Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Health Facility Environment: Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Housing, AnimalBiodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.City Planning: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.United StatesFishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Schools: Educational institutions.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Nursing Administration Research: Research concerned with establishing costs of nursing care, examining the relationships between nursing services and quality patient care, and viewing problems of nursing service delivery within the broader context of policy analysis and delivery of health services (from a national study, presented at the 1985 Council on Graduate Education for Administration in Nursing (CGEAN) meeting).Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Mice, Inbred C57BLNitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Weightlessness: Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.BrazilComputational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Hospital Design and Construction: The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cellular Microenvironment: Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.

*  Sandwalk: The last molecular evolution exam: Question #6

It is naïve to think that if a species' environment changes the species must adapt or else become extinct.... Just as a changed ... even in the absence of changes in the rest of the environment?. I also wonder how often we really see an environment that can ... environment need not set in motion selection for new adaptations, new adaptations may evolve in an unchanging environment if ... Does 'environment' in your question include, for example, sexual selection, and if not, is there any evidence 'styles' change ...
sandwalk.blogspot.com/2017/04/the-last-molecular-evolution-exam_24.html?showComment=1492864076482

*  Nutrition environment affects evolution | Biology Letters

... a protein-poor environment may have impaired selection for flies of large size, while in the protein-enriched environment this ... Artificial selection experiments have also shown that the selection response is dependent on the nutritional environment, for ... melanogaster was exposed to nutritional environments with different protein composition. Rearing flies on diets with different ...
rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/7/2/269

*  Balancing organization and flexibility in foraging dynamics.

... organization and reorganization are central problems facing many biological networks which thrive in fluctuating environments. ... We study this balance in the foraging strategies of ant colonies exploiting food in dynamic environments. We present discrete ... The amount of food consumed within the dynamic environment depends non-monotonically on the pheromone evaporation time constant ... and relates optimal pheromone evaporation to the timescale of the dynamic environment. We expect that the principles exposed in ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Balancing-organization-flexibility-in-foraging/20627107.html

*  Biology-Online • View topic - Global Environmental Change

I know it's never too late to show our concern on environment. Even in simple manner, I know, each of us can help rebuilt this ... Fear, that for the next few years, would I still live in a balance environment? Guilt for I have know that I contributed to the ... But sometimes, it appears to be that man does not give back as much as he takes from his environment. For most animals,there ... But is it right that we only focus on the economic benefit of those and disregard their harmful effect to the environment?. For ...
biology-online.org/biology-forum/about16787.html?hilit=Nations

*  It's Better For Autistic People To Work In Independent Environments | Care2 Causes

No I think autistic ppl should be able to work in normal environment. But we need to fight to make sure they get equal pay and ... It's Better for Autistic People to Work in Independent Environments. tweet email ... The long-term study looked at how working environments shaped social skills, the ability to complete tasks of daily living and ... Last year, the Obama Administration started examining sheltered workshop environments more carefully, weighing the possibility ...
care2.com/causes/its-better-for-autistic-people-to-work-in-independent-environments.html

*  How DevOps Complements Agile at Nokia Entertainment

John Clapham from Nokia Entertainment in Bristol talked at the Agile Methods in the Finance Sector and Complex Environment ... In his talk at the Agile Methods in the Finance Sector and Complex Environment conference, John explained what DevOps is and ...
https://infoq.com/news/2013/11/devops-complements-agile-nokia

*  GMO's and the Environment

GMO'sGMO's and the Environmentand the Environment Paul GeptsPaul Gepts Plant SciencesPlant Sciences UC DavisUC Davis ANR NRCC ... GMO's and the Environment * 1. GMO'sGMO's and the Environmentand the Environment Paul GeptsPaul Gepts Plant SciencesPlant ... 7. The golden rule of GEO evaluationThe golden rule of GEO evaluation Case by case Environment Organism Trait ... environment/biotechnology/page.cfhttp://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_environment/biotechnology/page.cfm?pam?pa geID=1315geID=1315 ...
https://slideshare.net/michaelnewbold980/gmos-and-the-environment

*  Environment by Ankita jakhu on Prezi

Bad environment -, no education • Poverty = Male+ but Females -. Organizations. & Your Involvement. Website: www.usaid.gov ... Environment. Material & Energy pollution Material. Energy. Soil Water Air. Light Noise. Radioactive GMO. Good Food Production. ... Transcript of Environment. Types of Pollution. NATURAL. Human Made. Types of Pollution. How You Can Help. Radioactive pollution ... GMOs harm the environment. Economic Gains. GMOs are unhealthy. Government oversight is dangerously lax. More nutritional ...
https://prezi.com/9gxwkrf_yia5/environment/

