Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Environmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene: An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Zeolites: Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)New Orleans: City in Orleans Parish (county), largest city in state of LOUISIANA. It is located between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Cadmium Poisoning: Poisoning occurring after exposure to cadmium compounds or fumes. It may cause gastrointestinal syndromes, anemia, or pneumonitis.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Great Lakes Region: The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.Sorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Epigenomics: The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Asbestos, Amphibole: A class of asbestos that includes silicates of magnesium, iron, calcium, and sodium. The fibers are generally brittle and cannot be spun, but are more resistant to chemicals and heat than ASBESTOS, SERPENTINE. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Respiratory Tract DiseasesLead PoisoningUnited StatesMesothelioma: A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Sick Building Syndrome: A group of symptoms that are two- to three-fold more common in those who work in large, energy-efficient buildings, associated with an increased frequency of headaches, lethargy, and dry skin. Clinical manifestations include hypersensitivity pneumonitis (ALVEOLITIS, EXTRINSIC ALLERGIC); allergic rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL); ASTHMA; infections, skin eruptions, and mucous membrane irritation syndromes. Current usage tends to be less restrictive with regard to the type of building and delineation of complaints. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cedrus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Chlorpyrifos: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Pleural DiseasesParticulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Epidemiologic Research Design: The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Arsenic Poisoning: Disorders associated with acute or chronic exposure to compounds containing ARSENIC (ARSENICALS) which may be fatal. Acute oral ingestion is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and an encephalopathy which may manifest as SEIZURES, mental status changes, and COMA. Chronic exposure is associated with mucosal irritation, desquamating rash, myalgias, peripheral neuropathy, and white transverse (Mees) lines in the fingernails. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Pfiesteria piscicida: A dinoflagellate with a life cycle that includes numerous flagellated, amoeboid, and encysted stages. Both the flagellated and amoeboid forms produce toxins which cause open wounds on fish. Pfiesteria piscicida feeds on tissue sloughed from these wounds, as well as on bacteria and algae. It is found in Atlantic estuaries of the United States.BelgiumAgriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Phthalic Acids: A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)WisconsinResidence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.New YorkCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.MiningFloridaMolecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.PolandIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Pleural Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the thin serous membrane that envelopes the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Pleural neoplasms are exceedingly rare and are usually not diagnosed until they are advanced because in the early stages they produce no symptoms.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).SmokePrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Eczema: A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Neurotoxicity Syndromes: Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Disease: A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.BostonSpectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.North CarolinaAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Fluorocarbons: Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.TurkeyTwins, Monozygotic: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.Twins, Dizygotic: Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.MichiganReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.ItalyChild Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00092570 - Cardiovascular disease and environmental exposure.

Suspected and proved environmental risk factors in cardiovascular disease are reviewed, including exposures to carbon disulfide ... and mixed occupational and environmental exposures with the etiology of coronary arteriosclerotic heart disease are examined. ... Suspected and proved environmental risk factors in cardiovascular disease are reviewed, including exposures to carbon disulfide ... Possible correlations of specific chemicals, gases, dusts, fumes, and mixed occupational and environmental exposures with the ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/00092570.html

*  Environmental Exposure Prop 65 Sign, SKU: S-3722 - MySafetySign.com

Environmental Exposure Prop 65 Warning (Listed Carcinogens and Listed Reproductive Toxicants) - S-3722 - from MySafetySign.com ... California Prop 65 Sign: Environmental Exposure Prop 65 Warning (Listed Carcinogens and Listed Reproductive Toxicants) ... Sign complies with California code § 25604 & § 25605 Environmental Exposure Warnings for Method of Transmission and Content. ... we may have to increase the size of your sign to feature your required chemical names and sources of exposure. ...
https://mysafetysign.com/environmental-exposure-prop-65-sign/sku-s-3722

*  Swiss TPH - Environmental Exposures and Health

Researchers in the Environmental Exposures and Health unit develop and integrate novel tools and methods to investigate the ... environmental tobacco exposure, pesticides and climate change including heat waves. ... From Exposure Assessment to Effective Public Health The unit conducts epidemiological studies in children, adolescents and ... The aim of this cohort study is to prospectively investigate in adolescents whether exposure to RF-EMF emitted by mobile phones ...
https://swisstph.ch/en/about/eph/environmental-exposures-and-health/

*  Environmental Exposures Could Damage DNA In As Few As Three Days - Redorbit

Environmental Exposures Could Damage DNA In As Few As Three Days. by Sam Savage ... "The changes were detectable after only three days of exposure to particulate matter, indicating that environmental factors need ... Exposure to particulate matter has been recognized as a contributing factor to lung cancer development for some time, but a new ... "As several of the effects of particulate matter in foundries are similar to those found after exposure to ambient air pollution ...
redorbit.com/news/general/1690395/environmental_exposures_could_damage_dna_in_as_few_as_three/

*  UMass Amherst Study Suggests Father's Environmental Exposure Affects Sperm Epigenetics | Office of News & Media Relations |...

