Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Opiate Alkaloids: Alkaloids found in OPIUM from PAPAVER that induce analgesic and narcotic effects by action upon OPIOID RECEPTORS.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Enteroendocrine Cells: Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)Neuroimmunomodulation: The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Frasier Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE and GONADAL DYSGENESIS in phenotypic females with karyotype of 46,XY or female individual with a normal 46,XX karyotype. It is caused by donor splice-site mutations of Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) on chromosome 11.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Lamin Type A: A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Maus Elberfeld virus: A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Enterovirus InfectionsThyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia: A group of autosomal dominant diseases characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors involving two or more ENDOCRINE GLANDS that secrete PEPTIDE HORMONES or AMINES. These neoplasias are often benign but can be malignant. They are classified by the endocrine glands involved and the degree of aggressiveness. The two major forms are MEN1 and MEN2 with gene mutations on CHROMOSOME 11 and CHROMOSOME 10, respectively.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia characterized by the presence of medullary carcinoma (CARCINOMA, MEDULLARY) of the THYROID GLAND, and usually with the co-occurrence of PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA, producing CALCITONIN and ADRENALINE, respectively. Less frequently, it can occur with hyperplasia or adenoma of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. This disease is due to gain-of-function mutations of the MEN2 gene on CHROMOSOME 10 (Locus: 10q11.2), also known as the RET proto-oncogene that encodes a RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disease.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.

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Endocrine. Pituitary Diseases. Hypothalamic Diseases. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases ... Endocrine System Diseases. Dwarfism, Pituitary. Hypopituitarism. Septo-Optic Dysplasia. Dwarfism. Bone Diseases, Developmental ... Endocrine Dysfunction and Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children With Optic Nerve Hypoplasia. This study has been completed. ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Growth Hormone Deficiency Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency ...

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The sole purpose of the parathyroid glands is to regulate the calcium levels so the nervous and muscular systems can function ... The sole purpose of the parathyroid glands is to regulate the calcium levels so the nervous and muscular systems can function ...

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... that regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. The hormone ... is one of the larger endocrine glands in the body. It is a double-lobed structure located in the neck and produces hormones, ... The thyroid (from the Greek word for "shield", after its shape) is one of the larger endocrine glands in the body. It is a ... Thyroid Disease Manager Features a complete analysis of thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, nodules, cancer, and ...

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Whereas nerve impulses from the nervous system immediately prod the body into action, hormones from the endocrine system act ... The endocrine system is the body's network of glands that produce more than fifty different known hormones or chemical ... The bodily processes regulated by the endocrine system go on for relatively long periods of time. Some go on continuously. ... It is second only to the nervous system as the great controlling system of the body. ...

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faqs.org » The New International Standard Medical & Health Encyclopedia » Diseases of The Body » Diseases of the Endocrine ... The primary disease is usually treated by surgery, and testosterone may be given. If the disorder is secondary to anterior ... If the disorder is secondary to anterior pituitary disease, it is called Froehlich's syndrome . When it occurs after puberty, ... A sudden decrease in sexual drive or performance may be caused by disease, trauma, or emotional factors. In certain cases ...

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Treatment of Endocrine System Disease. Endocrine diseases caused by the presence of too much hormone may be treated surgically ... Development of Endocrine System Disease. The body monitors and adjusts the level of each hormone by using a feedback system ... Endocrine system diseases can develop when too much or not enough hormone is produced, or when normal pathways for hormones to ... The endocrine system consists of a group of tissues that release hormones into the bloodstream for travel to other parts of the ...

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Metabolic Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Dulaglutide. 2,4-thiazolidinedione. Hypoglycemic Agents. Glycoside Hydrolase ...

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Metabolic Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Sitagliptin Phosphate. Hypoglycemic Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... Endocrine disorders (acromegaly, anorexia, Cushings, type 2 diabetes, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypercalcemia). *GI ... conditions (celiac sprue, gastric bypass/gastrectomy, active inflammatory bowel disease, cirrhosis) ...

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Bone Diseases, Endocrine. Endocrine System Diseases. Bone Diseases, Metabolic. Musculoskeletal Diseases. Parathyroid Diseases. ... Endocrine System Diseases. MusculoSkeletal System Disease. Hormones. Postmenopausal Women. Bone metabolism. Physiologic ... Osteoporosis Hypercalcemia of Malignancy Hyperparathyroidism Bone Diseases, Endocrine Drug: Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein ... Metabolic Diseases. Water-Electrolyte Imbalance. Neoplasms. Hormones. Anabolic Agents. Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and ...
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Thyroid Diseases. Thyroid Neoplasms. Endocrine System Diseases. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Head ...

