Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
Energy efficiency... in Emerging Economies. The IEA is supporting the scale-up of energy efficiency activities that generate ... affordable and sustainable energy system for the future. It is the one energy resource that every country possesses in ... Our work on Energy efficiency. *. Global Trends in Energy Efficiency. Released October 2016. The annual Energy Efficiency ... Benefits of Energy Efficiency. Energy efficiency is often defined as achieving the same services with less energy. This ...
Process Systems, Reaction Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics | NSF - National Science FoundationThe program also supports new approaches for generating energy from renewable resources as well as optimizing new approaches in ... and design and control of all systems associated with energy from renewable sources have a high priority for funding. Proposals ...
Patent US3918521 - Petroleum production by steam injection - Google PatentsA heated fluid is generated in a heated fluid generator that is fired with a sulfur-containing fuel and the heated fluid is ... Production Resources, Inc.. Method and apparatus for generating pollution free electrical energy from hydrocarbons. ... Method and apparatus for generating pollution free electrical energy from hydrocarbons. US20040118783 *. 31 Oct 2003. 24 Jun ... Method and apparatus for generating pollution free electrical energy from hydrocarbons. US20080017369 *. 6 Jun 2007. 24 Jan ...
Modern Warfare 3, day 1: More energy used than a nuclear power station generates - ExtremeTechAs for economics, it's much less resource intensive to move bits around rather than bodies. ... Modern Warfare 3, day 1: More energy used than a nuclear power station generates. * By Sebastian Anthony on November 9, 2011 at ... Modern Warfare 3, day 1: More energy used than a nuclear power station generates ...
Helium Crisis Approaching - SlashdotGranted, we still have a long ways to go in terms of exploiting those laws of physics to generate energy/resources, but the ... Given unlimited energy and resources, perhaps this is true, but we don't live in a world where there are unlimited resources. ... Given unlimited energy and resources, perhaps this is true, but we don't live in a world where there are unlimited resources. ... many resources on earth are becoming more and more scarce while everybody seems to only concentrate on energy resources.. That ...
Steve Fitgerald legislative update - Opinion - The Leavenworth Times - Leavenworth, KS - Leavenworth, KSCurrent RPS requires utilities to generate or purchase electricity generated from renewable energy resources. The utilities are ... The bill would adjust the time frame in which a utility is required to use a certain percentage of renewable energy as part of ... SB 82 would amend the years 2016 and 2020 to 2018 and 2014 for the period that renewable energy credits could be used to meet a ... They will conduct clinical trials while also maintaining a resource database for physicians, and provide education training for ...
Espressione omologa ed eterologa della [FeFe ]-idrogenasi di Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - Padua@Research... because it holds the promise of generating energy from nature's most plentiful resources: solar energy and water. However, the ... Energy and Environmental Science 1:15-31 Cerca con Google. Lubitz W., Reijerse E., van Gastel M. (2007) [NiFe] and [FeFe] ... International journal of hydrogen energy 33: 570-578 Cerca con Google. Van Ooteghem S.A., Jones A., Van Der Lelie D., Dong B. e ... International journal of hydrogen energy, 27: 1185-1193 Cerca con Google. Happe T., Kaminski A. (2002) Differential regulation ...
Heterostructured semiconductor nanowire arrays for artificial photosynthesis - Materials Horizons (RSC Publishing)Artificial photosynthesis, which can directly convert solar energy into usable or storable energy resources, provides such a ... The current rapid industrial development generates a high need for alternative sustainable sources of energy. ... The current rapid industrial development generates a high need for alternative sustainable sources of energy. Artificial ... which can directly convert solar energy into usable or storable energy resources, provides such a promising alternative. ...
People are scared about fracking for good reason - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in ... But at the same time we would still be in the Stone Age if we didn't make use of these resources. Therefore they must used ... In fact geothermal energy (or HDR as we have in Australia) is heat generated from the decay of radioactive elements in the ... Energy savings 'rubbery' By Michelle Grattan, University of Canberra. Even as Malcolm Turnbull unveiled his energy policy the ...
