Episode of Care: An interval of care by a health care facility or provider for a specific medical problem or condition. It may be continuous or it may consist of a series of intervals marked by one or more brief separations from care, and can also identify the sequence of care (e.g., emergency, inpatient, outpatient), thus serving as one measure of health care provided.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.MELAS Syndrome: A mitochondrial disorder characterized by focal or generalized seizures, episodes of transient or persistent neurologic dysfunction resembling strokes, and ragged-red fibers on muscle biopsy. Affected individuals tend to be normal at birth through early childhood, then experience growth failure, episodic vomiting, and recurrent cerebral insults resulting in visual loss and hemiparesis. The cortical lesions tend to occur in the parietal and occipital lobes and are not associated with vascular occlusion. VASCULAR HEADACHE is frequently associated and the disorder tends to be familial. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, p117)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Syncope: A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory: Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Fungemia: The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Gastroesophageal Reflux: Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Somnambulism: A parasomnia characterized by a partial arousal that occurs during stage IV of non-REM sleep. Affected individuals exhibit semipurposeful behaviors such as ambulation and are difficult to fully awaken. Children are primarily affected, with a peak age range of 4-6 years.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Sleep Paralysis: A common condition characterized by transient partial or total paralysis of skeletal muscles and areflexia that occurs upon awakening from sleep or less often while falling asleep. Stimuli such as touch or sound may terminate the episode, which usually has a duration of seconds to minutes. This condition may occur in normal subjects or be associated with NARCOLEPSY; CATAPLEXY; and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS. The pathophysiology of this condition is closely related to the normal hypotonia that occur during REM sleep. (From Adv Neurol 1995;67:245-271)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.EnglandDrug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Fever of Unknown Origin: Fever in which the etiology cannot be ascertained.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Lithium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Syncope, Vasovagal: Loss of consciousness due to a reduction in blood pressure that is associated with an increase in vagal tone and peripheral vasodilation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)United StatesBulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Hemarthrosis: Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.RNA, Transfer, Leu: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Insulin Coma: Severe HYPOGLYCEMIA induced by a large dose of exogenous INSULIN resulting in a COMA or profound state of unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Atrial Flutter: Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).Remission, Spontaneous: A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Ondansetron: A competitive serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist. It is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, and has reported anxiolytic and neuroleptic properties.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Esophageal pH Monitoring: Analysis of the HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION in the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS. It is used to record the pattern, frequency, and duration of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Acidosis, Lactic: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.Convalescence: The period of recovery following an illness.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Herpes Genitalis: Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Electric Countershock: An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Tachycardia, Supraventricular: A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Angina Pectoris, Variant: A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, but with preserved exercise capacity.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.MycosesCandidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Otitis Media with Effusion: Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.LondonCatheter-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Malta: An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)Great BritainInfusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac: Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Laughter: An involuntary expression of merriment and pleasure; it includes the patterned motor responses as well as the inarticulate vocalization.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.
Bacteremia in a long-term-care facility: a five-year prospective study of 163 consecutive episodes.... and outcomes of 163 episodes of bacteremia occurring at a long-term-care facility were evaluated. The rate of nosoc.. ... Bacteremia in a long-term-care facility: a five-year prospective study of 163 consecutive episodes.. ... and outcomes of 163 episodes of bacteremia occurring at a long-term-care facility were evaluated. The rate of nosocomial ... Optimal management of bacterial infection in a long-term-care setting requires the availability of blood culture results. ...
CBC.ca | Metro Morning | Accommodating Child CareAccommodating Child Care. A federal court has ruled that employers are obliged to accommodate an employee's child care ... arrangements on an individual basis, because some mothers cannot get child care when they need to work. Guest host Jane Hawtin ...
CBC.ca | A New Day | Yukon foster careYukon foster care The Yukon has one of highest rates of children in foster care in the country. The latest numbers from ...
Latin America & Caribbean | Page 9 | CARECARE Brasil's Experience in Local Development. Since 2002, CARE Brasil has been contributing to processes of change in the ... Support CARE While Shopping Install the free We-Care browser extension today. ... CARE in Latin America and the Caribbean. In fiscal year 2013, we worked in 86 countries, supporting 927 humanitarian aid and ... To donate, please call us at 1-800-521-CARE within the U.S. (24 hours) or +1-404-681-2552 (M-F, 8:30 a.m.-6:00 p.m. ET). ...
