Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Durable Medical Equipment: Devices which are very resistant to wear and may be used over a long period of time. They include items such as wheelchairs, hospital beds, artificial limbs, etc.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Surgical Equipment: Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.Maintenance: The upkeep of property or equipment.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Mouth Protectors: Devices or pieces of equipment placed in or around the mouth or attached to instruments to protect the external or internal tissues of the mouth and the teeth.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Diagnostic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in examination.Hospital Design and Construction: The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Dental High-Speed Equipment: Tools used in dentistry that operate at high rotation speeds.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Technology, High-Cost: Advanced technology that is costly, requires highly skilled personnel, and is unique in its particular application. Includes innovative, specialized medical/surgical procedures as well as advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.United StatesAthletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Consumer Product SafetyTransportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Materials Management, Hospital: The management of all procurement, distribution, and storage of equipment and supplies, as well as logistics management including laundry, processing of reusables, etc.Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Mass Casualty Incidents: Events that overwhelm the resources of local HOSPITALS and health care providers. They are likely to impose a sustained demand for HEALTH SERVICES rather than the short, intense peak customary with smaller scale disasters.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Electronics, Medical: The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Endoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Radiation Equipment and Supplies: Instruments and apparatus for radiation applications and their components and associated expendables.Radiation ProtectionQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Maintenance and Engineering, Hospital: Hospital department whose primary function is the upkeep and supervision of the buildings and grounds and the maintenance of hospital physical plant and equipment which requires engineering expertise.Animals, LaboratoryIndustry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Universal Precautions: Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Respiratory Therapy Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration of diagnostic pulmonary function tests and of procedures to restore optimum pulmonary ventilation.Cooking and Eating UtensilsFiltration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of nuclear medicine services.Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Incubators, Infant: Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Copying Processes: Reproduction of data in a new location or other destination, leaving the source data unchanged, although the physical form of the result may differ from that of the source.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Radio: The transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electric waves without a connecting wire, or the use of these waves for the wireless transmission of electric impulses into which sound is converted. (From Webster's 3d)Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Ambulances: A vehicle equipped for transporting patients in need of emergency care.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)ComputersInhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Emergency Medical Technicians: Paramedical personnel trained to provide basic emergency care and life support under the supervision of physicians and/or nurses. These services may be carried out at the site of the emergency, in the ambulance, or in a health care institution.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Relief Work: Assistance, such as money, food, or shelter, given to the needy, aged, or victims of disaster. It is usually granted on a temporary basis. (From The American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Schools: Educational institutions.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Hand Disinfection: The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.Rescue Work: Activities devoted to freeing persons or animals from danger to life or well-being in accidents, fires, bombings, floods, earthquakes, other disasters and life-threatening conditions. While usually performed by team efforts, rescue work is not restricted to organized services.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Sphygmomanometers: Instruments for measuring arterial blood pressure consisting of an inflatable cuff, inflating bulb, and a gauge showing the blood pressure. (Stedman, 26th ed)Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Civil Defense: Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.Mobile Health Units: Movable or portable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.Health Facility Environment: Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Kidneys, Artificial: Devices which can substitute for normally functioning KIDNEYS in removing components from the blood by DIALYSIS that are normally eliminated in the URINE.EnglandComputer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.Earthquakes: Sudden slips on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slips, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth. Faults are fractures along which the blocks of EARTH crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.Great BritainCalibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Telecommunications: Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Racquet Sports: Games in which players use a racquet to hit a ball or similar type object.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.

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*  Ligatie

New medical devices are developed to enable quicker, easier and safer surgery. This will reduce risk of complications and shorten time needed for recovery. Absorbable/resorbable medical devices are left in the body where after they are safely resorbed by the tissue.. The innovative resorbable surgical products of the company are unique and protected by patent(s). Devices in development are intended for urology and orthopaedics. LigaTie® is initially intended for veterinary surgery and is clinically tested. Latest publications: Cystic duct pressures after ligation with a novel absorbable device in an ex vivo caprine cholecystectomy model, by Sundholm Tepper et al, in The Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 2017;81:223-227. Ligation of the mesovarium in dogs with a self-locking implant of a resorbable polyglycolic based co-polymer: a study of feasability and comparison to suture ligation, by da Mota Costa et al in BMC Research Notes, April 2016. PhD thesis, development project and initial ...
ligatie.com