Patent US6948910 - Spiral-based axial flow devices - Google Patents... a free natural resource of almost unlimited potential for the production of low cost energy that does not generate greenhouse ... it generates relatively small amounts of downwind force, allowing it to store the energy of gusts in the deflection and energy ... In any foil generating lit, the dynamic flow surrenders some of its kinetic energy to envelop what it sees as an obstacle to ... Cyclical wave energy converter. US7696634 *. 30 Sep 2008. 13 Apr 2010. Pliant Energy Systems Llc. Pliant mechanisms for ...
Biogeoeconomics of phosphorus in a Florida watershedgenerate a unit of resource efficiently and rapidly; sej/j.. Emergy per unit mass. material. - energy of one type required to ... productivity and resource uses of a system.. The emergy per unit energy is called the. transformity and is a measure of energy ... resource used for a product or service.. This method measures energy "embodied" in. work previously completed to make a product ... outside source of energy; a forcing function.. STORAGE TANK:. a compartment of energy storage within. the system storing a ...
Flue Gas Companies and Suppliers with 1-10 employees serving Pennsylvania | Environmental XPRT... generating energy from biomass, renewable resources or/and waste products. Each ... ... Brown Energy Group Inc. We supply a wide selection used & surplus diesel generators, natural gas generators, gas turbines, ... We provide affordable solutions for your energy needs by providing a secure and stable power supply through a Power Purchase ... Planetary Systems has been designing and installing renewable energy systems since 1994, and has over 1600 operational systems ...
California ISO - Metering and telemetryNew Resource Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Onboarding Project Loader7/28/2017 10:55. ... Meter data represents the energy generated or consumed during a settlement interval. The ISO, ISO metered entities, and ... for generating units providing regulation energy or a data processing gateway (DPG) or other ISO-approved technology for ... Generating units and load participants must establish and maintain a data processing gateway between plant facilities and the ...
ClimateDialogue: Exploring different views on climate change « RealClimateAnd those examples represent just a small fraction of the USA's vast solar and wind energy resources. According to a study by ... Science does not generate myths. Science generates truth. Engineering uses theories and data from science to invent machines ... The same is true of the wind energy resources of just four midwestern states. ... Moreover, because we waste so much energy, we have an enormous opportunity to get more utility out of the energy we consume ...
Oyster Creek Web Site has Latest, Helpful Information on Tritium - Exelon... additional resources to find even more information and helpful facts about tritium, nuclear energy and the Oyster Creek ... Exelon Nuclear's Oyster Creek Generating Station announced today an updated Web site for quicker access and current information ... This one-on-one forum is designed to inform and update the plant's neighbors about plant operations and nuclear energy issues. ... regarding tritium, nuclear energy and the power plant. The site, http://www.oystercreektritium.com, is designed to inform and ...
Patent US7687045 - Article processing apparatus and related method - Google PatentsFor example, bulk quantities of the mail may be irradiated by beams of high-energy electrons generated by an electron gun. Such ... Clearly, inspecting each piece of mail that passes through the postal system with such limited resources is virtually an ... Because the mail may include metal objects such as staples or paper clips, the microwave energy and the infrared energy may be ... The water-based solution may interact with the heat generated by heat treatment apparatus 530, the microwave energy emitted ...
Energy crises in pakistan1ENERGY CRISES ANDHYDROPOWER IN PAKISTANCenter of Excellence in Water Resource Engineering University of Engineering & ... Have we lost the race for acquiring maximum energy resources for future survival?• How much depletion in energy resources!• ... Pakistan's current energy requirements can be met by Coal alone by utilizing only 20% and generating 20,000 MW for 30 years• ... Energy crises in pakistan * 1. 1ENERGY CRISES ANDHYDROPOWER IN PAKISTANCenter of Excellence in Water Resource Engineering ...
artificial-electronic-super-skinRenewable energy resources. March 25, 2012. 0 * Generating Energy From Unusual Sources. January 18, 2012 ...
SDSC's Triton Resource Helps "Track" How Kinesin Molecules Move... a compound that the body produces from food to generate energy as needed by the body. ... SDSC's Triton Resource Helps "Track" How Kinesin Molecules Move. New Findings Published in November Issue of PLoS Biology. (A) ... Using the Triton Resource, a medium-scale high performance computing system at UC San Diego's San Diego Supercomputer Center ( ... Cyberinfrastructure refers to an accessible, integrated network of computer-based resources and expertise, focused on ...
