Bhopal Accidental Release: 1984 accident in Bhopal, INDIA at a PESTICIDES facility, resulting when WATER entered a storage tank containing ISOCYANATES. The following accidental chemical release and uncontrolled reaction resulted in several thousand deaths.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Epidemiologic Research Design: The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Epidemiologic Factors: Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.

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This course builds on prior knowledge of the basic principles of epidemiology while introducing methods of epidemiologic ... In addition, students will learn to perform preliminary analyses of epidemiologic, biostatistical, environmental, and other ... is intended to provide students with the skills and knowledge to critically evaluate health research based on epidemiologic ...
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Home , November 2002 - Volume 13 - Issue 6 , WANTED: Readable Papers on Practical Epidemiologic Methods ... WANTED: Readable Papers on Practical Epidemiologic Methods. Wacholder, Sholom. Epidemiology: November 2002 - Volume 13 - Issue ... Epidemiology will continue to provide a forum for presenting important work on epidemiologic methods. With your help-as ... Several areas call out for new ideas and methods:. *How do we use new designs and other techniques to reduce cost or increase ...
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Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies by I-Min Lee, 9780195183009, available at Book Depository with free delivery ... CONTENTS; CONTRIBUTORS; EPIDEMIOLOGIC METHODS, I-MIN LEE, RALPH S. PAFFENBARGER, JR; EPIDEMIOLOGIC DATA, SECTION EDITOR: JOANN ... Utilizing modern epidemiologic methods, studies of physical activity and health have been conducted since the 1940s. However ... With a major emphasis on the methods underpinning studies that can be conducted to elucidate these associations, this book is ...
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... jack-knife methods • Generalized additive models • Mixed-effect models • Imputation methods • Non-proportional hazards models ... of this review series is to provide readers with clearly written chapters on classical statistical and epidemiologic methods as ... Mantel-Haenszel methods • Matched-set designs and analysis • Rates and proportions • Propensity scores • Complex samples • ... Population-projection methods • Poisson / log-binomial regression • Beta-binomial regression • Logistic regression • Survival ...
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Epidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurence of Illness. Buy Now orders cannot be placed without a valid Australian shipping ... Some examples are drawn from classic studies in the field, while many others concern modern-day epidemiologic studies of ... The book's chapters are organized around three main themes: general concepts and methods of epidemiology; major study designs; ... This is a rigorous, systematic introduction to the basic concepts and practical tools of epidemiologic research. Besides ...
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The methods used in a large scale study of reproductive health in female semiconductor workers for assessment of menstrual ... Epidemiologic methods for prospective assessment of menstrual cycle and reproductive characteristics in female semiconductor ... The methods used in a large scale study of reproductive health in female semiconductor workers for assessment of menstrual ... Reproductive-system-disorders; Reproductive-hazards; Semiconductors; Epidemiology; Analytical-methods; Urinalysis; Humans; ...
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*  Epidemiologic Methods for the Study of Infectious Diseases - James C. Thomas; David J. Weber - Oxford University Press
This is the first comprehensive text on the methodological issues in epidemiologic research on infectious diseases. It will be ... You are here: Home Page , Medicine & Health , Public Health & Epidemiology , Epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods for the Study ... Epidemiologic Methods for the Study of Infectious Diseases. Edited by James C. Thomas and David J. Weber. ... Epidemiologic Methods for the Study of Infectious Diseases. Edited by James C. Thomas and David J. Weber. ...
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METHODS: The systematic mapping method was used to collect and categorize all the relevant literature... ... phylodynamic analysis with traditional methods becomes challenging as these methods scale poorly with growing datasets... ... METHODS: This prospective, frequency matched, case-control study recruited subjects 15 days to 17 years of age and detected DEC ... The CE-MS method is highly amenable to absolute quantification of polar metabolites, however, its reliability for large-scale ...
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*  Improving Methods for Reporting Spatial Epidemiologic Data - Volume 14, Number 8-August 2008 - Emerging Infectious Disease...
Need for improved methods to collect and present spatial epidemiologic data for vectorborne diseases.Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13: ... Improving Methods for Reporting Spatial Epidemiologic Data On This Page. *To the Editor ... Improving Methods for Reporting Spatial Epidemiologic Data. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(8):1335-1337. doi:10.3201/ ... Peterson, A. T. (2008). Improving Methods for Reporting Spatial Epidemiologic Data. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1335- ...
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*  "EPID 7133 - Epidemiologic Research Methods I" by Isaac Chun-Hai Fung
... primarily methods used in observational studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and randomized controlled trials. With ... This course will focus on epidemiologic methods - primarily methods used in observational studies, cohort studies, case-control ... Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai, "EPID 7133 - Epidemiologic Research Methods I" (2015). Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health Syllabi. ... This course will focus on epidemiologic methods - ...
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*  Sleep, Health and Society - Francesco P. Cappuccio, Michelle A. Miller, Steven W. Lockley - Oxford University Press
Epidemiologic Methods. Second Edition. Noel S. Weiss, Thomas D. Koepsell * Epidemiology: A research manual for South Africa. ... Through the application of epidemiological methods of investigation sleep deprivation has been shown to be associated with a ...
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8: Use of economic methods to evaluate the cost effectiveness of public health interventions, Susan Griffin, Mark Sculpher & ... approaches and methods to generate and synthesize evidence of what works to improve health and tackle health inequalities; ... Epidemiologic Methods. Second Edition. Noel S. Weiss, Thomas D. Koepsell * A Dictionary of Epidemiology. Sixth Edition ...
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2: Methods, TJ Vincent, AM Bayne, PA Brownbill and CA Stiller. 3: Incidence of Childhood Cancer 1991-2000, CA Stiller, ME Kroll ... This is a scholarly piece of work and the methods used cannot be faulted. ...as a clean and tidy piece of epidemiology. It is ... Epidemiologic Methods. Second Edition. Noel S. Weiss, Thomas D. Koepsell * Renal Cell Carcinoma. Nizar M. Tannir ...
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*  A Life Course Approach to Mental Disorders - Karestan C. Koenen, Sasha Rudenstine, Ezra Susser, Sandro Galea - Oxford...
Epidemiologic Methods. Second Edition. Noel S. Weiss, Thomas D. Koepsell * Epidemiology: A research manual for South Africa. ... Part Two: Methods in life course approaches. 2: Study designs, Stephen L. Buka and Mary E. Lacy. 3: Measurement issues in ... Reviews the methods and synthesizes the existing knowledge about the life course epidemiology of mental disorders ... and epigenetics the book reviews the methods and synthesizes existing knowledge about the life course epidemiology of mental ...
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(1/5889) Does risk factor epidemiology put epidemiology at risk? Peering into the future.