*  China Therapeutic Device, Therapeutic Device Manufacturers, Suppliers | Made-in-China.com

China Therapeutic Device manufacturers - Select 2017 high quality Therapeutic Device products in best price from certified Chinese Medical Equipment manufacturers, China Physiotherapy suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
made-in-china.com/products-search/hot-china-products/Therapeutic_Device.html

*  China Power Surge Protection Device, Power Surge Protection Device Manufacturers, Suppliers | Made-in-China.com

China Power Surge Protection Device manufacturers - Select 2017 high quality Power Surge Protection Device products in best price from certified Chinese Ups Power manufacturers, China UPS suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
made-in-china.com/products-search/hot-china-products/Power_Surge_Protection_Device.html

*  China Electric Potential Device, Electric Potential Device Manufacturers, Suppliers | Made-in-China.com

China Electric Potential Device manufacturers - Select 2017 high quality Electric Potential Device products in best price from certified Chinese Body Shape manufacturers, China RF suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
made-in-china.com/products-search/hot-china-products/Electric_Potential_Device.html

*  Microparticle Measurement Device And Liquid Delivery Method In Microparticle Measurement Device (Sony)

The microparticle measurement device includes a plurality of first tank units to which a liquid is supplied from the outside, and which are respectively connected in parallel, and a bulb unit that is connected to the plurality of first tank units, and which switches to a state in which it
freshpatents.com/-dt20170921ptan20170266655.php

*  Medical Device For Heart Disease (Terumo)

A medical device is disclosed, which is capable of treating cardiac insufficiency, on a causal therapy basis. The medical device is a heart harness composed of a porous hollow structure. A method of treating a heart disease includes applying the medical device as above to a heart of a subject
freshpatents.com/-dt20170928ptan20170273773.php

*  Linux Frame Buffer Device Development / Mailing Lists

Hi! The below patch updates the framebuffer docs to reflect the requirement that all driver names must end in fb. Please apply. --- linus-2.6/Documentation/fb/modedb.txt 2004-01-26 13:31:19.000000000 -0800 +++ fbdev-2.6/Documentation/fb/modedb.txt 2004-01-26 16:32:23.000000000 -0800 @@ -51,10 +51,10 @@ Drivers that support modedb boot options Boot Name Cards Supported - ami - Amiga chipset frame buffer + amifb - Amiga chipset frame buffer aty128fb - ATI Rage128 / Pro frame buffer atyfb - ATI Mach64 frame buffer - tdfx - 3D Fx frame buffer + tdfxfb - 3D Fx frame buffer tridentfb - Trident (Cyber)blade chipset frame buffer BTW, only a few drivers use this at the moment. Others are to follow ...
https://sourceforge.net/p/linux-fbdev/mailman/linux-fbdev-devel/thread/Pine.LNX.4.44.0401262202280.5445-100000@phoenix.infradead.org/

*  Defibrillators Malfunction at Shockingly High Rates

I have been designing and making medical devices (in the U.S.) for 28 years. Over the past few years, the FDA has been hammering all defibrillator manufactuers in the U.S., large or small. There have been good reasons for the attention, but those reasons do not include the fact that the products were released via a 510(k), instead of a PMA.. Most medical device manufacturers put a great deal of time, money, and effort into a brand new device, until it gets a 510(k) or PMA clearance and goes onto the market. Then the engineers and the big budgets are diverted to the next brand new device, and the just- launched device stays pretty much the same, and ignored, for the next 10 to 30 years. This long product life span means that product redesigns (which would normally catch any design flaws) and new technologies do not find their way into the older products very often.. Over the past 40 years the FDA has gradually, and substantially, raised the bar. This is also true of the ISO international ...
blogs.discovermagazine.com/80beats/2012/02/28/defibrillators-malfunction-at-shockingly-high-rates/

*  China Operation Bed, Operation Bed Manufacturers, Suppliers | Made-in-China.com

China Operation Bed manufacturers - Select 2017 high quality Operation Bed products in best price from certified Chinese Medical Devices manufacturers, Electric Beds suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
made-in-china.com/products-search/hot-china-products/Operation_Bed.html