HEMP TIES IT ALL TOGETHER Compiled by the Business Alliance for Commerce in Hemp (BACH). PReducing acid rain by using biomass energy Less chemical pollution in our rivers Generating free oxygen to reverse the ... Renewable natural resource for manufacture of paper, fiber & pulp, oils, paints, sealants, fuel, food, medicine, etc. Hemp ... Generates a self sustaining, de-centralized economy Offers a wealth of untapped sources of tax revenues A Healthy Environment " ... Re-legalization frees-up police resources for serious crime & will increase respect for all law It will remove hard drugs & the ...
Kevin Wright and the Cancer Charities that Harm Children. - The Quackometer BlogThe oxygen, the water, the nutrients, the energy (electrical pulse) generated all have a role to play that modern research ... when this method of giving birth to a child should be a very last resource. It has been proven that the future mum' s body when ... I've given far too much of my energy to this, you need to be very careful what you're saying because YOU are the one who will ... I think anecdotes are is often valuable in generating hypotheses for scientific testing; I also think they're useful for ...
Microbes generate electricity while cleaning up nuclear wasteOne of the top research universities in the world, MSU focuses its vast resources on creating solutions to some of the world's ... The National Institute of Environmental Health Science and the U.S. Department of Energy funded the study. ... Geobacter »MSU »Microbes generate electricity »Nanowires »electricity »microbes »nuclear waste »tiny micro-organisms »uranium ... Further reports about: , Geobacter , MSU , Microbes generate electricity , Nanowires , electricity , microbes , nuclear waste ...
Note: Design and construction of a multi-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-Ray computed-tomography system for three...Resource Type:. Journal Article. Resource Relation:. Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 85; ... U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Scientific and Technical Information ... Title: Note: Design and construction of a multi-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-Ray computed-tomography system for ... Journal Article: Note: Design and construction of a multi-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-Ray computed-tomography ...
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award Winners - Text of Podcasts | Green Chemistry | US EPAThis process requires little energy other than the plant biomass. The process is flexible and can be modified to generate ... Of course, using plants, a renewable resource, helps reduce dependence on fossil fuels. ... these methods also require a great deal of energy. Eastman's new method uses enzymes to make esters, saving energy and avoiding ... Virent Energy Systems, Inc.. - Hydrocarbon Fuels from Plant Sugars. I'm Dr. Richard Engler of EPA's Office of Pollution ...
Green Car Congress: Autostudi Shows Prototype Hybrid Fuel Cell ScooterA hydride storage system supports two hours of operation at maximum speed (20 km per hour). Thermal energy generated by the ... Resources:. *. The role of EU regions in the hydrogen and fuel cell Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) ... Honda Introduces Compact Crossover Vehicle; Up to 32 MPG , Main , Harvest Energy Technology to Supply Hydrogen Generator to CPC ...
Energy security of the People's Republic of China: Energy security of the People's Republic of China concerns the need for the People's Republic of China to guarantee itself and its industries long- term access to sufficient energy and raw materials. China has been endeavoring to sign international agreements and secure such supplies; its energy security involves the internal and foreign energy policy of China.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.
(1/129) Indoor air pollution in developing countries and acute lower respiratory infections in children.