Amazon.com: Jaden Toussaint, the Greatest Episode 4: Attack of the Swamp Thing eBook: Marti Dumas, Stephanie Parcus: Kindle...... the Greatest Episode 4: Attack of the Swamp Thing eBook: Marti Dumas, Stephanie Parcus: Kindle Store ... Big Hair, Don't Care Crystal Swain-Bates. 4.8 out of 5 stars 639 ... Jaden Toussaint, the Greatest Episode 1: Marti Dumas 4.7 out of ... My daughter (3rd grade) has read all 4 exciting Episodes within a week! She can't wait for the next one. Bring on Episode 5!!!! ... 5.0 out of 5 starsMy daughter (3rd grade) has read all 4 exciting Episodes ... ...
Improving Control and Reducing the Risk of Hypoglycemic Episodes in Type 1 Diabetes - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govDiabetes Care. 2011 Feb;34(2):302-7. doi: 10.2337/dc10-1366. Epub 2011 Jan 7. ... Improving Control and Reducing the Risk of Hypoglycemic Episodes in Type 1 Diabetes (BPK002). This study has been completed. ... Complete monthly diaries of the occurrence of severe and moderate hypoglycemic episodes ... programs are being tested to see if they are useful in helping people with type 1 diabetes avoid low blood sugar episodes. ...
Joni Mitchell - IMDbMad Men (TV Series) (lyrics - 1 episode, 2013) (music - 1 episode, 2013) - In Care Of (2013) ... (lyrics: "Both Sides Now" - ... The Johnny Cash Show (TV Series) (writer - 3 episodes, 1969 - 1970) (performer - 3 episodes, 1969 - 1970) - Episode #2.4 (1970 ... Prime Suspect 1973 (TV Mini-Series) (performer - 1 episode, 2017) (writer - 1 episode, 2017) - Episode #1.6 (2017) ... ( ... Coronation Street (TV Series) (performer - 1 episode, 2014) (writer - 1 episode, 2014) - Episode #1.8386 (2014) ... (performer ...
April 2013 - Volume 41 - Issue 4 : Critical Care MedicineDynamic Data During Hypotensive Episode Improves Mortality Predictions Among Patients With Sepsis and Hypotension*. Mayaud, ... Neurologic Critical Care Determination of Neurologic Prognosis and Clinical Decision Making in Adult Patients With Severe ... Pediatric Critical Care Neuropsychologic Function Three to Six Months Following Admission to the PICU With Meningoencephalitis ... Comfort Care, Withdrawal of Life-Support Treatment, and Nonconsensual Euthanasia in the ICU. Rady, Mohamed Y.; Verheijde, ...
DO DIAGNOSIS‐RELATED GROUPS EXPLAIN VARIATIONS IN HOSPITAL COSTS AND LENGTH OF STAY? - ANALYSES FROM THE EURODRG PROJECT FOR 10..."Explaining length of stay variation of episodes of care in the Netherlands," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer ... "The effect of performance-volume limit on the DRG based acute care hospital financing in Hungary," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol ... ANALYSES FROM THE EURODRG PROJECT FOR 10 EPISODES OF CARE ACROSS 10 EuroPEAN COUNTRIES. ...
Project MUSE - Hemoglobinopathy Learning Collaborative: Using Quality Improvement (QI) to Achieve Equity in Health Care Quality...... seamless co-management between primary and specialty care; and appropriate treatment for acute episodes. Using a modified ... From: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. Volume 23, Number 3, August 2012, Supplement pp. 34-48 , 10.1353/hpu ... Care and outcomes for individuals living with sickle cell disease (SCD) vary across institutions and communities. The ... Hemoglobinopathy Learning Collaborative: Using Quality Improvement (QI) to Achieve Equity in Health Care Quality, Coordination ...
PST Q&A Series - Episode 3 (and 2!) - Wowhead NewsBecause I'm a doofus and forgot to post last week's episode (Editor's note-that part MIGHT have been written by Malgayne), we've got not one but two episodes of PST for you guys! Enjoy!
Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingSpontaneous bacterial peritonitisNeoglyphidodon melas: Neoglyphidodon melas (bowtie damselfish, black damsel, bluefin or royal damsel) is a damselfish from the Indo-West Pacific. It occasionally makes its way into the aquarium trade.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Rabbit feverBrexpiprazoleBacteremia: (NOS) |John HolterSpontaneous hypoglycemia: The term "spontaneous hypoglycemia" was coined by the physician Seale Harris. (Who stated their source to be Alabama Hall of Fame, 1968)DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical): __FORCETOC__Hair-grooming syncope: Hair-grooming syncope (also known as hair-combing syncope) is a form of syncope (a fainting disorder) associated with combing and brushing one's hair. It is most typically seen in children aged five to sixteen.Automated ECG interpretation: Automated ECG interpretation is the use of artificial intelligence and pattern recognition software and knowledge bases to carry out automatically the interpretation, test reporting, and computer-aided diagnosis of electrocardiogram tracings obtained usually from a patient.Dialysis catheterCongenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.Fake vomit: Fake vomit is a flat rubber or plastic disc with indentations and protrusions designed to look like mucus or vomit. It is a practical joke often used by pranksters to disgust victims.Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.BacitracinPeritoneal dialysisExpiratory apnea: Expiratory apnea is a voluntary condition performed by a patient during a doctor's examination. By breathing out and then holding one's breath, it gets easier for the doctor to perform an auscultation of the heart with a stethoscope.Chronic allograft nephropathy: Chronic allograft nephropathy, abbreviated CAN and also known as sclerosing/chronic allograft nephropathy, is the leading cause of kidney transplant failure and happens month to years after the transplant.External bacterial infection (fish): External bacterial infection is a condition found in fish.Primary ventricular fibrillation: Primary ventricular fibrillation (PVF) is an unpredictable and potentially fatal arrhythmia occurring during the acute phase of a myocardial infarction leading to immediate [and, if left untreated, leads to sudden cardiac death] within minutes. In developed countries, PVF is a leading cause of death.Familial atrial fibrillation: Familial atrial fibrillation is an autosomal dominant heart condition that causes disruptions in the heart's normal rhythm. This condition is characterized by uncoordinated electrical activity in the heart's upper chambers (the atria), which causes the heartbeat to become fast and irregular.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Cyclic neutropeniaDialysisFungemiaQuantitative electroencephalography: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.Combination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).Mood stabilizer: A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric medication used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder.Stretta procedure: Stretta is a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A catheter is used to deliver radiofrequency energy to the lower esophageal sphincter, muscle and gastric cardia.Lower respiratory tract infection: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis. Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness, fever, coughing and fatigue.Malformative syndrome: A malformative syndrome (or malformation syndrome) is a recognizable pattern of congenital anomalies that are known or thought to be causally related (VIIth International Congress on Human Genetics).Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial: Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial and MADIT II are implantable cardioverter defibrillator (or ICD) trials which investigate whether prophylactic ICD therapy in moderately high-risk coronary patients (in addition to conventional therapy) would significantly reduce death compared with patients treated with conventional therapy alone.Sleepwalking: Who.intS32212: S32212 is a drug which is under preclinical investigation as a potential antidepressant medicine. It behaves as a selective, combined 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonist and α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (at all three subtypes—α2A, α2B, and α2C) with additional 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, 5-HT2B receptor antagonistic properties, and lacks any apparent affinity for the monoamine reuptake transporters or for the α1-adrenergic, H1, or mACh receptors.Isbrand van Diemerbroeck: Isbrand van Diemerbroeck (also Ijsbrand or Ysbrand) (13 December 1609 – 16 November 1674) was a Dutch physician, anatomist, and professor.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.SteatocritTympanocentesis: Tympanocentesis is the drainage of fluid from the middle ear usually caused by otitis media, by using a small-gauge needle to puncture the tympanic membrane, also known as the eardrum.Pulmonary hemorrhageGram-negative bacterial infection: Gram-negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Sinus bradycardiaImmunosuppressive drug: Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. They are used in immunosuppressive therapy to:Ventricular dyssynchrony: In cardiology, Ventricular dyssynchrony is a difference in the timing, or lack of synchrony, of contractions in different ventricles in the heart. Large differences in timing of contractions can reduce cardiac efficiency and is correlated with heart failure.Sickle-cell diseaseCoronary ischemia: Coronary ischemia is a medical term for not having enough blood through the coronary arteries. Coronary ischemia is linked to heart disease as well as heart attacks.