UMass Amherst Study Suggests Father's Environmental Exposure Affects Sperm Epigenetics September 12, 2017 ... embryo development and whether DNA methylation in sperm cells may be a path by which a father's environmental exposure ... Exposure is known to disrupt some hormones and is associated in human studies with changes in such male reproductive measures ... He adds, "It doesn't surprise me that sperm carry some sort of environmental legacy to the next generation. What the sperm cell ...
umass.edu/newsoffice/article/umass-amherst-study-suggests-father’s

*  What can mendelian randomisation tell us about modifiable behavioural and environmental exposures? | The BMJ

What can mendelian randomisation tell us about modifiable behavioural and environmental exposures? BMJ 2005; 330 :1076 ... What can mendelian randomisation tell us about modifiable behavioural and environmental exposures? ... What can mendelian randomisation tell us about modifiable behavioural and environmental exposures? ... Associations between genetic variants and outcome are not generally confounded by behavioural or environmental exposures. This ...
bmj.com/content/330/7499/1076.long

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20035543 - Occupation as socioeconomic status or environmental exposure? A survey of practice...

... how occupation is used in epidemiologic research can affect conclusions about the importance of socioeconomic and environmental ... Occupation as socioeconomic status or environmental exposure? A survey of practice among population-based cardiovascular ... Existing data could be used more effectively to examine the contribution of work-related social and environmental conditions to ... Biological-factors; Biological-monitoring; Cardiovascular-system-disease; Cardiovascular-system-disorders; Environmental- ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20035543.html

*  Search of: 'environmental health' OR 'environmental exposure' | Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies - Search...

IMPORTANT: Listing of a study on this site does not reflect endorsement by the National Institutes of Health. Talk with a trusted healthcare professional before volunteering for a study. Read more... ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results/details?term="environmental health" OR "environmental exposure"&recr=Open

*  Silicon, a Possible Link between Environmental Exposure and Autoimmune Diseases: The Case of Rheumatoid Arthritis : Figure 1

Figure 1: Shared mechanism and biological consequences of exposure to silicon-derived compounds. Figures were downloaded from ...
https://hindawi.com/journals/arthritis/2012/604187/fig1/

*  Transient environmental exposures on the developing immune s... : Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Early environmental exposures have been extensively studied as potential causes o ... Transient environmental exposures on the developing immune system: implications for allergy and asthma. Milner, Joshua Da,*; ... Home , June 2005 - Volume 5 - Issue 3 , Transient environmental exposures on the developing immune s... ... Transient environmental exposures on the developing immune system: implications for allergy and asthma ...
journals.lww.com/co-allergy/Abstract/2005/06000/Transient_environmental_exposures_on_the.7.aspx

*  Measurements of radon, thoron, isotopic uranium and thorium to determine occupational and environmental exposure and risk at...

Title: Measurements of radon, thoron, isotopic uranium and thorium to determine occupational and environmental exposure and ... isotopic uranium and thorium to determine occupational and environmental exposure and risk at Fernald Feed Materials Production ... USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Science and Risk Policy. Country of Publication:. United States. ... The research objectives of this report are: (1) To develop an accurate personal radon/thoron monitor to quantitate exposure ...
https://osti.gov/scitech/biblio/13452

*  Homebirth Debate: Environmental exposures

Environmental exposures Several days ago I posted a question, asking how much risk is too much risk? I wanted to highlight the ... The most believed fallacy about birth defects is that most are caused by environmental exposures, such as toxic chemicals, ... But when dysmorphologists use the term "environmental" they are referring to any exposure in the environment of the unborn ... However, it is also due to an unexamined and incorrect belief that environmental exposures represent the most serious health ...
homebirthdebate.blogspot.com/2007/09/environmental-exposures.html

*  Over-Exposure News on Environmental XPRT

... the world's largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource. ... Get the latest over-exposure news on Environmental XPRT, ... over-exposure News. Related terms for "over-exposure ": ... About Environmental XPRT. Environmental XPRT is a global environmental industry marketplace and information resource. Online ... EPA awards over $200,000 to the Oklahoma department of labor to reduce exposure to asbestos A grant from the Environmental ...
https://environmental-expert.com/news/keyword-over-exposure-44927

*  Worker Exposure News on Environmental XPRT

... the world's largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource. ... Get the latest worker exposure news on Environmental XPRT, ... worker exposure News. Related terms for "worker exposure ": ... About Environmental XPRT. Environmental XPRT is a global environmental industry marketplace and information resource. Online ... chemical worker exposure news , hazardous chemical worker exposure news , worker exposure standard news ...
https://environmental-expert.com/news/keyword-worker-exposure-45214

