Bhopal Accidental Release: 1984 accident in Bhopal, INDIA at a PESTICIDES facility, resulting when WATER entered a storage tank containing ISOCYANATES. The following accidental chemical release and uncontrolled reaction resulted in several thousand deaths.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Epidemiologic Research Design: The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Epidemiologic Factors: Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00171282 - Epidemiologic principles and methods for occupational health studies.Three basic epidemiologic study strategies, the cohort study, the case/control study, and the cross sectional study, ... Epidemiologic principles and study methods necessary in occupational health studies to make valid assessments of possible ... Epidemiologic principles and study methods necessary in occupational health studies to make valid assessments of possible ... Sources of random and nonrandom error in epidemiologic studies and methods for controlling for potential confounders were ...
Epidemiologic methods for assessing trauma and PTSD | RTISchlenger, W., Jordan, B., Caddell, J., Ebert, L., & Fairbank, J. (2004). Epidemiologic methods for assessing trauma and PTSD. ...
Buy Epidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurence of Illness | GraysOnline AustraliaEpidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurence of Illness. Buy Now orders cannot be placed without a valid Australian shipping ... Some examples are drawn from classic studies in the field, while many others concern modern-day epidemiologic studies of ... The book's chapters are organized around three main themes: general concepts and methods of epidemiology; major study designs; ... This is a rigorous, systematic introduction to the basic concepts and practical tools of epidemiologic research. Besides ...
Figure 1 - Need for Improved Methods to Collect and Present Spatial Epidemiologic Data for Vectorborne Diseases - Volume 13,...New methods are urgently needed to determine probable pathogen exposure sites that will yield reliable results while taking ... Improved methods for collection and presentation of spatial epidemiologic data are needed for vectorborne diseases in the ... Need for Improved Methods to Collect and Present Spatial Epidemiologic Data for Vectorborne Diseases Lars Eisen*. and Rebecca J ... Need for Improved Methods to Collect and Present Spatial Epidemiologic Data for Vectorborne Diseases*Figure 1 ...
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention - Oxford ScholarshipThe concluding section, Cancer Prevention and Control, addresses methods and applications for translating epidemiologic, ... 7 Genetic Concepts and Methods in Epidemiologic Research NEIL J. RISCH, and ALICE S. WHITTEMORE. ... The concluding section, Cancer Prevention and Control, addresses methods and applications for translating epidemiologic, ...
Psych Central - Other highlights in the January 4 JNCI... designing new epidemiologic methods; and developing evidence-based practice guidelines. Contact: NCI Press Office, 301-496-6641 ...
Human resources section 3b-textbook on public health and community me… - Englisha) Epidemiologic method. (b) Qualitative method. Public Health Practice. 2nd ed, 2007. 20-31 2. Assessing health status. Peter ... Methods for Assessing Health Impacts commissioned the HIA are network of people and organisationsThere are a wide range of ... The epidemiologic and qualitative approach in determining●● Don't be too sophisticated-many people in the target priorities ... The definition of the problem may involve a search of the●● It also provides a method of monitoring and promoting health and ...
Guidelines for Management of Outbreak in Healthcare Organization - English... and testing this hypothesis using statistical methods. Special epidemiologic studies may be needed ... methods results, discussion and recommendations. By formally presenting recommendations, the report provides a blueprint for ...
The Biogeography of Host-Parasite Interactions - Paperback - Serge Morand; Boris R. Krasnov - Oxford University PressBiogeography has renewed its concepts and methods following important recent advances in phylogenetics, macroecology, and ... Epidemiologic Methods for the Study of Infectious Diseases. James C. Thomas and David J. Weber ... Biogeography has renewed its concepts and methods following important recent advances in phylogenetics, macroecology, and ...
118 - Massey University118.815 Epidemiologic Methods 230 credits This course extends the concepts covered in 118.715 Epidemiological Methods 1. The ... 118.715 Epidemiologic Methods 130 credits This course describes epidemiological methods used to investigate the magnitude of ... 118.716 Analysis of Epidemiologic Data 130 credits This course provides students with the basic skills necessary to undertake ... 118.819 Biosecurity Methods30 credits This is an advanced course with an emphasis on teaching practical skills. Participants ...
BCG disease outbreak in Finland in the 2000s: BCG disease is an adverse effect of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine. The vaccine contains living Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and in BCG disease, the bacterium causes a disease in persons vaccinated.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.ESCAIDEQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.
(1/5889) Does risk factor epidemiology put epidemiology at risk? Peering into the future.
The multiple cause black box paradigm of the current risk factor era in epidemiology is growing less serviceable. This single level paradigm is likely to be displaced. The signs are that the growing strength of molecular epidemiology on the one side, and of a global epidemiology based on information systems on the other, will come to dominate epidemiology and segregate it into separate disciplines. At the same time, the links with public health interests grow weaker. A multilevel ecoepidemiology has the potential to bind these strands together. (+info)
(2/5889) A method for calculating age-weighted death proportions for comparison purposes.