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that lead to the diseased state. The term can also describe the origin and development of the disease, and whether it is acute, chronic, or recurrent.Proarrhythmia: Proarrhythmia is a new or more frequent occurrence of pre-existing arrhythmias, paradoxically precipitated by antiarrhythmic therapy, which means it is a side effect associated with the administration of some existing antiarrhythmic drugs, as well as drugs for other indications. In other words, it is a tendency of antiarrhythmic drugs to facilitate emergence of new arrhythmias.Religion and schizophrenia: == Background ==HypotensionFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Glasgow-Blatchford score: The Glasgow-Blatchford bleeding score (GBS) is a screening tool to assess the likelihood that a patient with an acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) will need to have medical intervention such as a blood transfusion or endoscopic intervention. The tool may be able to identify patients who do not need to be admitted to hospital after a UGIB.Non-rapid eye movement sleepEggs and Marrowbone: "Eggs and Marrowbone" (Laws Q2, Roud183]) is a traditional folk song of unknown origins and multiple variations. The most well known variations are "The Old Woman From Boston" and "The Rich Old Lady".Psychogenic non-epileptic seizuresNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Midnight: Midnight is the transition time period from one day to the next: the moment when the date changes. In ancient Roman timekeeping, midnight was halfway between sunset and sunrise, varying according to the seasons.Postpartum psychosisAcute esophageal necrosisVasovagal responseHyperintensityNathan W. LevinTachycardiaSchizophreniaList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Shortening
(1/224) Incidence and duration of hospitalizations among persons with AIDS: an event history approach.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze hospitalization patterns of persons with AIDS (PWAs) in a multi-state/multi-episode continuous time duration framework. DATA SOURCES: PWAs on Medicaid identified through a match between the state's AIDS Registry and Medicaid eligibility files; hospital admission and discharge dates identified through Medicaid claims. STUDY DESIGN: Using a Weibull event history framework, we model the hazard of transition between hospitalized and community spells, incorporating the competing risk of death in each of these states. Simulations are used to translate these parameters into readily interpretable estimates of length of stay, the probability that a hospitalization will end in death, and the probability that a nonhospitalized person will be hospitalized within 90 days. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In multivariate analyses, participation in a Medicaid waiver program offering case management and home care was associated with hospital stays 1.3 days shorter than for nonparticipants. African American race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with hospital stays 1.2 days and 1.0 day longer than for non-Hispanic whites; African Americans also experienced more frequent hospital admissions. Residents of the high-HIV-prevalence area of the state had more frequent admissions and stays two days longer than those residing elsewhere in the state. Older PWAs experienced less frequent hospital admissions but longer stays, with hospitalizations of 55-year-olds lasting 8.25 days longer than those of 25-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: Much socioeconomic and geographic variability exists both in the incidence and in the duration of hospitalization among persons with AIDS in New Jersey. Event history analysis provides a useful statistical framework for analysis of these variations, deals appropriately with data in which duration of observation varies from individual to individual, and permits the competing risk of death to be incorporated into the model. Transition models of this type have broad applicability in modeling the risk and duration of hospitalization in chronic illnesses. (+info)
(2/224) Need to measure outcome after discharge in surgical audit.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of outcome data on appendicectomy routinely collected as part of a surgical audit and to investigate outcome in the non-audited period after discharge. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of audit data recorded by the Medical Data Index (MDI) computer system for all patients undergoing emergency appendicectomy in one year; subsequent analysis of their hospital notes and notes held by their general practitioners for patients identified by a questionnaire who had consulted their general practitioner for a wound complication. SETTING: One district general hospital with four consultant general surgeons serving a population of 250,000. PATIENTS: 230 patients undergoing emergency appendicectomy during 1989. MAIN MEASURES: Comparison of postoperative complications recorded in hospital notes with those recorded by the MDI system and with those recorded by patients' general practitioners after discharge. RESULTS: Of the 230 patients, 29 (13%) had a postoperative complication recorded in their hospital notes, but only 14 (6%) patients had these recorded by the MDI system. 189 (82%) of the patients completed the outcome questionnaire after discharge. The number of wound infections as recorded by the MDI system, the hospital notes, and notes held by targeted patients' general practitioners were three (1%), eight (3%), and 18 (8%) respectively. None of 12 readmissions with complications identified by the hospital notes were identified by the MDI system. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate audit of postoperative complications must be extended to the period after discharge. Computerised audit systems must be able to relate readmissions to specific previous admissions. (+info)
(3/224) The diagnostic and treatment approach to two common conditions by the physician members of a community health maintenance organization.