*  Wholesale Neck Device | Made-in-China.com

Wholesale Neck Device - Select 2017 high quality Wholesale Neck Device products in best price from certified Chinese Neck Traction Device manufacturers, Neck Massaging Device suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
made-in-china.com/products-search/hot-china-products/Wholesale_Neck_Device.html

*  Global Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices Industry

London (PRWEB) September 24, 2013 -- This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices in US$ Million by the following Product
prweb.com/releases/2013/9/prweb11156338.htm

*  Equipment For Machining, Equipment For Machining Suppliers and Manufacturers at Alibaba.com

Equipment For Machining, Wholesale Various High Quality Equipment For Machining Products from Global Equipment For Machining Suppliers and Equipment For Machining Factory,Importer,Exporter at Alibaba.com.
alibaba.com/showroom/equipment-for-machining.html

*  NN, Inc. Certifies Additive Manufacturing Technology For Medical Devices

JOHNSON CITY, Tenn. , June 9, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- NN, Inc., (Nasdaq: NNBR) a diversified industrial company, today announced it has completed the validation and production
medindia.net/health-press-release/NN-Inc-Certifies-Additive-Manufacturing-Technology-For-Medical-Devices-290884-1.htm

*  PhotoCure Company Profile

PhotoCure company data, news, contact details and stock information. PhotoCure is engaged in the research and development of novel therapeutics and diagnostics and related medical devices based on its proprietary photodynamic the...
bioportfolio.com/corporate/company/19044/PhotoCure.html

*  Elfi-Tech Technology » Elfi-Tech

Elfi-Tech developed the mDLS sensor, an innovative medical device technology that can continuously and non-invasively monitor physiological parameters.
elfi-tech.com/technology/