BACKGROUND: A critical review was conducted of the quantitative literature linking indoor air pollution from household use of biomass fuels with acute respiratory infections in young children, which is focused on, but not confined to, acute lower respiratory infection and pneumonia in children under two years in less developed countries. Biomass in the form of wood, crop residues, and animal dung is used in more than two fifths of the world's households as the principal fuel. METHODS: Medline and other electronic databases were used, but it was also necessary to secure literature from colleagues in less developed countries where not all publications are yet internationally indexed. RESULTS: The studies of indoor air pollution from household biomass fuels are reasonably consistent and, as a group, show a strong significant increase in risk for exposed young children compared with those living in households using cleaner fuels or being otherwise less exposed. Not all studies were able to adjust for confounders, but most of those that did so found that strong and significant risks remained. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that the relative risks are likely to be significant for the exposures considered here. Since acute lower respiratory infection is the chief cause of death in children in less developed countries, and exacts a larger burden of disease than any other disease category for the world population, even small additional risks due to such a ubiquitous exposure as air pollution have important public health implications. In the case of indoor air pollution in households using biomass fuels, the risks also seem to be fairly strong, presumably because of the high daily concentrations of pollutants found in such settings and the large amount of time young children spend with their mothers doing household cooking. Given the large vulnerable populations at risk, there is an urgent need to conduct randomised trials to increase confidence in the cause-effect relationship, to quantify the risk more precisely, to determine the degree of reduction in exposure required to significantly improve health, and to establish the effectiveness of interventions. (+info)
(2/129) Quantifying the effects of exposure to indoor air pollution from biomass combustion on acute respiratory infections in developing countries.
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the leading cause of burden of disease worldwide and have been causally linked with exposure to pollutants from domestic biomass fuels in developing countries. We used longitudinal health data coupled with detailed monitoring and estimation of personal exposure from more than 2 years of field measurements in rural Kenya to estimate the exposure-response relationship for particulates < 10 microm diameter (PM(10)) generated from biomass combustion. Acute respiratory infections and acute lower respiratory infections are concave, increasing functions of average daily exposure to PM(10), with the rate of increase declining for exposures above approximately 1,000-2,000 microg/m(3). This first estimation of the exposure-response relationship for the high-exposure levels characteristic of developing countries has immediate and important consequences for international public health policies, energy and combustion research, and technology transfer efforts that affect more than 2 billion people worldwide. (+info)
(3/129) Primary production and humanosphere--is energy sufficient for sustainable humanosphere?
There is a growing concern about the sustainability of our humanosphere. Realizing that our consumption of natural resources is soon to exhaust available ones in this globe, we feel the need for more prudent ways to utilize them. In particular, the need would be greater in the ways for the use of the primary products as we are to continue to face the rapid increase in human population. On the contrary, however, we are rapidly losing the traditional customs of their many uses. For instance, rice straws were once a significant raw material for many manufactured products in Japan, while most of them are now simply burned in the paddy. Here I would like to review the current status of primary production on the Earth from the viewpoint of material cycling and to demonstrate that, unless we quickly turn around our ever-increasing demand for more material and more energy, the humanosphere would never enter a stable phase. At the year 2006 A.D., the energy demand of a possibly sustainable humanosphere surpasses the available energy through the global primary production. (+info)
(4/129) Hydrogen production. Green algae as a source of energy.
Hydrogen gas is thought to be the ideal fuel for a world in which air pollution has been alleviated, global warming has been arrested, and the environment has been protected in an economically sustainable manner. Hydrogen and electricity could team to provide attractive options in transportation and power generation. Interconversion between these two forms of energy suggests on-site utilization of hydrogen to generate electricity, with the electrical power grid serving in energy transportation, distribution utilization, and hydrogen regeneration as needed. A challenging problem in establishing H(2) as a source of energy for the future is the renewable and environmentally friendly generation of large quantities of H(2) gas. Thus, processes that are presently conceptual in nature, or at a developmental stage in the laboratory, need to be encouraged, tested for feasibility, and otherwise applied toward commercialization. (+info)
(5/129) Optimizing nitrogen management in food and energy production and environmental protection: summary statement from the Second International Nitrogen Conference.
Human efforts to produce food and energy are changing the nitrogen (N) cycle of the Earth. Many of these changes are highly beneficial for humans, while others are detrimental to people and the environment. These changes transcend scientific disciplines, geographical boundaries, and political structures. They challenge the creative minds of natural and social scientists, economists, engineers, business leaders, and decision makers. The Second International Nitrogen Conference was designed to facilitate communications among all stakeholders in the "nitrogen community" of the world. The Conference participants" goal in the years and decades ahead is to encourage every country to make optimal choices about N management in food production and consumption, energy production and use, and environmental protection. Scientific findings and recommendations for decision makers that emerged from the Conference are presented. (+info)
(6/129) An enhanced rate-based emission trading program for NOX: the Dutch model.