We retrospectively collected data from one community managed care organization on all ambulatory care patients initially diagnosed with pneumonia or acute bronchitis from October, 1, 1992, to March 31, 1993, and from November 1, 1993, to January 31, 1994. We considered treatment to be successful when patients did not return for any related service within 15 days of initial diagnosis. We identified 2,490 episodes of illness, 85.7% which were acute bronchitis and 14.3% which were pneumonia. Overwhelmingly, physicians approached these conditions empirically (no diagnostic test); just 8.6% of patients had a diagnostic test during the 15-day episode of illness. Two-hundred twenty-nine of the episodes (9.2%) were apparently related to initial diagnoses, as they occurred during the 15-day period. More branded prescriptions (vs. generic) were dispensed during these related episodes. One patient was hospitalized and 19 patients used the emergency room either for first or subsequent visits. Empiric treatment is associated with effective diagnosis and therapy in ambulatory care patients with acute bronchitis and pneumonia. It remains unclear, however, if this strategy is the most cost-effective or if it leads to the most effective utilization of services. (+info)
(4/224) Pharmacoeconomic analysis of selected antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection.
An interactive pharmacoeconomic model was designed to evaluate the effects of clinical response and adverse drug events on the comparative cost and cost-effectiveness of a relatively new antibiotic, clarithromycin, compared with those of six other antibiotics used to treat community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection. The cost and cost-effectiveness analyses were based don 12 randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials conducted between 1987 and 1992 in regionally distributed outpatient clinics in the United States. The trials enrolled a total of 2377 patients. Of the 2377, 1102 patients were treated for acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, 591 for pneumonia, and 201 for either of the two conditions. Safety data for one of the antibiotics was obtained from a trial of patients with sinusitis (N = 483). The antibiotics included in the analysis were amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin, cefaclor, cefixime, cefuroxime, clarithromycin, and erythromycin. The main outcome measures were the costs of resources to achieve a clinical response, costs related to managing adverse drug events, and costs of antibiotic treatment from the perspective of managed care. The mean total cost per episode ranged from approximately $137 to $267. The drug acquisition cost typically contributed a small amount to the overall cost. For the cost-effectiveness analysis, in which complication-free cure was used as a proxy for patient satisfaction, the range of mean cost per complication-free cure varied from approximately $307 for clarithromycin to $612 for cefaclor. When ranked from most to least cost-effective, the order was as follows: clarithromycin, cefixime, amoxicillin/clavulanate, erythromycin, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and cefaclor. The costs associated with clinical management (including treatment failure) and managing adverse drug events significantly contribute to the total cost and cost-effectiveness of antibiotics in the outpatient setting. Cost-effectiveness analyses are valuable in analyzing the various costs associated with the treatment of lower respiratory tract infection (acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis or pneumonia) and may be useful tools for physicians managing patients, members of pharmacy and therapeutics committees developing formularies, and medical staff implementing practice guidelines. (+info)
(5/224) Differences in costs of treatment for foot problems between podiatrists and orthopedic surgeons.
We examined charge data for health insurance claims paid in 1992 for persons under age 65 covered by a large California managed care plan. Charge and utilization comparisons between podiatrists and orthopedic surgeons were made for all foot care and for two specific foot problems, acquired toe deformities and bunions. Podiatrists provided over 59% of foot care services for this commercial population of 576,000 people. Podiatrists charged 12% less per individual service than orthopedists. However, podiatrists performed substantially more procedures per episode of care and treated patients for longer time periods, resulting in 43% higher total charges per episode. Hospitalization was infrequent for all providers, although podiatrists had the lowest rates. In a managed care setting in which all providers must adhere to a preestablished fee schedule, regardless of specialty, the higher utilization by podiatrists should lead to higher overall costs. In some cases, strong utilization controls could offset this effect. We do not know if the utilization difference is due to actual treatment or billing differences. Further, we were unable to determine from the claims data if one specialty had better outcomes than the other. (+info)
(6/224) Gastrointestinal illness in managed care: healthcare utilization and costs.