Biological resistanceList of SEPTA Trolley and Interurban stations: The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority contains more than several trolley lines and one interurban line; These include five Subway–Surface Trolley Lines, and one Heritage trolley (Route 15), all of which were inherited from the former Philadelphia Transportation Company, and originally built by the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. Both systems are officially part of the City Transit Division.Home medical equipment: This article discusses the definitions and types of home medical equipment (HME), also known as durable medical equipment (DME), and durable medical equipment prosthetics and orthotics (DMEPOS).Arc Trainer: The Arc Trainer is a stationary, non-impact exercise machine, and is a registered trademark of Cybex International, Inc. The Arc Trainer is manufactured in Owatonna MN.Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Dispomix Technology: The Dispomix Technology is used for the homogenization of a chemical sample.Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992: The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 are set of regulations created under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 which came into force in Great Britain on 1 January 1993.Public water systemMedical device: A medical device is an instrument, apparatus, implant, in vitro reagent, or similar or related article that is used to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or other conditions, and does not achieve its purposes through chemical action within or on the body (which would make it a drug).Summarised from the FDA's definition.Single-use bioreactor: A single-use bioreactor or disposable bioreactor is a bioreactor with a disposable bag instead of a culture vessel. Typically, this refers to a bioreactor in which the lining in contact with the cell culture will be plastic, and this lining is encased within a more permanent structure (typically, either a rocker or a cuboid or cylindrical steel support).Tuttlingen: Tuttlingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, capital of the district Tuttlingen. Nendingen, Möhringen and Eßlingen are three former municipalities that belong to Tuttlingen. The district (Kreis) includes several surrounding towns including Trossingen, Spaichingen, and Mühlheim an der Donau.Grayrigg derailmentReuse of bottles: A reusable bottle is a bottle that can be reused, either for multiple trips to a bottler or is reused by a household. It is a common example of reusable packaging.Solumbra: Solumbra is a line of sun protection clothing and a patented fabric. Introduced in 1992, Solumbra was reviewed under medical device regulations by the U.Glot-Up: A Glot-Up is type of dental equipment, something in between a mouth guard and an adult-sized pacifier.Madrasi chess: Madrasi chess is a chess variant invented in 1979 by Abdul Jabbar Karwatkar which uses the conventional rules of chess with the addition that when a piece is attacked by a piece of the same type but opposite colour (for example, a black queen attacking a white queen) it is paralysed and becomes unable to move, capture or give check. Most of the time, two like pieces attack each other mutually, meaning they are both paralysed (en passant pawn captures are an exception to this, since the attack is not mutual.Breathing tube (breathing apparatus): A breathing tube is a flexible tube for breathing through, as part of a scuba set or other breathing apparatus or a medical oxygen apparatus or anaesthetic apparatus (Here they are distinguished from the medium-pressure hoses which are often found as parts of modern breathing apparatus.)Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Rvs Eyewear: RVS Eyewear was launched in 2006 as the first eyewear brand to be based out of Istanbul, Turkey. Its founder, Vidal Erkohen, founded this company with a goal of bringing back the quality and originality that was put into the eyewear of the past.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Mouthguard: A mouthguard is a protective device for the mouth that covers the teeth and gums to prevent and reduce injury to the teeth, arches, lips and gums. A mouthguard is most often used to prevent injury in contact sports, as a treatment for bruxism or TMD, or as part of certain dental procedures, such as tooth bleaching.Full mouth disinfection: Full mouth disinfection typically refers to an intense course of treatment for periodontitis typically involving scaling and root planing in combination with adjunctive use of local antimicrobial adjuncts to periodontal treatment such as chlorhexidine in various ways of application. The aim is to complete debridement of all periodontal pocket areas within a short time frame such as 24 hours, in order to minimize the chance of reinfection of the pockets with pathogens coming from another oral niches like the tongue, tonsils and non-treated periodontal pocket.Sterilization (microbiology): Sterilization (or sterilisation) is a term referring to any process that eliminates (removes) or kills (deactivates) all forms of life and other biological agents (such as prions, as well as viruses which some do not consider to be alive but are biological pathogens nonetheless), including transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, prions, spore forms, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.OneTouch UltraIsolation ward: In hospitals and other medical facilities, an isolation ward is a separate ward used to isolate patients suffering from infectious diseases. Several wards for individual patients are usually placed together in an isolation unit.National Dental Board of Anesthesiology: The National Dental Board of Anesthesiology (NDBA) is an American professional association established in 2001 by the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology. Based in Chicago, NDBA is the world's largest national dental board devoted to sedation and anesthesia.Decontamination foam: Decontamination foam (known commonly as Decon foam) is a spray-on cleaning solution that, due to its physical properties, has a longer residence time on contaminated surfaces than regular liquids and thus provides efficient decontamination of biological and chemical contaminants (e.g.Dental drill: A dental drill or dentist's drill is a small, high-speed drill used during dental procedures, usually to remove decay and shape tooth structure prior to the insertion of a filling or crown. A dental drill may also be used in the cleaning and shaping of root canals during endodontic treatment, or to remove old or temporary fillings or crowns prior to the insertion of new or permanent restorations.Vessel safety survey: Vessel safety surveys are important during the life of a vessel for better safety and security. These controls are directed by the classification societies and are very different (safety equipment, security, hoist, dock survey).Eden Prairie Library: The Eden Prairie Library is located in Eden Prairie, Minnesota and is one of 41 libraries of the Hennepin County Library system. The 40,000 square foot building houses a collection of 150,000 items, an automated materials handling system (AMH) for check in and rough sortation of materials, 82 public computers, two meeting rooms, a reading lounge with fireplace, a teen area, a children's area with a Family Reading Lounge, and several installations of artwork.Occupational fatality: An occupational fatality is a death that occurs while a person is at work or performing work related tasks. Occupational fatalities are also commonly called “occupational deaths” or “work-related deaths/fatalities” and can occur in any industry or occupation.The Burial Plot Bidding WarElectron Microscopy Center: The Electron Microscopy Center is a scientific user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The EMC works to solve materials problems using their unique capabilities for electron beam characterization.Cable fault location: Cable fault location is the process of locating periodic faults, such as insulation faults in underground cables, and is an application of electrical measurement systems. In this process, mobile shock discharge generators are among the devices used.Type 66 helmet: The Type 66 is a combat helmet that is used by the Japanese Self-Defense Forces. Other GSDF, MSDF and is also used.SyringeMayo HospitalLakes District Technocity: The Lakes District Technocity(established in 2004) is a science park located on the campus of Süleyman Demirel University. The technocity is a full member of International Association of Science Parks.