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Endocrine System Diseases. Tetrasomy. Behavioral Symptoms. Chromosome Aberrations. Pathologic Processes. Chromosome Duplication ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: 21-hydroxylase Deficiency Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Chromosomal ... Brain Imaging of Childhood Onset Psychiatric Disorders, Endocrine Disorders and Healthy Volunteers. This study is currently ... Brain Imaging of Childhood Onset Psychiatric Disorders, Endocrine Disorders and Healthy Volunteers. ...

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Metabolic Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Exenatide. Hypoglycemic Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Incretins. ... History of medullary thyroid cancer or a family or personal history of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 ...
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BMC Endocrine Disorders: BMC Endocrine Disorders is an open access peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original research articles in all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of endocrine disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.References ==Central nervous system disease: A central nervous system disease can affect either the spinal cord (myelopathy) or brain (encephalopathy), both of which are part of the central nervous system.Endocrine glandCentral nervous system viral disease: A central nervous system viral disease is a viral infection that affects the central nervous system.Pug: The Pug is a breed of dog with a wrinkly, short-muzzled face and curled tail. The breed has a fine, glossy coat that comes in a variety of colours, most often fawn or black, and a compact square body with well-developed muscles.Hormone: A hormone (from Greek , "impetus") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3 classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins).Endocrine Research: Endocrine Research is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers endocrinology in the broadest context. Subjects of interest include: receptors and mechanism of action of hormones, methodological advances in the detection and measurement of hormones; structure and chemical properties of hormones.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Enteroendocrine cellAlligatorProgressive rubella panencephalitis: Progressive rubella panencephalitis (PRP) is a neurological disorder which may occur in a child with congenital rubella. It is a slow viral infection of the brain characterized by chronic encephalitis, usually manifesting between 8–19 years of age.Frasier syndrome: Frasier syndrome is a urogenital anomaly associated with the WT1 (Wilms tumor 1 gene) gene.Cognitive effects of HIVMethylsterol monooxygenase: Methylsterol monooxygenase (, methylsterol hydroxylase, 4-methylsterol oxidase, 4,4-dimethyl-5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol,hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating)) is an enzyme with system name 4,4-dimethyl-5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPrifinium bromideDemyelinating disease: -, |Keshan diseaseFollicular cellBifemelaneToxicityXenobiotic: A xenobiotic is a foreign chemical substance found within an organism that is not normally naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism. It can also cover substances which are present in much higher concentrations than are usual.Prenatal testosterone transfer: Prenatal Testosterone Transfer (also known as prenatal androgen transfer or prenatal hormone transfer) refers to the phenomenon in which testosterone synthesized by a developing male fetus transfers to one or more developing fetuses within the womb and influences development. This typically results in the partial masculinization of specific aspects of female behavior, cognition, and morphology, though some studies have found that testosterone transfer can cause an exaggerated masculinization in males.Multiple endocrine neoplasiaCongenital estrogen deficiency: Congenital estrogen deficiency is a genetic condition by which the body is unable to produce or use estrogens.Vitamin DAlkylphenolDeath of Ludwig van Beethoven: The death of Ludwig van Beethoven on 26 March 1827 followed a prolonged illness. It was witnessed by his sister-in-law and by his close friend Anselm Hüttenbrenner, who provided a vivid description of the event.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingPesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Astrocyte: Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron = star and cyte from Greek "kyttaron" = cell), also known collectively as astroglia, are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. The proportion of astrocytes in the brain is not well defined.OdulimomabEstradiol cypionate: Estradiol cypionate (INN, USAN) (brand names Depo-Estradiol, Depofemin, Estradep, and many others), or estradiol cipionate, is a synthetic ester, specifically the 3-cyclopentylpropanoyl ester, of the natural estrogen, estradiol. It was first introduced in 1952 by Upjohn in the United States, and has been in widespread use since.Prolactin cellAlcohol and cortisol: Recent research has looked into the effects of alcohol on the amount of cortisol that is produced in the human body. Continuous consumption of alcohol over an extended period of time has been shown to raise cortisol levels in the body.Somatotropic cellBlood–testis barrier: The blood–testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubule and as such isolates the further developed stages of germ cells from the blood.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.HyperintensityQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.

(1/371) Hereditary juvenile haemochromatosis: a genetically heterogeneous life-threatening iron-storage disease.