Since 1997 government and industry in The Netherlands have been engaged in intensive policy discussions on how to design an emission trading program that would satisfy the Government's policy objectives within the national and international regulatory framework and accommodate industry's need for a flexible and cost-effective approach. Early on in the discussion the most promising solution was a rate-based approach, which dynamically allocated saleable emission credits based on a performance standard rate and actual energy used by facilities. All industrial facilities above a threshold of 20 MWth would be judged on their ability to meet this performance rate. Those "cleaner" than the standard can sell excess credits to others with an allocation that is less than their actual NOX emission. With some changes in law, such a design could be made to fit well into the national and EU legislative framework while at the same time uniquely meeting industry's requirement of flexibility toward economic growth and facility expansion. (An analysis of the legislative changes required will be given in a separate paper by Chris Dekkers.) However, the environmental outcome of such a system is not as certain as under an absolute emission cap. At the request of the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM), Automated Credit Exchange (ACE), in close cooperation with the working group of government and industry representatives introduced a number of features into the Dutch NOX program allowing full exploitation of market mechanisms while allowing intermediate adjustments in the performance standard rates. The design is geared toward meeting environmental targets without jeopardizing the trading market the program intends to create. The paper discusses the genesis of the two-tier credit system ACE helped to design, explains the differences between primary (fixed) and secondary (variable) credits, and outlines how the Dutch system is expected to function once implemented in 2004. The paper also discusses the market trading simulation held in early 2001 to assess and test the trading program, and reviews also the current status of the market program development. (+info)
(7/129) Merging nitrogen management and renewable energy needs.
The ARBRE (ARable Biomass Renewable Energy) project, the first large-scale wood-fueled electricity generating plant in the U.K., represents a significant development in realising British and European policy objectives on renewable energy. The plant is fueled by a mix of wood from short rotation coppice (SRC) and forest residues. Where feasible, composted/conditioned sewage sludge is applied to coppice sites to increase yields and improve soil structure. In the Yorkshire Water region, typical total N:P:K composition of composted/conditioned sludge is 2.9:3.8:0.3, respectively. Sludge application is calculated on the basis of total nitrogen (N) content to achieve 750 kg N ha(-1), for 3 years" requirement. Willow coppice forms a dense, widely spaced, root network, which, with its long growing season, makes it an effective user of nutrients. This, in combination with willow"s use as a nonfood, nonfodder crop, makes it an attractive route for the recycling of sewage sludge in the absence of sea disposal, banned under the EC Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (UWWTD). Further work is required on the nutritional requirements of SRC in order to understand better the quantities of sludge that can be applied to SRC without having a detrimental impact on the environment. This paper suggests the source of N rerouting under the UWWTD and suggests the likely expansion of SRC as an alternative recycling pathway. (+info)
(8/129) Effects of brash removal after clear felling on soil and soil-solution chemistry and field-layer biomass in an experimental nitrogen gradient.