*  Multi-Language Environment Affects Child's Emotional Development

... many parents raise their children in a multilingual environment. While children generally benefit from the cross-cultural ... Home » News » Parenting » Multi-Language Environment Affects Child's Emotional Development. Multi-Language Environment Affects ... Nauert PhD, R. (2015). Multi-Language Environment Affects Child's Emotional Development. Psych Central. Retrieved on October 20 ... In a melting pot of cultures, many parents raise their children in a multilingual environment. ...
https://psychcentral.com/news/2012/08/03/multi-language-environment-affects-childs-emotional-development/42643.html

*  Plus it

Pettitt DJ, Knowler WC: Long-term effects of the intrauterine environment, birth weight, and breast-feeding in Pima Indians. ... Because paternal diabetes does not influence the offspring via the in utero environment, offspring of fathers diagnosed before ... Silverman BL, Rizzo TA, Cho NH, Metzger BE: Long-term effects of the intrauterine environment: the Northwestern University ... even those with normal BWTs suffer the long-term adverse effects of exposure to the diabetic intra-uterine environment (31). ...
care.diabetesjournals.org/content/28/3/585

*  Alkali-NUTS - MSH - Shortite ]=

Its inconspicuous appearance and similarity to calcite in the same environment make it easy to overlook. ...
saint-hilaire.ca/en/shortit.htm

*  Genes and Your Environment, The Developmental Tools of Life - WriteWork

MilaniPsychology 24 Lifespan Development12 October 2014Genes and Your Environment, The Developmental Tools of LifeAh, the old ' ... Genes and Your Environment, The Developmental Tools of Life. Essay by shanecroughan, College, Undergraduate, A, November 2014 ... Genes and Your Environment, The Developmental Tools of Life. Ah, the old "nature vs. nurture" controversy -- Is the person we ... "Genes and Your Environment, The Developmental Tools of Life" WriteWork.com. WriteWork.com, 20 November, 2014. Web. 26 Sep. 2017 ...
writework.com/essay/genes-and-your-environment-developmental-tools-life

*  Setting environment variables

User environment variables for logged_on_user_name. The user environment variables are different for each user of a particular ... System environment variables Administrators can change or add environment variables that apply to the system, and thus to all ... Setting environment variables. Environment variables are strings that contain information such as drive, path, or file name. ... Setting environment variables. Updated: January 21, 2005. Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows ...
https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc755616.aspx

*  NERC - Home

The Natural Environment Research Council, the UK's leading public funder of environmental science. ... Natural Environment Research Council. Who we are. The Natural Environment Research Council is the UK's largest funder of ...
nerc.ac.uk

*  Environment

Find Washington Post science, politics and opinion coverage of the growing threat from global warming.
washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/02/13/AR2009021303135.html

*  Environment - OECD

Taxation, Innovation and the Environment By putting a price on pollution, do environmentally related taxes spur innovation? ... Developed in co-operation between the OECD and the European Environment Agency. ...
oecd.org/switzerland/bytopic/environment/

*  Microsoft Environment

We believe every device should be made with the environment in mind - so we do just that. ...
microsoft.com/about/csr/environment/

*  Environment

Weather Environment *. 'The train has left the station' for COP21: ABB chairman ...
https://cnbc.com/environment/?page=2

*  Environment

Exploring climate change and sustainability in our environment. ...
nationalgeographic.com/environment/?name=snowboarder-xavier-de-le-rue-this-is-my-winter

*  Environment

We're sorry. The content you requested has been removed. You'll be auto redirected in 1 second ...
https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc951699.aspx

*  Environment: News & features

Conservationists take nine flights a year, despite knowing danger to environment, study shows ...
telegraph.co.uk/environment/

*  Environment - Consilium

... press releases and policies related to environment within the Council and the European Council. ... Environment Council. Past meetings. 13/10/2017. Environment Council agreed its negotiating positions on the non-ETS sectors: ... Council conclusions on the European Union priorities for the third meeting of the United Nations Environment Assembly 13/10/ ... Informal meeting of environment ministers , 13-14 July 2017 in Tallin (Estonia) ...
consilium.europa.eu/en/topics/environment/

*  Environment : NPR

Breaking news on the environment, climate change, pollution, and endangered species. Also featuring Climate Connections, a ... Environment Breaking news on the environment, climate change, pollution, and endangered species. Also featuring Climate ...
npr.org/sections/environment/archive?start=placeholder&date=9-30-2005