The multiple cause black box paradigm of the current risk factor era in epidemiology is growing less serviceable. This single level paradigm is likely to be displaced. The signs are that the growing strength of molecular epidemiology on the one side, and of a global epidemiology based on information systems on the other, will come to dominate epidemiology and segregate it into separate disciplines. At the same time, the links with public health interests grow weaker. A multilevel ecoepidemiology has the potential to bind these strands together.  (+info)

(2/5889) A method for calculating age-weighted death proportions for comparison purposes.

OBJECTIVE: To introduce a method for calculating age-weighted death proportions (wDP) for comparison purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methodological study using secondary data from the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1980-1994) was carried out. First, deaths are weighted in terms of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years. Then, in order to eliminate distortion of comparisons among proportions of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years (pYPLL-100), the denominator is set to that of a standard age distribution of deaths for all causes. Conventional death proportions (DP), pYPLL-100, and wDP were calculated. RESULTS: Populations in which deaths from a particular cause occur at older ages exhibit lower wDP than those in which deaths occur at younger ages. The sum of all cause-specific wDP equals one only when the test population has exactly the same age distribution of deaths for all causes as that of the standard population. CONCLUSION: Age-weighted death proportions improve the information given by conventional DP, and are strongly recommended for comparison purposes.  (+info)

(3/5889) The meaning and use of the cumulative rate of potential life lost.

BACKGROUND: The 'years of potential life lost' (YPLL) is a public health measure in widespread use. However, the index does not apply to the comparisons between different populations or across different time periods. It also has the limit of being cross-sectional in nature, quantifying current burden but not future impact on society. METHODS: A new years-lost index is proposed-the 'cumulative rate of potential life lost' (CRPLL). It is a simple combination of the 'cumulative rate' (CR) and the YPLL. Vital statistics in Taiwan are used for demonstration and comparison of the new index with existing health-status measures. RESULTS: The CRPLL serves the purpose of between-group comparison. It can also be considered a projection of future impact, under the assumption that the age-specific mortality rates in the current year prevail. For a rare cause of death, it can be interpreted as the expected years (days) of potential life lost during a subject's lifetime. CONCLUSIONS: The CRPLL has several desirable properties, rendering it a promising alternative for quantifying health status.  (+info)

(4/5889) Influence of sampling on estimates of clustering and recent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from DNA fingerprinting techniques.

The availability of DNA fingerprinting techniques for Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to attempts to estimate the extent of recent transmission in populations, using the assumption that groups of tuberculosis patients with identical isolates ("clusters") are likely to reflect recently acquired infections. It is never possible to include all cases of tuberculosis in a given population in a study, and the proportion of isolates found to be clustered will depend on the completeness of the sampling. Using stochastic simulation models based on real and hypothetical populations, the authors demonstrate the influence of incomplete sampling on the estimates of clustering obtained. The results show that as the sampling fraction increases, the proportion of isolates identified as clustered also increases and the variance of the estimated proportion clustered decreases. Cluster size is also important: the underestimation of clustering for any given sampling fraction is greater, and the variability in the results obtained is larger, for populations with small clusters than for those with the same number of individuals arranged in large clusters. A considerable amount of caution should be used in interpreting the results of studies on clustering of M. tuberculosis isolates, particularly when sampling fractions are small.  (+info)

(5/5889) Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older.

Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups.  (+info)

(6/5889) Measuring food insecurity and hunger in the United States: development of a national benchmark measure and prevalence estimates.