Identification of inefficiencies is a first step to improving the quality of gastrointestinal (GI) care at the most reasonable cost. This analysis used administrative data to examine the healthcare utilization and associated costs of the management of GI illnesses in a 2.5 million-member private managed care plan containing many benefit designs. An overall incidence of 10% was found for GI conditions, with a preponderance in adults (patients older than 40 years) and women. The most frequently occurring conditions were abdominal pain, nonulcer peptic diseases, lower GI tract diseases, and other GI tract problems. These conditions, along with gallbladder/biliary tract disease, were also the most costly. Claims submitted for care during GI episodes averaged $17 per member per month. Increasing severity of condition was associated with substantial increases in utilization and costs (except for medication use). For most GI conditions, approximately 40% of charges were for professional services (procedures, tests, and visits) and 40% of charges were for facility admissions. The prescription utilization analysis indicated areas where utilization patterns may not match accepted guidelines, such as the low use of anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy, the possible concomitant use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with upper GI diseases, and the use of narcotics in treating patients with lower GI disease and abdominal pain. Also, there was no clear relationship between medication utilization and disease severity. Thus, this analysis indicated that GI disease is a significant economic burden to managed care, and identified usage patterns that potentially could be modified to improve quality of care. (+info)
(7/224) The impact of reimbursement changes for intracoronary stents on providers and Medicare.
CONTEXT: New Medicare reimbursement policies will move stents into a different diagnosis-related group (DRG) than conventional balloon angioplasty (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty [PTCA]). OBJECTIVE: To examine the financial impact on hospitals and Medicare of these planned changes, taking into account costs, reimbursement, and the cost-offset effect of prevented complications. DESIGN: The economic impact of proposed reimbursement changes was modeled by using a retrospective clinical and economic data set from a single institution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 421 consecutive interventional cases from 1996 were examined by using actual cost data. The new, proposed revenues were assigned to these cases. From the hospitals' perspective, the focus was on contribution margin (the difference between revenues and costs), risk adjusted for case-mix severity. From Medicare's perspective, the focus was on expenditures. Various assumptions were adopted for two clinical variables: the effectiveness of stents in preventing the major PTCA-related complications of myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass graft surgery and the relative proportions of myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass graft surgery in the mix of complications. Under current Medicare DRG policies, coronary artery bypass graft surgery is highly profitable for hospitals, whereas myocardial infarction as a complication of PTCA has a negative financial impact. RESULTS: Under the new Medicare reimbursement policies, hospitals experience higher profitability with stents than with conventional PTCA under most assumed levels of clinical effectiveness and mixes of myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass graft surgery. For Medicare, under most circumstances (including percentages of stent use and levels of clinical effectiveness that represent contemporary practice) stents lead to greater expenditures. CONCLUSIONS: Medicare reimbursement changes will substantially realign previously misaligned financial and clinical incentives for hospitals. The immediate effect on hospitals will be to enhance profitability, whereas the effect on Medicare will be to increase expenditures. (+info)
(8/224) Allocative efficiency in the use of health resources in Portugal.