*  Formaldehyde Exposure Applications on Environmental XPRT

Compare and contact a supplier near you on Environmental XPRT ... About Environmental XPRT. Environmental XPRT is a global ... Stay up-to-date with the global environmental industry. Sign up for one or all of our free newsletters and alerts today. ... Measurement of formaldehyde in ambient air for monitoring workplace exposure limits. The Series 8900 Formaldehyde Analyzer ... Environmental XPRT is part of XPRT Media All Rights Reserved. Terms Privacy ...
https://environmental-expert.com/applications/keyword-formaldehyde-exposure-38854

*  Hot Environment Exposure News on Environmental XPRT

... the world's largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource. ... Get the latest hot environment exposure news on Environmental XPRT, ... About Environmental XPRT. Environmental XPRT is a global environmental industry marketplace and information resource. Online ... The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New York City Department of Environmental Protection are teaming up to give ...
https://environmental-expert.com/news/keyword-hot-environment-exposure-40525

*  Two Rules Proposed for Improved Formaldehyde Exposure Protection -- Environmental Protection

... which will help to better protect Americans from formaldehyde exposure. The harmful chemical can cause adverse health effects ... "Once final, the rules will reduce the public's exposure to this harmful chemical found in many products in our homes and ... Two Rules Proposed for Improved Formaldehyde Exposure Protection. The EPA proposed two rules last week, which will help to ... "The proposed regulations reflect EPA's continued efforts to protect the public from exposure to harmful chemicals in their ...
https://eponline.com/Articles/2013/06/03/Two-Rules-Proposed-for-Better-Formaldehyde-Exposure-Protection.aspx

*  EPA Updates CFL Cleanup and PCB Exposure Guidance -- Environmental Protection

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency updated its guidance on how to properly clean up a broken compact fluorescent lamp ( ... The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes in its updated guidance a new consumer brochure with CFL recycling and ... EPA Updates CFL Cleanup and PCB Exposure Guidance. A new consumer brochure offers cleaning tips for broken CFLs while the ... To prevent exposure if leaking ballasts are discovered, school personnel should wear protective clothing, including chemically ...
https://eponline.com/articles/2011/01/04/epa-updates-cfl-cleanup-and-pcb-exposure-guidance.aspx

*  Mealey's Toxic Tort/Environmental - Last Exposure To Asbestos Did Not Occur During Policy Periods, Judge Says

No coverage is owed for an underlying personal injury claim arising out of exposure to asbestos because the claimant's last day ... of last exposure to asbestos did not occur within the policy periods at issue, a West Virginia federal... ... Mealey's Toxic Tort/Environmental - Last Exposure To Asbestos Did Not Occur During Policy Periods, Judge Says. WHEELING, W.Va ... Mealey's Toxic Tort/Environmental - Judge OKs $1.09M Deal For Remediation, Future Costs Due To Tainted Groundwater ...
https://lexisnexis.com/legalnewsroom/mealeys/b/newsheadlines/archive/2014/07/02/mealey-39-s-toxic-tort-environmental-last-exposure-to-asbestos-did-not-occur-during-policy-periods-judge-says.aspx?Redirected=true

*  Epigenetic and Developmental Effects of In Utero Exposure to Environmental Toxicants - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Epigenetic and Developmental Effects of In Utero Exposure to Environmental Toxicants. The recruitment status of this study is ... Early life exposure to an adverse developmental environment, including environmental toxins, are linked to increased ... The central hypothesis of this proposal is that intrauterine exposure to benzo[a]pyrene leads to epigenetic changes which will ... Early Life Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Metabolic Perturbations and Epigenetic Biomarkers. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01815385?term="environmental health" OR "environmental exposure"&recr=Open&rank=7

*  Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology - Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in German restaurants,...

... environmental epidemiology and related disciplines that advance the exposure assessment process. ... JES publishes research important to exposure assessment for toxic substances, ... implications for exposure research and environmental policy in Europe. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental ... Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology Research Article. Customers' exposure to PM2.5 and polycyclic ...
nature.com/jes/journal/v18/n3/full/7500590a.html?foxtrotcallback=true&error=cookies_not_supported&code=2cb68c79-6b45-4d27-abc0-dddbefcf1b43

*  Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children Aged 3‒19 Years | beSpacific

You Are Here: Home » Education, Environmental Law, Government Documents, Health Care » Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in ... Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children Aged 3‒19 Years. by Sabrina I. Pacifici on Aug 9, 2013. ... Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children Aged 3‒19 Years With and Without Asthma in the United States, 1999‒2010 - ... Subjects: Education, Environmental Law, Government Documents, Health Care. ← Guardian - NSA loophole allows warrantless search ...
https://bespacific.com/environmental-tobacco-smoke-exposure-in-children-aged-3‒19-years/

*  Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and ischaemic heart disease: an evaluation of the evidence | The BMJ