OBJECTIVE: To introduce a method for calculating age-weighted death proportions (wDP) for comparison purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methodological study using secondary data from the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1980-1994) was carried out. First, deaths are weighted in terms of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years. Then, in order to eliminate distortion of comparisons among proportions of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years (pYPLL-100), the denominator is set to that of a standard age distribution of deaths for all causes. Conventional death proportions (DP), pYPLL-100, and wDP were calculated. RESULTS: Populations in which deaths from a particular cause occur at older ages exhibit lower wDP than those in which deaths occur at younger ages. The sum of all cause-specific wDP equals one only when the test population has exactly the same age distribution of deaths for all causes as that of the standard population. CONCLUSION: Age-weighted death proportions improve the information given by conventional DP, and are strongly recommended for comparison purposes. (+info)
(3/5889) The meaning and use of the cumulative rate of potential life lost.
BACKGROUND: The 'years of potential life lost' (YPLL) is a public health measure in widespread use. However, the index does not apply to the comparisons between different populations or across different time periods. It also has the limit of being cross-sectional in nature, quantifying current burden but not future impact on society. METHODS: A new years-lost index is proposed-the 'cumulative rate of potential life lost' (CRPLL). It is a simple combination of the 'cumulative rate' (CR) and the YPLL. Vital statistics in Taiwan are used for demonstration and comparison of the new index with existing health-status measures. RESULTS: The CRPLL serves the purpose of between-group comparison. It can also be considered a projection of future impact, under the assumption that the age-specific mortality rates in the current year prevail. For a rare cause of death, it can be interpreted as the expected years (days) of potential life lost during a subject's lifetime. CONCLUSIONS: The CRPLL has several desirable properties, rendering it a promising alternative for quantifying health status. (+info)
(4/5889) Influence of sampling on estimates of clustering and recent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from DNA fingerprinting techniques.
The availability of DNA fingerprinting techniques for Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to attempts to estimate the extent of recent transmission in populations, using the assumption that groups of tuberculosis patients with identical isolates ("clusters") are likely to reflect recently acquired infections. It is never possible to include all cases of tuberculosis in a given population in a study, and the proportion of isolates found to be clustered will depend on the completeness of the sampling. Using stochastic simulation models based on real and hypothetical populations, the authors demonstrate the influence of incomplete sampling on the estimates of clustering obtained. The results show that as the sampling fraction increases, the proportion of isolates identified as clustered also increases and the variance of the estimated proportion clustered decreases. Cluster size is also important: the underestimation of clustering for any given sampling fraction is greater, and the variability in the results obtained is larger, for populations with small clusters than for those with the same number of individuals arranged in large clusters. A considerable amount of caution should be used in interpreting the results of studies on clustering of M. tuberculosis isolates, particularly when sampling fractions are small. (+info)
(5/5889) Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older.
Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups. (+info)
(6/5889) Measuring food insecurity and hunger in the United States: development of a national benchmark measure and prevalence estimates.
Since 1992, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) has led a collaborative effort to develop a comprehensive benchmark measure of the severity and prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in the United States. Based on prior research and wide consultation, a survey instrument specifically relevant to U.S. conditions was designed and tested. Through its Current Population Survey (CPS), the U.S. Bureau of the Census has fielded this instrument each year since 1995. A measurement scale was derived from the data through fitting, testing and validating a Rasch scale. The unidimensional Rasch model corresponds to the form of the phenomenon being measured, i.e., the severity of food insufficiency due to inadequate resources as directly experienced and reported in U.S. households. A categorical measure reflecting designated ranges of severity on the scale was constructed for consistent comparison of prevalence estimates over time and across population groups. The technical basis and initial results of the new measure were reported in September 1997. For the 12 months ending April 1995, an estimated 11.9% of U.S. households (35 million persons) were food insecure. Among these, 4.1% of households (with 6.9 million adults and 4.3 million children) showed a recurring pattern of hunger due to inadequate resources for one or more of their adult and/or child members sometime during the period. The new measure has been incorporated into other federal surveys and is being used by researchers throughout the U.S. and Canada. (+info)
(7/5889) Antimicrobial susceptibilities and plasmid contents of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from commercial sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: emergence of high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin.
Commercial sex workers (CSWs) serve as the most important reservoir of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including gonorrhea. Periodic monitoring of the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a high-risk population provides essential clues regarding the rapidly changing pattern of antimicrobial susceptibilities. A study concerning the prevalence of gonococcal infection among CSWs was conducted in Bangladesh. The isolates were examined with regards to their antimicrobial susceptibility to, and the MICs of, penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. The total plasmid profile of the isolates was also analyzed. Of the 224 CSWs, 94 (42%) were culture positive for N. gonorrhoeae. There was a good correlation between the results of the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Some 66% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin, and 34% were moderately susceptible to penicillin. Among the resistant isolates, 23.4% were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG). 60.6% of the isolates were resistant and 38.3% were moderately susceptible to tetracycline, 17.5% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae, 11.7% were resistant and 26.6% had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, 2.1% were resistant and 11.7% had reduced susceptibility to cefuroxime, and 1% were resistant to ceftriaxone. All PPNG isolates contained a 3.2-MDa African type of plasmid, and a 24.2-MDa conjugative plasmid was present in 34.1% of the isolates. Since quinolones such as ciprofloxacin are recommended as the first line of therapy for gonorrhea, the emergence of significant resistance to ciprofloxacin will limit the usefulness of this drug for treatment of gonorrhea in Bangladesh. (+info)
(8/5889) Epidemiological analysis of site relationships of synchronous and metachronous multiple primary cancers in the National Cancer Center, Japan, 1962-1996.
