with hemoptysis underwent successful repair by means of an endovascular stent graft procedure. One patient had undergone repeated thoracotomies two times, and the other one time to repair anastomotic aneurysms of the descending aorta after surgery for Takayasu's arteritis. A self-expanding stainless steel stent covered with a Dacron graft was inserted into the lesion through the external iliac or femoral artery. The patients recovered well, with no signs of infection or recurrent hemoptysis 8 months after the procedure. Endovascular stent grafting may be a therapeutic option for treating patients with aortopulmonary fistula.  (+info)

(8/9738) Retrograde esophageal balloon dilatation for caustic stricture in an outpatient clinic setting.

Caustic injury to the esophagus, with resultant esophageal stricture, is a challenge for the surgeon. These strictures require multiple esophageal dilatations, which are usually performed under general anesthesia and frequently under fluoroscopic control. Because of the risks of multiple general anesthetics and frequent radiation, a technique is described for retrograde esophageal balloon dilatation in an outpatient clinic setting without a general anesthetic or fluoroscopic control.  (+info)



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