Evidence for a large effect from a small exposure. Environmental exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with an excess risk of ... A meta-analysis of the studies of occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke exposure indicated a disproportionately ... Dietary intake and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in a worksite population. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49:336-45. ... Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the risk of heart attack. Int J Epidemiol 1995;24:715-9. ...
bmj.com/content/315/7114/973?ijkey=e0e092d786b0355d435978b149a54177a604aef8&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

*  Exposure Assessment Events on Environmental XPRT

... the world's largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource. ... About Environmental XPRT. Environmental XPRT is a global environmental industry marketplace and information resource. Online ... Exposure and Chemical Monitoring - Beyond IH Fundamentals Course Building on IH fundamentals, this intermediate three-day ... Stay up-to-date with the global environmental industry. Sign up for one or all of our free newsletters and alerts today. ...
https://environmental-expert.com/events/keyword-exposure-assessment-2255

*  Welcome to CDC Stacks | Environmental Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and p,p´-DDE and Sperm Sex-Chromosome Disomy -...

Environmental Exposure Fluorescence Humans In Situ Hybridization In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence Male Massachusetts ... exposure continues due to their environmental persistence. Several studies have examined the association between environmental ... Environmental Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and p,p´-DDE and Sperm Sex-Chromosome Disomy ... In addition, we observed an inverse association between increased exposure to PCBs and XX disomy. Further work is needed to ...
https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/22737

Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is the main vehicle for publishing public health information and recommendations that have been received by the CDC from state health departments.Pesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.P-AnisidineEvolution in Variable EnvironmentIndoor air pollution in developing nations: Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.Dewar benzeneCadmium acetateQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Zeolite: Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.W.National Ambient Air Quality Standards: The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), founded in 1988, performs basic research in the field of allergy and asthma with the aim to improve the understanding and treatment of these conditions, which affect around 30-40% of the westernized population. The Institute has its roots in the Tuberculosis Research Institute of Davos, a medical society founded in 1905 to study the beneficial effects of high altitude treatment of tuberculosis.Highly hazardous chemical: A highly hazardous chemical is a substance classified by the American Occupational Safety and Health Administration as material that is both toxic and reactive and whose potential for human injury is high if released. Highly hazardous chemicals may cause cancer, birth defects, induce genetic damage, cause miscarriage, injury and death from relatively small exposures.Benzo(k)fluorantheneEffects of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans: As the center of Hurricane Katrina passed southeast of New Orleans on August 29, 2005, winds downtown were in the Category 1 range with frequent intense gusts and tidal surge. Hurricane-force winds were experienced throughout the city, although the most severe portion of Katrina missed the city, hitting nearby St.National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Itai-itai disease: was the name given to the mass cadmium poisoning of Toyama Prefecture, Japan, starting around 1912. The term "itai-itai disease" was coined by localsICETT Itai-itai disease (1998) http://www.Smokefree Environments Amendment Act 2003: The Smokefree Environments Amendment Bill was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand on 3 December 2003. The smoking ban legislation calls for progressive introduction of various clauses to totally ban smoking in all workplaces including offices, clubs, pubs, restaurants, airports, schools etc.Great Lakes BasinSodium sorbate: Sodium sorbate is the sodium salt of sorbic acid.Epigenetic code: The epigenetic code is hypothesised to be a defining code in every eukaryotic cell consisting of the specific epigenetic modification in each cell. It consists of histone modifications defined by the histone code and additional epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation.Air pollution: Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.NCBI Epigenomics: The Epigenomics database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information is a database for whole-genome epigenetics data sets.Allergen immunotherapy: Allergen immunotherapy, also known as desensitization or hypo-sensitization, is a medical treatment for some types of allergies. It is useful for environmental allergies, allergies to insect bites, and asthma.Arsenic biochemistry: Arsenic biochemistry refers to biochemical processes that can use arsenic or its compounds, such as arsenate. Arsenic is a moderately abundant element in Earth's crust, and although many arsenic compounds are often considered highly toxic, a wide variety of organoarsenic compounds are produced biologically and various organic and inorganic arsenic compounds are metabolized by numerous organisms.Polarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Amphibole: Amphibole is the name of an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures. Amphiboles can be green, black, colorless, white, yellow, blue, or brown.Mineral dust: Mineral dust is a term used to indicate atmospheric aerosols originated from the suspension of minerals constituting the soil, being composed of various oxides and carbonates. Human activities lead to 30% of the dust load in the atmosphere.Pamela Dalton: Dr. Pamela Dalton is a cognitive psychologist.SAFE FOODSList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation: Alexandria, VirginiaJournal of Medical Toxicology: The Journal of Medical Toxicology is a peer-reviewed medical journal on medical toxicology and the official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology. It publishes original articles, illustrative cases, review articles, and other special features that are related to the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with exposure to various poisons.Indoor bioaerosol: Indoor bioaerosol is bioaerosol in an indoor environment. Bioaerosols are natural or artificial particles of biological (microbial, plant, or animal) origin suspended in the air.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Nucleoside phosphoramiditeCedrus deodaraChlorpyrifosInsecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Gene polymorphismPocket petExhaust gasBeneful: Beneful is a brand of dog food products by Nestle Purina Petcare that includes wet dog food, dry dog food and dog treats. As of 2012, it was the fourth most popular dog food brand, generating more than $1.BifemelanePhytoextraction process: Phytoextraction is a subprocess of phytoremediation in which plants remove dangerous elements or compounds from soil or water, most usually heavy metals, metals that have a high density and may be toxic to organisms even at relatively low concentrations.http://www.Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds: Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are by-products of various industrial processes, and are commonly regarded as highly toxic compounds that are environmental pollutants and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They include:List of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Asbestos: Asbestos (pronounced or ) is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes. They are commonly known by their colors, as blue asbestos, brown asbestos, white asbestos, and green asbestos.AsbestosisInstruments used in preventive medicine: Instruments used specially in preventive medicine are as follows:Briquette: A briquette (or briquet) is a compressed block of coal dust"briquette, n. 2.Asbestos-related diseases: Asbestos-related diseases are disorders of the lung and pleura caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibres. Asbestos-related diseases include non-malignant disorders such as asbestosis (pulmonary fibrosis due to asbestos), diffuse pleural thickening, pleural plaques, pleural effusion, rounded atelectasis and malignancies such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma.Particulates: Atmospheric particulate matter – also known as particulate matter (PM) or particulates – is microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone.Illumina Methylation Assay: The Illumina Methylation Assay using the Infinium I platform uses 'BeadChip' technology to generate a comprehensive genome wide profiling of human DNA methylation. Similar to bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing, this method quantifies methylation levels at specific loci within the genome.Depopulation of cockroaches in post-Soviet states: A mass depopulation of cockroaches has been observed since the beginning of the 21st century in Russia and other countries of the former USSR. Observers note quick disappearance of various types of cockroaches from cities and towns in Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.Mutagen: In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level. As many mutations can cause cancer, mutagens are therefore also likely to be carcinogens.Metallurgy: Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Metals in medicine: Metals in medicine are used in organic systems for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Inorganic elements are also essential for organic life as cofactors in enzymes called Metalloproteins.Xenobiotic: A xenobiotic is a foreign chemical substance found within an organism that is not normally naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism. It can also cover substances which are present in much higher concentrations than are usual.Bradford Hill criteria: The Bradford Hill criteria, otherwise known as Hill's criteria for causation, are a group of minimal conditions necessary to provide adequate evidence of a causal relationship between an incidence and a possible consequence, established by the English epidemiologist Sir Austin Bradford Hill (1897–1991) in 1965.