Since 1992, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) has led a collaborative effort to develop a comprehensive benchmark measure of the severity and prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in the United States. Based on prior research and wide consultation, a survey instrument specifically relevant to U.S. conditions was designed and tested. Through its Current Population Survey (CPS), the U.S. Bureau of the Census has fielded this instrument each year since 1995. A measurement scale was derived from the data through fitting, testing and validating a Rasch scale. The unidimensional Rasch model corresponds to the form of the phenomenon being measured, i.e., the severity of food insufficiency due to inadequate resources as directly experienced and reported in U.S. households. A categorical measure reflecting designated ranges of severity on the scale was constructed for consistent comparison of prevalence estimates over time and across population groups. The technical basis and initial results of the new measure were reported in September 1997. For the 12 months ending April 1995, an estimated 11.9% of U.S. households (35 million persons) were food insecure. Among these, 4.1% of households (with 6.9 million adults and 4.3 million children) showed a recurring pattern of hunger due to inadequate resources for one or more of their adult and/or child members sometime during the period. The new measure has been incorporated into other federal surveys and is being used by researchers throughout the U.S. and Canada.  (+info)

(7/5889) Antimicrobial susceptibilities and plasmid contents of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from commercial sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: emergence of high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin.

Commercial sex workers (CSWs) serve as the most important reservoir of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including gonorrhea. Periodic monitoring of the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a high-risk population provides essential clues regarding the rapidly changing pattern of antimicrobial susceptibilities. A study concerning the prevalence of gonococcal infection among CSWs was conducted in Bangladesh. The isolates were examined with regards to their antimicrobial susceptibility to, and the MICs of, penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. The total plasmid profile of the isolates was also analyzed. Of the 224 CSWs, 94 (42%) were culture positive for N. gonorrhoeae. There was a good correlation between the results of the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Some 66% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin, and 34% were moderately susceptible to penicillin. Among the resistant isolates, 23.4% were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG). 60.6% of the isolates were resistant and 38.3% were moderately susceptible to tetracycline, 17.5% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae, 11.7% were resistant and 26.6% had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, 2.1% were resistant and 11.7% had reduced susceptibility to cefuroxime, and 1% were resistant to ceftriaxone. All PPNG isolates contained a 3.2-MDa African type of plasmid, and a 24.2-MDa conjugative plasmid was present in 34.1% of the isolates. Since quinolones such as ciprofloxacin are recommended as the first line of therapy for gonorrhea, the emergence of significant resistance to ciprofloxacin will limit the usefulness of this drug for treatment of gonorrhea in Bangladesh.  (+info)

(8/5889) Epidemiological analysis of site relationships of synchronous and metachronous multiple primary cancers in the National Cancer Center, Japan, 1962-1996.

BACKGROUND: Multiple primary cancer (MPC) has been recognized as a problem commonly encountered in routine medical practice. A study of MPC is necessary not only to provide insights into the etiology of cancer, but also to provide information for effective medical care by clinical oncologists. METHODS: A cohort of 49,751 cancer patients who were admitted to the National Cancer Center Hospital between 1962 and 1996 was used to study the site relationship of MPC. Logistic and Poisson regression analyses using an internal reference group within the cohort were applied for the calculation of the prevalence odds ratio (POR) for site relationships of synchronous MPC and the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for those of metachronous MPC. RESULTS: Three site combinations with elevated risks for both synchronous and metachronous MPCs, eight with elevated risk for synchronous MPC, five with elevated risk for metachronous MPC and six with decreased risk for synchronous MPC were identified with statistical significance. Among them, the increased risk of metachronous stomach cancer following lymphoma and myeoloma (POR = 1.0 and 1.1, P > 0.05; IRR = 2.5, P < 0.05) and the inverse site-correlation of synchronous MPC between [trachea, bronchus and lung] and other sites of the upper aerodigestive tract [lip, oral cavity and pharynx] (POR = 0.5 and 0.3, P < 0.05) and esophagus (POR = 0.7 and 0.3, P < 0.05) have not been reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that interventions for lymphoma and myeloma might affect the development of subsequent stomach cancer and additional etiological factors other than tobacco smoking are associated with the development of cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract.  (+info)



  • form
  • The main goals of the IMCB were: Betterment of the lives of the victims with rational diagnostic methods and treatment Clarification of the place and form of international medical assistance and documentation after a catastrophic accident Recommending legislation to protect humans from military and industrial pollution Mobilisation of international assistance in response to the request of survivors rather than waiting for government invitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several years later he introduced a more advanced form of the rapid survey method for use in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Concern about adverse effects has led to revised guidelines that alter the recommended frequency and methods/locations for both vaccination of dogs and feline vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1980s and 1990s he quantified the impact of conflict on noncombatants using epidemiologic methods and studied the effects of economic sanctions on health in Iraq, Cuba, Nicaragua, Liberia, Haiti, and the former Yugoslavia. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • As an example of how the point-radius method would be applied, the locality for our traveling salesperson would be assigned to his or her house, but the error radius would be 360 km (based on the corner-to-corner distance across Wyoming). (cdc.gov)
  • world
  • Promote the communication of epidemiological methods and findings amongst epidemiologists throughout the world as well as amongst all others concerned with health. (wikipedia.org)