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Amy PetersonPavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.Infectious Disease Research Institute: The Infectious Disease Research Institute (IDRI) is a non-profit organization based in Seattle, in the United States, and which conducts global health research on infectious diseases.Proton exchange membrane fuel cellGas cylinder: A gas cylinder or tank is a pressure vessel used to store gases at above atmospheric pressure. High-pressure gas cylinders are also called bottles.National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.Consumer Product Safety Act: The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted in 1972 by the United States Congress. The act established the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent agency of the United States federal government and defined its basic authority.Hamid GhodseBritish Compressed Gases Association: The British Compressed Gases Association is the UK's trade association for companies in the industrial (compressed) gases industry.Lumpers and splitters: Lumpers and splitters are opposing factions in any discipline which has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories. The lumper-splitter problem occurs when there is the need to create classifications and assign examples to them, for example schools of literature, biological taxa and so on.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingIsolation (health care): In health care facilities, isolation represents one of several measures that can be taken to implement infection control: the prevention of contagious diseases from being spread from a patient to other patients, health care workers, and visitors, or from outsiders to a particular patient (reverse isolation). Various forms of isolation exist, in some of which contact procedures are modified, and others in which the patient is kept away from all others.Venture capital in Israel: Venture capital in Israel refers to the financial capital provided to early-stage, high-potential, high risk, growth startup companies based in Israel. Israel's venture capital industry was born in the mid-1980s and has rapidly developed since.Pet Emergency Management: == Concept and Background ==Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Cardiovascular technologistLifesaving Awards: The Royal Life Saving Society UK awards several lifesaving awards indicating competence and ability.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Analytical quality control: Analytical quality control, commonly shortened to AQC refers to all those processes and procedures designed to ensure that the results of laboratory analysis are consistent, comparable, accurate and within specified limits of precision.analytical quality control (AQC) program to ensure the highest level of confidence in reported data Constituents submitted to the analytical laboratory must be accurately described to avoid faulty interpretations, approximations, or incorrect results.Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Virkon: Virkon is a multi-purpose disinfectant. It contains oxone (potassium peroxymonosulfate), sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, sulfamic acid, and inorganic buffers.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.EndoscopyMains electricity by country: Mains electricity by country includes a list of countries and territories, with the plugs, voltages and frequencies they use for providing electrical power to small appliances and some major appliances. Every country has differing rules regarding distribution of electricity for portable appliances and lighting.Grain boundary diffusion coefficient: The grain boundary diffusion coefficient is the diffusion coefficient (during atomic diffusion) of a diffusant along a grain boundary in a polycrystalline solid.P.Radiation protection of patients: Patients are exposed to ionizing radiations when they undergo diagnostic examinations using x-rays or radiopharmaceuticals, therapy of cancer or benign lesions using radiations emitted by radioisotopes or those by radiation generators; and in interventional procedures using fluoroscopy. There has been a tremendous increase in the use of ionizing radiation in medicine during recent decades.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Biomedical waste: Biomedical waste is waste that is either putrescible or potentially infectious.Reinhardt, Peter A.Nitrogen deficiencyUniversity of Santo Tomas Faculty of PharmacyArteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Hamilton Health Sciences: Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS) is a medical group of seven unique hospitals and a cancer centre located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In 2014 it was ranked 2nd in Canada on Research Infosource's Top 40 Hospitals in Canada list.Circulation plan: A circulation plan is a schematic empirical projection/model of how pedestrians and/or vehicles flow through a given area, like, for example, a neighborhood or a Central Business District (CBD). Circulation plans are used by city planners and other officials to manage and monitor traffic and pedestrian patterns in such a way that they might discover how to make future improvements to the system.Pocket petNuclear medicine in Pakistan: The history of pursuing nuclear medicine goes back to 1956, when the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) was established under the executive order of the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. The PAEC, the scientific body who is responsible for establishing the nuclear power plants in the country, has sat up a Nuclear Medicines laboratory.Population healthLucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Exhaust systemMedical ventilator: A medical ventilator (or simply ventilator in context) is a machine designed to mechanically move breathable air into and out of the lungs, to provide the mechanism of breathing for a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently.Hygiene: Hygiene is a set of practices performed for the preservation of health.Universal precautions: Universal precautions refers to the practice, in medicine, of avoiding contact with patients' bodily fluids, by means of the wearing of nonporous articles such as medical gloves, goggles, and face shields. The practice was introduced in 1985–88.Highly hazardous chemical: A highly hazardous chemical is a substance classified by the American Occupational Safety and Health Administration as material that is both toxic and reactive and whose potential for human injury is high if released. Highly hazardous chemicals may cause cancer, birth defects, induce genetic damage, cause miscarriage, injury and death from relatively small exposures.