(1/8052) Health status of Persian Gulf War veterans: self-reported symptoms, environmental exposures and the effect of stress.

BACKGROUND: Most US troops returned home from the Persian Gulf War (PGW) by Spring 1991 and many began reporting increased health symptoms and medical problems soon after. This investigation examines the relationships between several Gulf-service environmental exposures and health symptom reporting, and the role of traumatic psychological stress on the exposure-health symptom relationships. METHODS: Stratified, random samples of two cohorts of PGW veterans, from the New England area (n = 220) and from the New Orleans area (n = 71), were selected from larger cohorts being followed longitudinally since arrival home from the Gulf. A group of PGW-era veterans deployed to Germany (n = 50) served as a comparison group. The study protocol included questionnaires, a neuropsychological test battery, an environmental interview, and psychological diagnostic interviews. This report focuses on self-reported health symptoms and exposures of participants who completed a 52-item health symptom checklist and a checklist of environmental exposures. RESULTS: The prevalence of reported symptoms was greater in both Persian Gulf-deployed cohorts compared to the Germany cohort. Analyses of the body-system symptom scores (BSS), weighted to account for sampling design, and adjusted by age, sex, and education, indicated that Persian Gulf-deployed veterans were more likely to report neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cardiac, dermatological, musculoskeletal, psychological and neuropsychological system symptoms than Germany veterans. Using a priori hypotheses about the toxicant effects of exposure to specific toxicants, the relationships between self-reported exposures and body-system symptom groupings were examined through multiple regression analyses, controlling for war-zone exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported exposures to pesticides, debris from Scuds, chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents, and smoke from tent heaters each were significantly related to increased reporting of specific predicted BSS groupings. CONCLUSIONS: Veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf have higher self-reported prevalence of health symptoms compared to PGW veterans who were deployed only as far as Germany. Several Gulf-service environmental exposures are associated with increased health symptom reporting involving predicted body-systems, after adjusting for war-zone stressor exposures and PTSD.  (+info)

(2/8052) Lead exposure in the lead-acid storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding industries.