*  Environment - greenfields London

Environment Environmental toxins such as chemicals and heavy metals can disrupt the function of the body in many ways. Correct ...
https://sites.google.com/a/greenfieldsclinic.co.uk/london/genomic/environment

*  World Environment Day

... A Kashmiri boatman rows his small boat in the interior of Dal Lake in Srinagar April 19, 2012. ... World Environment Day, June 5, which was celebrated annually to raise global awareness about environmental issues and stimulate ...
https://yahoo.com/news/photos/world-environment-day-slideshow/world-environment-day-photo-1339279649.html?selected_tab=6&mod_id=latest-news-galleries&ref=gs

Evolution in Variable EnvironmentLough TaltGijs Kuenen: Johannes Gijsbrecht Kuenen (born 9 December 1940, Heemstede) is a Dutch microbiologist who is professor emeritus at the Delft University of Technology and a visiting scientist at the University of Southern California. His research is influenced by, and a contribution to, the scientific tradition of the Delft School of Microbiology.EcosystemMaladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Coles PhillipsDeep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingOutline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Immersive technologyPhenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Gestation crate: A gestation crate, also known as a sow stall, is a metal enclosure used in intensive pig farming, in which a female breeding pig (sow) may be kept during pregnancy and for most of her adult life.Wilson G.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Polarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.Gemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Nankai Trough gas hydrate site: Nankai Methane Hydrate Site (or Japanese Methane Hydrate R&D Program at Nankai, Nankai Trough Methane Hydrate Site) is located in the Nankai Trough, Japan.Genetic variation: right|thumbReaction coordinateHumidifierList of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Shiva crater: The Shiva Crater is a geologic structure, which is hypothesized by Sankar ChatterjeeChatterjee, S. (1997) Multiple impacts at the KT boundary and the death of the dinosaurs.Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asFood desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Acclimatization: Acclimatization (UK also acclimatisation; US also acclimation) is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a gradual change in its environment (such as a change in temperature, humidity, photoperiod, or pH), allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions. Acclimation occurs in a short period of time (days to weeks), and within the organism's lifetime (compare to adaptation).List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Mac OS X Server 1.0Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.High-speed door: High-speed doors are door systems, mainly used in industrial applications. They are technical enhancements of the generally known sectional doors, PVC fabric doors or roller shutters.National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Indoor air pollution in developing nations: Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.Dasyochloa: Dasyochloa is a monotypic genus containing the single species Dasyochloa pulchellaGrass Manual Treatment (formerly Erioneuron pulchellum),Mojave Desert Wildflowers, Pam Mackay, 2nd Ed. 2013, p.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Homeothermy: Homeothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence. This internal body temperature is often, though not necessarily, higher than the immediate environment (Greek: homoios = "similar", thermē = "heat").Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.BiodegradationGrow lightCold shock response: Cold shock response is the physiological response of organisms to sudden cold, especially cold water.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Baltic sculpin: The Baltic sculpinBaltic sculpin (Cottus microstomus) at EOL (Cottus microstomus) is a species of sculpin, a European freshwater fish in the Cottidae family. It is widespread in the Dniester drainage (Black Sea basin), Odra and Vistula drainages (southern Baltic basin), most likely extending further east to Gulf of Finland.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Fishpaper: Fish paper or fishpaper is a strong, flexible, fibrous dielectric paper. It resists moderate heat and mechanical injury, and is often used for wrapping coils and insulating stove-top parts.Pacific ElectricCuriosity: Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species. Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightUnited States regulation of point source water pollution: Point source water pollution comes from discrete conveyances and alters the chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of water. It is largely regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972.St. Vrain Valley School District

(1/7312) Relative influences of sex, race, environment, and HIV infection on body composition in adults.

BACKGROUND: The factors that control body composition in disease are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We planned to compare the relative influences of HIV infection, sex, race, and environment on body composition. METHODS: We analyzed results of body composition studies performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 1415 adults from 2 cohorts: white and African American men and women from the United States, and African men and women (279 HIV-infected and 1136 control). The effects of sex and HIV infection on weight, body cell mass, and fat-free mass were analyzed by using both unadjusted and age-, weight-, and height-adjusted data. RESULTS: Control men weighed more and had more body cell mass and fat-free mass than did control women, although control women had more fat. The strongest correlates with body composition were height and weight, followed by sex. HIV infection, age, environment, and race. Control men and women weighed more and had more body cell mass, fat-free mass, and fat than did HIV-infected men. However, differences in body composition between HIV-infected and control groups were strongly influenced by sex. Of the differences in weight between HIV-infected and uninfected subjects, fat-free mass accounted for 51% in men but only 18% in women, in whom the remainder was fat. Sex effects were similar in African and American groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sex has a marked effect on the changes in body composition during HIV infection, with women losing disproportionately more fat than men. Sex-related differences in body composition were narrower in the HIV-infected groups. Race and environment had smaller effects than sex and HIV infection.  (+info)