(1/671) Influence of crossdrafts on the performance of a biological safety cabinet.

A biological safety cabinet was tested to determine the effect of crossdrafts (such as those created by normal laboratory activity or ventilation) upon the ability of the cabinet to protect both experiments and investigators. A simple crossdraft, controllable from 50 to 200 feet per min (fpm; 15.24 to 60.96 m/min), was created across the face of the unit. Modifications of standardized procedures involving controlled bacterial aerosol challenges provided stringent test conditions. Results indicated that, as the crossflow velocities exceeded 100 fpm, the ability of the cabinet to protect either experiments or investigators decreased logarithmically with increasing crossdraft speed. Because 100 fpm is an airspeed easily achieved by some air conditioning and heating vents (open windows and doorways may create velocities far in excess of 200 fpm), the proper placement of a biological safety cabinet within the laboratory--away from such disruptive air currents--is essential to satisfactory cabinet performance.  (+info)

(2/671) Modernizing the FDA: an incremental revolution.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for protecting consumers from unsafe or ineffective drugs and medical devices. The agency's role is defined by a growing and increasingly complex set of statutes, which reflect Congress's desires, on the one hand, to prevent product hazards and, on the other, to expedite FDA review and approval of promising new medical technologies. Congress's latest attempt to calibrate regulation to achieve these goals, the 1997 Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act, endorses certain of the FDA's own innovations and changes in the agency's ways of doing business.  (+info)

(3/671) Managing asthma care.

This activity is designed for physicians, medical directors, and healthcare policy makers. GOAL: To provide the reader with the tools needed to monitor and manage the care of all enrollees with asthma. OBJECTIVES: 1. Become familiar with a health maintenance organization (HMO)-wide data collection system. 2. Learn the essential elements of asthma care for patients. 3. Learn how to track the implementation of these elements in various HMO settings.  (+info)

(4/671) Technology assessment of medical devices at the Center for Devices and Radiological Health.

We reviewed the Food and Drug Administration's regulatory process for medical devices and described the issues that arise in assessing device safety and effectiveness during the postmarket period. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), an organization within the Food and Drug Administration, has the legal authority and responsibility for ensuring that medical devices marketed in the United States are both reasonably safe and effective for their intended use. This is an enormous challenge given the diversity of medical devices and the large number of different types of devices on the market. Many scientific and regulatory activities are necessary to ensure device safety and effectiveness, including technology assessment, albeit in a manner quite different from that of conventional technology assessment. The basic approach taken at the CDRH to ensure device safety and effectiveness is to develop an understanding of the way in which a medical device works and how it will perform in clinical situations.  (+info)

(5/671) Role of technology assessment in health benefits coverage for medical devices.

With the profusion of new medical technology, managed care organizations are faced with the challenge of determining which medical devices and services warrant health benefits coverage. To aid in this decision-making process, managed care companies turn to technology assessment, a process that differs from the Food and Drug Administration's review of medical devices. Health plans typically use a structured approach to implementing coverage requirements in employer group benefits contracts and use technology assessment to evaluate the scientific evidence of effectiveness to support coverage decisions. Also important is the societal context for decisions regarding coverage for new technologies and the options being considered by policy makers for accountability in technology assessment by private insurers and health plans.  (+info)

(6/671) Device evaluation and coverage policy in workers' compensation: examples from Washington State.