This study was conducted as part of the Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Project which comes under the United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organisation (UNEP/WHO) Global environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). The objective of the study was to evaluate workers' exposure to lead in industries with the highest exposure. All subjects were interviewed about their occupational and smoking histories, the use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. The contribution of a dietary source of lead intake from specified foods known to contain lead locally and personal air sampling for lead were assessed. A total of 61 workers from two PVC compounding and 50 workers from two lead acid battery manufacturing plants were studied together with 111 matched controls. In the PVC compounding plants the mean lead-in-air level was 0.0357 mg/m3, with the highest levels occurring during the pouring and mixing operations. This was lower than the mean lead-in-air level of 0.0886 mg/m3 in the lead battery manufacturing plants where the highest exposure was in the loading of lead ingots into milling machines. Workers in lead battery manufacturing had significantly higher mean blood lead than the PVC workers (means, 32.51 and 23.91 mcg/100 ml respectively), but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Among the lead workers, the Malays had significantly higher blood lead levels than the Chinese (mean blood levels were 33.03 and 25.35 mcg/100 ml respectively) although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups in the control group. There were no significant differences between the exposed and control group in terms of dietary intake of specified local foods known to contain lead. However, Malays consumed significantly more fish than the Chinese did. There were no ethnic differences in the hours of overtime work, number of years of exposure, usage of gloves and respirators and smoking habits. Among the Malays, 94.3% eat with their hands compared with 9.2% of the Chinese. Workers who ate with bare hands at least once a week had higher blood lead levels after adjusting for lead-in-air levels (mean blood lead was 30.2 and 26.4 mcg/100 ml respectively). The study indicated that the higher blood lead levels observed in the Malay workers might have been due to their higher exposure and eating with bare hands.  (+info)

(3/8052) Mercury toxicity due to the smelting of placer gold recovered by mercury amalgam.

A 19-year-old man developed tremor in both hands and fatigue after starting work at a placer gold mine where he was exposed to mercury-gold amalgam. Examination revealed an intention tremor, dysdiadochokinesis and mild rigidity. The 24-h urinary mercury concentration reached a peak of 715 nmol/l (143 ug/l) shortly before the clinical examination, after which he was removed from working in the gold room [Mercury No. Adverse Effect Level: 250 nmol/l (50 ug/l)]. On review 7 weeks later his tremor had almost resolved and the dysdiadochokinesis and rigidity had gone. The 24-h urinary mercury concentration had fallen to 160 nmol/l (32 ug/l). The principal exposure to mercury was considered to be the smelting of retorted gold with previously unrecognized residual mercury in it. The peak air concentration of mercury vapour during gold smelting was 0.533 mg/m3 (Mercury Vapour ACGIH TLV: 0.05 mg/m3 TWA). Several engineering and procedural controls were instituted. This episode occurred at another mine site, unrelated to Mount Isa Mines Limited.  (+info)

(4/8052) A toxicokinetic model to assess the risk of azinphosmethyl exposure in humans through measures of urinary elimination of alkylphosphates.

Azinphosmethyl (APM) is one of the most common insecticides used in fruit farming. The object of this paper is to develop a quick and practical test for assessing the risk for humans coming into contact with APM. It has been shown that the principal component of occupational and/or accidental exposure is through the skin (C. A. Franklin et al., 1981, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 7, 715-731), but our approach is applicable to exposures via any route or a combination of routes. The method proposed in the present paper can accommodate a single-event exposure or repeated exposures over long periods. Urinary alkylphosphate (AP) metabolites are reliable bioindicators of the presence of APM in the body; they are easily accessible and can be used to estimate APM body burden. We developed a simple toxicokinetic model to link the time varying APM body burden to absorbed doses and to rates of elimination in the form of AP urinary metabolites. Using this model and data available in the literature, we are able to propose a "no observed adverse effect level" (NOAEL) for APM body levels and for corresponding absorbed doses. We have established that after a single exposure, the safe limit corresponding to the NOAEL is reached at a cumulative 0.215 mumoles AP/kg bw eliminated in urine in the first 24 hours following the beginning of exposure. For repeated daily exposures at steady state, the corresponding urinary AP metabolite level is equal to a cumulative 0.266 mumoles AP/kg bw eliminated per 24 hours.  (+info)

(5/8052) Evaluation of passive smoking by measuring urinary trans, trans-muconic acid and exhaled carbon monoxide levels.