Biofuels, such as brash from forest fellings, have been proposed as an alternative energy source. Brash removal may affect the sustainability of forest production, e.g., through a change in the availability of cations and N in the soil. We report initial effects of brash removal on inorganic N content in humus and mineral soil, soil-solution chemistry, and field-layer biomass after clear felling an N-fertilisation experiment in central Sweden. The experiment comprised six different fertiliser levels, ranging from 0 to 600 kg N ha(-1). Urea was given every 5th year during 1967 to 1982 to replicated plots, giving total doses of 0 to 2400 kg N ha(-1). Clear felling took place in 1995, 13 years after the last fertilisation. The removal of brash decreased the NO3- content in the humus layer after clear felling. A decrease in the NO3- concentration of the soil solution was indicated during most of the study period as well. No effect of the previous N fertilisation was found in the humus layer, but in the mineral soil there was an increase in NO3- content for the highest N dose after clear felling ( p = 0.06). The soil-solution chemistry and the field-layer biomass showed an irregular pattern with no consistent effects of brash removal or previous fertilisation. (+info)
- Areas that focus on reactors of all types (fuel cells, batteries, microreactors, biochemical reactors, etc.), reactor design in general, and design and control of all systems associated with energy from renewable sources have a high priority for funding. (nsf.gov)
- The program also supports new approaches for generating energy from renewable resources as well as optimizing new approaches in all areas such as developing atomic layer deposition for microelectronic devices. (nsf.gov)
- The International Energy Agency (IEA) has warned that without policies to promote renewable energy, UG is a deterrent to the necessary world transition to renewable energy sources in Golden Rules for a Golden Age of Gas . (abc.net.au)
- Planetary Systems has been designing and installing renewable energy systems since 1994, and has over 1600 operational systems from .5kw to 22kw, worldwide. (environmental-expert.com)
- In particular, the ability of the green alga C. reinhardtii to reduce protons and release hydrogen gas (H2) upon illumination by means of a [FeFe]-hydrogenase represents a phenomenon of great scientific interest, because it holds the promise of generating energy from nature's most plentiful resources: solar energy and water. (unipd.it)
- Artificial photosynthesis, which can directly convert solar energy into usable or storable energy resources, provides such a promising alternative. (rsc.org)
- Exelon Nuclear's Oyster Creek Generating Station announced today an updated Web site for quicker access and current information regarding tritium, nuclear energy and the power plant. (exeloncorp.com)
- On the site, the general public can find an updated narrative of the tritium issue at Oyster Creek, maps showing the affected plume areas, documents and correspondence with our regulators, additional resources to find even more information and helpful facts about tritium, nuclear energy and the Oyster Creek Generating Station. (exeloncorp.com)
- This one-on-one forum is designed to inform and update the plant's neighbors about plant operations and nuclear energy issues. (exeloncorp.com)
- Unfortunately in Pakistan, inspite of tall claims and rhetoric by all governments, real solutions to meet the energy requirements of the nation have never been formulated or achieved. (slideshare.net)
- Due to an increasing gap in energy demand versus capacity, while successive governments put power generation and availability of gas as a priority on their agenda, unfortunately, all plans of providing adequate and affordable energy to the citizens have failed to materialize. (slideshare.net)
- The current rapid industrial development generates a high need for alternative sustainable sources of energy. (rsc.org)
- Hemp industries will save American jobs Underdeveloped potential for multi-billion dollar profits Income generated could save the Savings & Loan industry Hemp seed is among the most nutritious of food sources Replaces trees as a source of housing & construction material Biomass fuel will permanently cut dependence on fossil fuels Hemp can be used for plastic or as a biodegradable replacement Hemp is a standard fiber for fabrics, cordage, etc. (skepticfiles.org)
- Using the Triton Resource , a medium-scale high performance computing system at UC San Diego's San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), researchers developed computational simulations of kinesin 'engines' hauling cargo along microtubule rails within cells. (ucsd.edu)
- Such transitions are being successfully negotiated by many of Australia's competitors and particularly Germany, which has exploded the myth that wind energy needs supplementing with gas! (abc.net.au)
- The real energy will be expended between MW3 and Battlefield3 fanbois. (extremetech.com)
- Hydrogenases, key enzymes in hydrogen metabolism in several microorganisms, are considered as a possible future energy source. (unipd.it)
- The ISO requires direct telemetry of participating generators and load by installing a remote intelligent gateway (RIG) for generating units providing regulation energy or a data processing gateway (DPG) or other ISO-approved technology for resources providing non-regulation ancillary services or supplemental energy. (caiso.com)
- Some of these calculations for these protein simulations required quite a large amount of computer memory, so the Triton Resource proved to be very helpful in this work," said Grant, noting that each simulation in the project consumed about 7 gigabytes of ram/core with subsequent analysis of data sets measuring almost 2 terabytes in size. (ucsd.edu)
- 9. The article processing apparatus of claim 1 , wherein at least a portion of the holder is made of a material configured to allow heat, air, microwave energy, ultraviolet light, and chemicals to flow therethrough. (google.co.uk)
- Generating units and load participants must establish and maintain a data processing gateway between plant facilities and the ISO energy management system for the purpose of generation control and monitoring. (caiso.com)