BACKGROUND: This is the first time that a resource allocation technique based on a marginal met need approach has been used in Portugal, and the objective of the study is to attain the improvement of allocative efficiency. METHODS: The utilities of health states with and without treatment have been measured using the rating scale technique and a cost-utility analysis has been made. The value resulting from multiplying the avoided days of incapacity by a weight, on a scale from zero to one, has been considered as an indicator of utility corresponding to the difference between a health state with and without treatment. This study has been carried out using the main causes of morbidity from the National Health Survey, 1987, at a regional level. A sample of 150 local authorities was considered to be sufficient. A second objective of this study was to carry out a cost-utility analysis for the main causes of declared morbidity. RESULTS: This analysis has shown that the ratio of cost-utility is highest for hypertension, followed by influenza, asthma and digestive ill-functioning. Pharyngitis-amygdalitis, cold, osteoarthrosis, chronic bronchitis, spondylous arthrosis and diabetes are the illnesses with a more favourable cost-utility ratio which, in a rational resource allocation, should be treated first. CONCLUSIONS: So that an increase in the allocative efficiency could be achieved, a transfer of resources between regions is required up to the point at which the use of these resources would be equally efficient. Resources should be transferred from two regions - Interior Centre Region and Littoral Lisbon Region - towards all the other regions, in particular the Interior North Region. (+info)
- Abstract The clinical features, microbiological characteristics, and outcomes of 163 episodes of bacteremia occurring at a long-term-care facility were evaluated. (omicsonline.org)
- Care and outcomes for individuals living with sickle cell disease (SCD) vary across institutions and communities. (jhu.edu)
- The effect of performance-volume limit on the DRG based acute care hospital financing in Hungary ," Health Policy , Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 152-156. (repec.org)
- and appropriate treatment for acute episodes. (jhu.edu)
- Subscribe to the show in iTunes here: http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/who-cares-for-your-aging-family/id1081120870?i=1000380982871&mt=2 Like most people, I didn't want to think about my parents getting old, getting. (jdsupra.com)
- Two, one-hour sessions will be given regarding self-care measures and ergonomics relative to work and activities of daily living. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study will recruit over a 12-24 month period participants who have completed the therapy for the current episode of cellulitis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Participants in this single blind study will be randomly assigned to receive either enhanced treatment as usual or telephone-based care management for the first year postpartum. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Participants assigned to care management will receive two calls in the first month postpartum, followed by monthly calls for the remainder of the first postpartum year. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In this context the depression care manager helps the women to identify barriers to appropriate care, her preferred method of care, and resources available. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This requirement is in accordance with the idea that ACT for Kids is designed to be a supplement to good medical care and encourages families to work in concert with their physicians to manage the child's asthma. (cdc.gov)
- Depression Care Manager calls postpartum women and encourages women to seek appropriate depression care. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The purpose of this study is to compare three treatments for neck pain: 1) rehabilitative exercise, 2) chiropractic spinal manipulation combined with rehabilitative exercise, and 3) self-care education. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Self-care education will be provided by the therapist trained in the study protocol. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To assess whether a period of prophylactic penicillin after an episode of cellulitis of the leg reduces the risk of repeat episodes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Explaining length of stay variation of episodes of care in the Netherlands ," The European Journal of Health Economics , Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 14(6), pages 919-927, December. (repec.org)
- The average length of in-patient stay is 9 days (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health (UK), 2002-2003) and 25-50% of treated patients suffer further episodes and other morbidity, such as oedema and ulceration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- At the baseline home visit where diagnostic assessments are completed women are given information about community and health plan resources if they choose to seek care for depression symptoms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- A Healthcare Directive informs your health care provider about your. (jdsupra.com)
- A federal court has ruled that employers are obliged to accommodate an employee's child care arrangements on an individual basis, because some mothers cannot get child care when they need to work. (cbc.ca)
- Participating teams include consumers, community organizations and primary and specialty care providers. (jhu.edu)
- Chiropractic care will include manual spinal manipulation, with light soft tissue massage as indicated to facilitate the spinal manipulative therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- But Mireille has rebuilt her life, through the help of her community and an innovative microsavings program, introduced by CARE to Haiti and Mireille's community in 2011. (care.org)
- This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a telephone-based depression screening and care management program in treating depression in postpartum women. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Optimal management of bacterial infection in a long-term-care setting requires the availability of blood culture results. (omicsonline.org)
- Both computer programs are being tested to see if they are useful in helping people with type 1 diabetes avoid low blood sugar episodes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The Yukon has one of highest rates of children in foster care in the country. (cbc.ca)
- Death was significantly associated with residence on the intermediate-care unit, the presence of a respiratory infection, a change in mental status, and relatively recent admission. (omicsonline.org)
- Since 2002, CARE Brasil has been contributing to processes of change in the Costa do Cacau (Cocoa Coast) region, Bahia's south coast. (care.org)