No method has yet been established to evaluate the exposure to tobacco smoke in passive smoking (PS). We therefore conducted a study on the possibility that the levels of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) and the exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) could be indices of the passive exposure to tobacco smoke. The moderate correlation was observed between urinary MA levels and the number of consumed cigarettes per day in smokers. The mean urinary MA level of the PS (+) group was significantly higher than that with the PS (-) group. Among the PS (+) group, the mean MA level in the urine obtained in the afternoon was higher than that obtained in the morning. A high correlation was observed between the exhaled CO levels and the number of consumed cigarettes per day in smokers. Like the urinary MA level, the mean exhaled CO level in the PS (+) group, too, gave a significantly higher level than in the PS (-) group. Because the biological half life of MA (7.5 +/- 0.85 h) was longer than that of CO (3.0 +/- 0.36 h), the measurement of urinary MA level is recommended for evaluating the exposure of passive smoking. The measurement of exhaled CO levels is useful only for chain smokers and nonsmokers with PS just before measurement.  (+info)

(6/8052) Developmental pathways: Sonic hedgehog-Patched-GLI.

Developmental pathways are networks of genes that act coordinately to establish the body plan. Disruptions of genes in one pathway can have effects in related pathways and may result in serious dysmorphogenesis or cancer. Environmental exposures can be associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, including dysmorphic offspring or children with a variety of diseases. An important goal of environmental science should be reduction of these poor outcomes. This will require an understanding of the genes affected by specific exposures and the consequence of alterations in these genes or their products, which in turn will require an understanding of the pathways critical in development. The ligand Sonic hedgehog, the receptors Patched and Smoothened, and the GLI family of transcription factors represent one such pathway. This pathway illustrates several operating principles important in the consideration of developmental consequences of environmental exposures to toxins.  (+info)

(7/8052) Exposure to indoor background radiation and urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage.

We investigated whether exposure to indoor [gamma]-radiation and radon might be associated with enough free radical formation to increase urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a sensitive marker of DNA damage, due to a hydroxyl radical attack at the C8 of guanine. Indoor radon and [gamma]-radiation levels were measured in 32 dwellings for 6 months by solid-state nuclear track detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters, respectively. Urine samples for 8-OHdG determinations were obtained from 63 healthy adult subjects living in the measured dwellings. An overall tendency toward increasing levels of 8-OHdG with increasing levels of radon and [gamma]-radiation was seen in the females, presumably due to their estimated longer occupancy in the dwellings measured. Different models were considered for females, with the steepest slopes obtained for [gamma]-radiation with a coefficient of 0.500 (log nmol/l of 8-OHdG for each unit increase of [gamma]-radiation on a log scale) (p<0.01), and increasing to 0.632 (p = 0.035), but with larger variance, when radon was included in the model. In conclusion, there seems to be an effect of indoor radioactivity on the urinary excretion of 8-OHdG for females, who are estimated to have a higher occupancy in the dwellings measured than for males, for whom occupational and other agents may also influence 8-OHdG excretion. ree radicals; [gamma]-radiation; radon.  (+info)

(8/8052) A simulation study of confounding in generalized linear models for air pollution epidemiology.

Confounding between the model covariates and causal variables (which may or may not be included as model covariates) is a well-known problem in regression models used in air pollution epidemiology. This problem is usually acknowledged but hardly ever investigated, especially in the context of generalized linear models. Using synthetic data sets, the present study shows how model overfit, underfit, and misfit in the presence of correlated causal variables in a Poisson regression model affect the estimated coefficients of the covariates and their confidence levels. The study also shows how this effect changes with the ranges of the covariates and the sample size. There is qualitative agreement between these study results and the corresponding expressions in the large-sample limit for the ordinary linear models. Confounding of covariates in an overfitted model (with covariates encompassing more than just the causal variables) does not bias the estimated coefficients but reduces their significance. The effect of model underfit (with some causal variables excluded as covariates) or misfit (with covariates encompassing only noncausal variables), on the other hand, leads to not only erroneous estimated coefficients, but a misguided confidence, represented by large t-values, that the estimated coefficients are significant. The results of this study indicate that models which use only one or two air quality variables, such as particulate matter [less than and equal to] 10 microm and sulfur dioxide, are probably unreliable, and that models containing several correlated and toxic or potentially toxic air quality variables should also be investigated in order to minimize the situation of model underfit or misfit.  (+info)



pesticide exposure


  • Tackling the risks to children of pesticide exposure and poisoning requires comprehensive strategies. (who.int)
  • In the AHS, self-reported pesticide use serves as a surrogate measure of pesticide exposure, and a cumulative pesticide exposure index (termed intensity-weighted exposure-days) is used to weigh lifetime-days (LDs) of pesticide use based on mixing conditions, application methods, and use of personal protective equipment (Dosemeci et al. (scielosp.org)
  • A pesticide exposure history from Rosa and her husband José reveals that José had brought home some leftover pesticide from his workplace. (washington.edu)
  • If pesticide exposure is to blame for Isabella's illness, why is she the only family member to have fallen ill? (washington.edu)
  • When the exposure history reveals pesticide exposure, consideration of the routes and extent of exposure can provide context for assessing whether the toxicity of the product, exposure scenario, and likely dose support the need for consideration of specific evaluation and treatment. (washington.edu)
  • This example highlights 1 of the 5 sources of childhood pesticide exposure. (washington.edu)
  • The CPA training would provide in-language lessons for people on the potential dangers of pesticide exposure, how to use equipment properly, how to prevent environmental contamination like runoff and drift, and how to report pesticide safety violations to enforcement agencies. (thinkprogress.org)
  • There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. (mdpi.com)
  • There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. (mdpi.com)