(2/7312) Clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic features of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has traditionally been considered a disease causing severe and permanent visual loss in young adult males. In nearly all families with LHON it is associated with one of three pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, at bp 11778, 3460 or 14484. The availability of mtDNA confirmation of a diagnosis of LHON has demonstrated that LHON occurs with a wider range of age at onset and more commonly in females than previously recognised. In addition, analysis of patients grouped according to mtDNA mutation has demonstrated differences both in the clinical features of visual failure and in recurrence risks to relatives associated with each of the pathogenic mtDNA mutations. Whilst pathogenic mtDNA mutations are required for the development of LHON, other factors must be reponsible for the variable penetrance and male predominance of this condition. Available data on a number of hypotheses including the role of an additional X-linked visual loss susceptibility locus, impaired mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, mtDNA heteroplasmy, environmental factors and autoimmunity are discussed. Subacute visual failure is seen in association with all three pathogenic LHON mutations. However, the clinical and experimental data reviewed suggest differences in the phenotype associated with each of the three mutations which may reflect variation in the disease mechanisms resulting in this common end-point.  (+info)

(3/7312) Mitochondrial involvement in Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia and Friedreich's ataxia.

Respiratory chain dysfunction has been identified in several neurodegenerative disorders. In Friedreich's ataxia (FA) and Huntington's disease (HD), where the respective mutations are in nuclear genes encoding non-respiratory chain mitochondrial proteins, the defects in oxidative phosphorylation are clearly secondary. In Parkinson's disease (PD) the situation is less clear, with some evidence for a primary role of mitochondrial DNA in at least a proportion of patients. The pattern of the respiratory chain defect may provide some clue to its cause; in PD there appears to be a selective complex I deficiency; in HD and FA the deficiencies are most severe in complex II/III with a less severe defect in complex IV. Aconitase activity in HD and FA is severely decreased in brain and muscle, respectively, but appears to be normal in PD brain. Free radical generation is thought to be of importance in both HD and FA, via excitotoxicity in HD and abnormal iron handling in FA. The oxidative damage observed in PD may be secondary to the mitochondrial defect. Whatever the cause(s) and sequence of events, respiratory chain deficiencies appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. The mitochondrial abnormalities induced may converge on the function of the mitochondrion in apoptosis. This mode of cell death is thought to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and it is tempting to speculate that the observed mitochondrial defects in PD, HD and FA result directly in apoptotic cell death, or in the lowering of a cell's threshold to undergo apoptosis. Clarifying the role of mitochondria in pathogenesis may provide opportunities for the development of treatments designed to reverse or prevent neurodegeneration.  (+info)

(4/7312) Pterygium and its relationship to the dry eye in the Bantu.

A comparative study was performed on two groups of Bantus in Johannesburg to see if there was any relationship between the "dry eye" and pterygia, but no correlation was found.  (+info)

(5/7312) Plasma leptin concentrations in Pima Indians living in drastically different environments.

OBJECTIVE: Plasma leptin, an important signal for the regulation of energy stores, is known to be influenced by many hormonal factors, but may also be affected by behavioral and environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of lifestyle (diet composition, level of physical activity) on plasma leptin concentrations among Pima Indians living in drastically different environments. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 224 Mexican Pima Indians (115 women, 109 men) living a traditional lifestyle in a remote, mountainous area of northwest Mexico and 418 U.S. Pima Indians (281 women, 137 men) living a North American lifestyle on the Gila River Indian Reservation in Arizona. We hypothesized that the absolute value of leptin would be lower in Mexican Pima Indians because of their lower percent body fat, but could be further influenced by their lifestyle, independent of body composition. RESULTS: Leptin concentration (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) was strongly correlated with percent fat (bioimpedance) in Mexican Pima Indians (r = 0.83, P < 0.0001) and U.S. Pima Indians (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001). Among U.S. Pima Indians, independent of percent fat, subjects with type 2 diabetes had lower leptin than nondiabetic subjects (difference = 6.9 +/- 1.0 ng/ml, P < 0.002). Among nondiabetic subjects, Mexican Pima Indians had lower absolute leptin concentrations than U.S. Pima Indians, but higher after adjustment for percent body fat, waist circumference, age, and sex. In a subset of 70 pairs of subjects matched for sex and percent body fat, leptin concentration was 4.4 +/- 1.0 ng/ml (P < 0.0001) higher in Mexican Pima Indians versus U.S. Pima Indians. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that independent of body composition, leptin concentration may be increased by environmental factors, such as a high-carbohydrate diet and a high level of physical activity.  (+info)

(6/7312) Lipoprotein(a) levels and apolipoprotein(a) isoforms related to life style risk factors.

Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been considered to be a predictor of premature coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases. Lp(a) levels are largely genetically determined, but the detailed mechanism of Lp(a) elevation is uncertain. We examined the association between Lp(a) levels and apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] phenotypes as well as that of Lp(a) level and other various conditions. The subjects were 280 healthy Japanese (102 males and 178 females) aged 39 to 70 years who were living in a rural community in 1992. We obtained apo(a) phenotypes determined by SDS-PAGE as well as Lp(a) levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. We combined apo(a) phenotypes form 4 groups according to molecular weights (from high apo(a) molecular weight to low: I, II, III and IV). Lp(a) levels were associated with apo(a) phenotype-groups, that is, they were inversely associated with apo(a) molecular weight. Small apo(a) phenotypes were less frequent than large ones. The median Lp(a) level was higher in smoking (29.2 mg/dL) than in non-smoking subjects (18.5 mg/dL) in phenotype-group III. Adjusted means of total cholesterol and fibrinogen levels in apo(a) phenotype-group IV were the highest of all phenotype-groups. Age, apo(a) phenotype, smoking status, total cholesterol and fibrinogen were positively correlated with Lp(a) levels by multiple regression analysis. Lp(a) levels were found to be mainly associated with apo(a) phenotype, but varied broadly within the same apo(a) phenotype at various conditions, such as smoking status and high total cholesterol.  (+info)

(7/7312) Alternatives to minimize the environmental impact of large swine production units.

Large swine production facilities have become controversial additions to the agricultural landscape as their numbers and sizes have increased. In addition to being larger enterprises, these units have involved greater specialization, the influx of outside capital, and the employment of labor without extensive investment in the enterprise. Major complaints have included water pollution and odors. Water pollution complaints have been related to surface and groundwater resources. Accidental spills, structural failure, and purposeful discharges have been noted. Odor problems are most often related to manure management techniques. Large anaerobic lagoons and irrigation of lagoon effluent have the potential to emit odors that travel long distances. Fortunately, technology and management alternatives exist to achieve higher levels of environmental acceptability. More effective water pollution and odor control alternatives generally increase construction and operating costs. Producers, regulatory officials, and the local public have an opportunity to interact to achieve progress in establishing acceptable compromises. This article identifies the range of existing and evolving alternative strategies and provides some assistance to producers and neighbors in achieving the necessary equilibrium.  (+info)

(8/7312) Ocular development and involution in the European cave salamander, Proteus anguinus laurenti.

The anatomy and development of the eye of Proteus anguinus are described. The relationships between organogenesis of the eye in embryos and larva and its involution in the young and the adult are discussed. The availability (in breeding cultures) of a significant number of Proteus embryos (which are normally rare) allowed experimental analysis of the effects of light, xenoplastic differentiation and thyroid hormones on the development of the eye. The results of this study suggest that development and involution of the eye of Proteus are controlled by genetic factors which are not greatly influenced by environment, and one can, therefore, consider the microphthalmy of Proteus as a relict characteristic which is the result of a specific development with disturbance of the normal ontogenic process.  (+info)



microbial


  • My research interests center on the molecular, biochemical, and ecological aspects of the microbial geochemical cycling of nitrogen and metals in the environment. (stanford.edu)
  • Environmental Microbiology is devoted to the study of microbial processes in the environment, microbial communities and microbial interactions. (scimagojr.com)
  • The scope of the Journal encompasses the diversity of current research on microbial processes in the environment, microbial communities and microbial interactions. (scimagojr.com)

provides


  • The oxidation of NH 3 to NO 2 - and ultimately NO 3 - by chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria [ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), respectively] is a critical branch of the nitrogen cycle in soil, sedimentary, marine, freshwater and estuarine environments, where this process provides a key link between the mineralization of organic nitrogen and the subsequent loss of fixed nitrogen via denitrification and anammox. (stanford.edu)