Workers' compensation health benefits are broader than general health benefits and include payment for medical and rehabilitation costs, associated indemnity (lost time) costs, and vocational rehabilitation (return-to-work) costs. In addition, cost liability is for the life of the claim (injury), rather than for each plan year. We examined device evaluation and coverage policy in workers' compensation over a 10-year period in Washington State. Most requests for device coverage in workers' compensation relate to the diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment of chronic musculoskeletal conditions. A number of specific problems have been recognized in making device coverage decisions within workers' compensation: (1) invasive devices with a high adverse event profile and history of poor outcomes could significantly increase both indemnity and medical costs; (2) many noninvasive devices, while having a low adverse event profile, have not proved effective for managing chronic musculoskeletal conditions relevant to injured workers; (3) some devices are marketed and billed as surrogate diagnostic tests for generally accepted, and more clearly proven, standard tests; (4) quality oversight of technology use among physicians may be inadequate; and (5) insurers' access to efficacy data adequate to make timely and appropriate coverage decisions in workers' compensation is often lacking. Emerging technology may substantially increase the costs of workers' compensation without significant evidence of health benefit for injured workers. To prevent ever-rising costs, we need to increase provider education and patient education and consent, involve the state medical society in coverage policy, and collect relevant outcomes data from healthcare providers.  (+info)

(7/671) The limited state of technology assessment for medical devices: facing the issues.

Medical devices are an integral part of clinical practice and account for a substantial proportion of the national health budget. Clinical testing and regulation of medical devices, however, is vastly different from and inferior to the testing and regulation of drugs. As managed care organizations begin to exert controls on device use, providers are being caught between the policies of their organizations and the demands of device manufacturers and patients, who want wider access to devices. We outline several reasons for the poor state of medical device evaluations and the dangers of using devices without adequate information, and include the recently developed device assessment and reporting guidelines created by the Task Force on Technology Assessment of Medical Devices.  (+info)

(8/671) High-pressure, rapid-inflation pneumatic compression improves venous hemodynamics in healthy volunteers and patients who are post-thrombotic.

PURPOSE: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who are hospitalized. An important part of the mechanism of DVT prophylaxis with intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) is reduced venous stasis with increased velocity of venous return. The conventional methods of IPC use low pressure and slow inflation of the air bladder on the leg to augment venous return. Recently, compression devices have been designed that produce high pressure and rapid inflation of air cuffs on the plantar plexus of the foot and the calf. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the venous velocity response to high-pressure, rapid-inflation compression devices versus standard, low-pressure, slow-inflation compression devices in healthy volunteers and patients with severe post-thrombotic venous disease. METHOD: Twenty-two lower extremities from healthy volunteers and 11 lower extremities from patients with class 4 to class 6 post-thrombotic chronic venous insufficiency were studied. With duplex ultrasound scanning (ATL-Ultramark 9, Advanced Tech Laboratory, Bothell, Wash), acute DVT was excluded before subject evaluation. Venous velocities were monitored after the application of each of five IPC devices, with all the patients in the supine position. Three high-pressure, rapid-compression devices and two standard, low-pressure, slow-inflation compression devices were applied in a random sequence. Maximal venous velocities were obtained at the common femoral vein and the popliteal vein for all the devices and were recorded as the mean peak velocity of three compression cycles and compared with baseline velocities. RESULTS: The baseline venous velocities were higher in the femoral veins than in the popliteal veins in both the volunteers and the post-thrombotic subjects. Standard and high-pressure, rapid-inflation compression significantly increased the popliteal and femoral vein velocities in healthy and post-thrombotic subjects. High-pressure, rapid-inflation compression produced significantly higher maximal venous velocities in the popliteal and femoral veins in both healthy volunteers and patients who were post-thrombotic as compared with standard compression. Compared with the healthy volunteers, the patients who were post-thrombotic had a significantly attenuated velocity response at both the popliteal and the femoral vein levels. CONCLUSION: High-pressure, rapid-inflation pneumatic compression increases popliteal and femoral vein velocity as compared with standard, low-pressure, slow-inflation pneumatic compression. Patients with post-thrombotic venous disease have a compromised hemodynamic response to all IPC devices. However, an increased velocity response to the high-pressure, rapid-inflation compression device is preserved. High-pressure, rapid-inflation pneumatic compression may offer additional protection from thrombotic complications on the basis of an improved hemodynamic response, both in healthy volunteers and in patients who were post-thrombotic.  (+info)



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