occupational


  • We reviewed epidemiologic evidence related to occupational pesticide exposures and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort. (scielosp.org)
  • In addition to pesticides, occupational exposure to solvents, metals, engine exhaust, welding fumes, and grain dusts are prevalent in agriculture (Coble et al. (scielosp.org)
  • 2002). Applicators who completed the enrollment questionnaire were asked to complete a take-home questionnaire that collected detailed information on factors including occupational exposures, pesticide use, lifestyle, medical history, and diet. (scielosp.org)
  • Benzene is an occupational toxicant and an environmental pollutant that potentially causes hematotoxicity and leukemia in exposed populations. (cdc.gov)
  • In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. (mdpi.com)
  • Ye M, Beach J, Martin JW, Senthilselvan A. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health. (mdpi.com)

pesticides


  • Evaluating exposures through specific questions helps establish the role of pesticides in both "sick visits" as well as routine primary care. (washington.edu)
  • Children's physiology and behavior increases the potential for exposures to pesticides that result in illness. (washington.edu)
  • Heightened vulnerability to pesticides may explain the pattern of illness seen in our case study, where only Isabella, the infant of the family, became symptomatic following household organophosphate exposure. (washington.edu)
  • Health and farmworker organizations filed a lawsuit Wednesday against the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for postponing a decision to protect farmworkers from exposure to restricted-use pesticides such as chlorpyrifos - a controversial pesticide linked to serious health issues. (thinkprogress.org)
  • The latest lawsuit comes days after seven states and several health and labor organizations directly challenged Pruitt's decision, arguing that the EPA violated the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 which requires the protection of infants and children from harm by pesticides in food, water, and exposure to indoor pesticides. (thinkprogress.org)

agricultural


  • However, the potential health effects of agricultural pesticide exposures are of particular interest, as these chemicals are designed to have adverse biological effects on target organisms. (scielosp.org)
  • To address this concern, the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) was initiated in 1993 to explore the potential health effects of pesticide exposures in commercial pesticide applicators, farmers, and their families in Iowa and North Carolina, USA. (scielosp.org)
  • In agricultural areas, occupationally related exposures may be important not only for the worker but their household members due to residential proximity to treated fields, accessibility of pesticide chemicals, and work-to-home transfer of pesticide residues via skin, shoes, vehicles, and clothing. (washington.edu)

National Institut


  • The AHS is a collaborative research project including the U.S. National Cancer Institute, the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (scielosp.org)
  • The Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center is a Unit of the Center for Toxicology, at the College of Pharmacy, funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. (arizona.edu)

Toxicity


  • A 2012 Columbia University study found links between chlorpyrifos exposure and brain development and cognition issues in children and fetuses, even at exposure levels below the EPA threshold for toxicity. (thinkprogress.org)

incidence


  • Epidemiological studies suggest an association between an increased incidence of childhood leukemia and benzene exposure during the early stages of pregnancy. (cdc.gov)

health


  • and failed to consult with other government agencies to review environmental health consequences. (thinkprogress.org)
  • Environmental health is a key part of any comprehensive public health system. (apha.org)
  • At WE ACT for Environmental Justice, we work to ensure that people of color and/or low-income have a seat at the table and engage with various stakeholders who do research, draft policies, organize, and make decisions that directly impact their health and the environment in which they live. (apha.org)
  • Emergencies such as the Zika virus outbreak, Hurricane Katrina and the drinking water crisis in Flint, Michigan show the impact environmental health issues can have on vulnerable populations. (apha.org)
  • APHA brings national attention to environmental health issues and promote sound policy that protects the health, well-being and quality of life of the public in all communities across the country. (apha.org)
  • To support environmental health work, we develop targeted educational messages that highlight the connection between healthy communities and healthy people. (apha.org)
  • For more information about our environmental health work, contact Surili Patel or @EH_4_ALL . (apha.org)

Justice


  • We also emphasize the importance of environmental justice and equity . (apha.org)

processes


  • This was research into the creation of systems that were capable of using electron capture detection from a parallel dual-column gas chromate to determine the major determinants of human polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden and to create a research study to begin to discover how to include the source and route of exposure and the toxicokinetic processes within human subjects. (arizona.edu)

water


  • The field works to advance policies and programs to reduce chemical and other environmental exposures in air, water, soil and food to protect people and provide communities with healthier environments. (apha.org)

children


  • Acute organophosphate intoxications in children are frequently misdiagnosed, despite being linked closely in time with generally high pesticide exposures. (washington.edu)