BACKGROUND: Multiple primary cancer (MPC) has been recognized as a problem commonly encountered in routine medical practice. A study of MPC is necessary not only to provide insights into the etiology of cancer, but also to provide information for effective medical care by clinical oncologists. METHODS: A cohort of 49,751 cancer patients who were admitted to the National Cancer Center Hospital between 1962 and 1996 was used to study the site relationship of MPC. Logistic and Poisson regression analyses using an internal reference group within the cohort were applied for the calculation of the prevalence odds ratio (POR) for site relationships of synchronous MPC and the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for those of metachronous MPC. RESULTS: Three site combinations with elevated risks for both synchronous and metachronous MPCs, eight with elevated risk for synchronous MPC, five with elevated risk for metachronous MPC and six with decreased risk for synchronous MPC were identified with statistical significance. Among them, the increased risk of metachronous stomach cancer following lymphoma and myeoloma (POR = 1.0 and 1.1, P > 0.05; IRR = 2.5, P < 0.05) and the inverse site-correlation of synchronous MPC between [trachea, bronchus and lung] and other sites of the upper aerodigestive tract [lip, oral cavity and pharynx] (POR = 0.5 and 0.3, P < 0.05) and esophagus (POR = 0.7 and 0.3, P < 0.05) have not been reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that interventions for lymphoma and myeloma might affect the development of subsequent stomach cancer and additional etiological factors other than tobacco smoking are associated with the development of cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract. (+info)
- Three basic epidemiologic study strategies, the cohort study, the case/control study, and the cross sectional study, distinguished by the temporal sequence of data acquisition, were described. (cdc.gov)
- Methods and applications for modeling longitudinal, time-to-event and multi- level data. (usc.edu)
- We analyzed data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study to test the hypothesis that vitamin D from sunlight exposure, diet, and supplements reduces the risk of breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- To examine more fully a possible protective role of vitamin D on breast cancer risk, we analyzed data from a national cohort study, the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. (aacrjournals.org)
- The expansion of national surveillance to include both HIV infection and AIDS cases is a necessary response to the impact of advances in antiretroviral therapy, the implementation of new HIV treatment guidelines, and the increased need for epidemiologic data regarding persons at all stages of HIV disease. (cdc.gov)
- Epidemiologic principles and methods for occupational health studies. (cdc.gov)
- Epidemiologic principles and study methods necessary in occupational health studies to make valid assessments of possible associations between occupational exposure and disease risk were discussed. (cdc.gov)
- The indices of disease frequency employed in epidemiologic studies were defined. (cdc.gov)
- Sources of random and nonrandom error in epidemiologic studies and methods for controlling for potential confounders were described. (cdc.gov)
- The criteria for inferring causality in epidemiologic studies were outlined. (cdc.gov)
- Some examples are drawn from classic studies in the field, while many others concern modern-day epidemiologic studies of problems of current public health importance. (graysonline.com)
- This report is an interim summary of results from seven epidemiologic studies, traceback investigations, and environmental investigations related to the outbreak. (cdc.gov)
- METHODS: All pediatric trauma deaths from 1991 to 1996 in Ontario and Missouri were reviewed. (biomedsearch.com)
- Some sources may treat the terms rhythm method and fertility awareness as synonymous. (wikipedia.org)
- This is a rigorous, systematic introduction to the basic concepts and practical tools of epidemiologic research. (graysonline.com)
- The term "the rhythm method" is sometimes used, in error, to describe the behavior of any people who have unprotected vaginal intercourse, yet wish to avoid pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
- This course describes epidemiological methods used to investigate the magnitude of health problems, identify causal factors and evaluate interventions. (massey.ac.nz)
- CDC continues to support a diverse set of epidemiologic methods to characterize persons affected by the epidemic in the United States (5-10). (cdc.gov)
concepts and methods
- Biogeography has renewed its concepts and methods following important recent advances in phylogenetics, macroecology, and geographic information systems. (oup.com)
- Both authors are experienced epidemiologic researchers and have won multiple awards for effective teaching. (graysonline.com)
- More effective than calendar-based methods, systems of fertility awareness that track basal body temperature, cervical mucus, or both, are known as symptoms-based methods. (wikipedia.org)
-  This overlap between uses of the terms "the rhythm method" and "natural family planning" may contribute to confusion. (wikipedia.org)