Juvenile haemochromatosis is a rare inborn error of iron metabolism with clinical manifestations before 30 years of age. Unlike adult haemochromatosis which principally affects men, juvenile haemochromatosis affects the sexes equally; it causes early endocrine failure, dilated cardiomyopathy and joint disease. We report four patients (two of each sex) from three pedigrees affected by juvenile haemochromatosis with a mean onset at 22 years (range 14-30). All had endocrine deficiency with postpubertal gonadal failure secondary to pituitary disease; two suffered near-fatal cardiomyopathy with heart failure. Mean time to diagnosis from the first clinical signs of disease was 9.8 years (range 0.5-20) but general health and parameters of iron storage responded favourably to iron-depletion therapy. A 24-year-old man listed for heart transplantation because of cardiomyopathy [left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction 16%] responded to intravenous iron chelation with desferrioxamine combined with phlebotomy (ejection fraction 31%). A 27-year-old woman with subacute biventricular heart failure refractory to medication required orthotopic cardiac transplantation before the diagnosis was established (LV ejection fraction 25%). Genetic studies showed that these two patients with cardiomyopathy from unrelated families were heterozygous for the HFE 845G-->A (C282Y) mutation and wild-type at the H63D locus: complete sequencing of the intron-exon boundaries and entire coding sequence of the HFE gene failed to identify additional lesions. Two siblings in a pedigree without cardiomyopathy were wild-type at the HFE C282Y locus; although the brother harboured a single copy of the 187C-->G (H63D) allele, segregation analysis showed that in neither sibling was the iron-storage disease linked to MHC Class I markers on chromosome 6p. Juvenile haemochromatosis is thus a genetically heterogenous disorder distinct from the common adult variant.  (+info)

(2/371) Developmental and genetic disorders in spermatogenesis.

The most common cause of male infertility is idiopathic. Fresh insights based on genetic and molecular analysis of the human genome permit classification of formerly unexplained disorders in spermatogenesis. In this article, we review new procedures that expand diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to male infertility. Recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to detect specific chromosomal and/or genetic defects among infertile patients. The identification of genes linked to disorders in spermatogenesis and male sexual differentiation has increased exponentially in the past decade. Genetic defects leading to male factor infertility can now be explained at the molecular level, even though the germ cell profile of infertile patients is too variable to permit classification of the clinical phenotype. Increasing knowledge of genes that direct spermatogenesis provides important new information about the molecular and cellular events involved in human spermatogenesis. Molecular analysis of chromosomes and/or genes of infertile patients offers unique opportunities to uncover the aetiology of genetic disorders in spermatogenesis. Increasing numbers of cases, previously classified as idiopathic, can now be diagnosed to facilitate the treatment of infertile men. Advanced knowledge also poses ethical dilemmas, since children conceived with assisted reproductive technologies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are at risk for congenital abnormalities, unbalanced complements of chromosomes and male infertility.  (+info)

(3/371) Maximizing efficacy of endocrine tests: importance of decision-focused testing strategies and appropriate patient preparation.

The efficacy of endocrine tests depends on the choice of tests, the preparation of the patients, the integrity of the specimens, the quality of the measurements, and the validity of the reference data. Close dialogue among the clinicians, the laboratory, and the patients is a key factor for optimal patient care. The characteristics of urine and plasma samples and the advantages and limitations of paired test measurements are presented. The importance of test sequence strategies, provocative or inhibitory procedures, and elimination of drug interferences is illustrated with four cases involving Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, primary aldosteronism, and hypercalcemia. For each of these scenarios, key clinical issues are highlighted, along with discussions of the best test strategies, including which medications are likely to interfere. The importance of targeting laboratory tests to answer well-focused clinical decisions is emphasized. The roles of some time-honored provocative procedures are questioned in light of more sensitive and specific analytic methods. The importance of decision-focused analytical tolerance limits is emphasized by demonstrating the impact of analytic bias on downstream medical resource utilization. User-friendly support systems to facilitate the implementation of test strategies and postanalytic tracking of patient outcomes are presented as essential requirements for quality medical practice.  (+info)

(4/371) Human natural tumor necrosis factor alpha induces multiple endocrine and hematologic disorders in rats.

Slc:Wistar male rats treated with human natural tumor necrosis factor alpha (hn TNF-alpha, 3 X 10(5) Japan reference units/kg intravenously) for 3 months showed histologic vacuolation of basophils in the anterior pituitary, hyperplasia of the thyroidal follicular epithelium, and hyperplasia of the testicular interstitial cells. The vacuolated basophils were immunohistochemically shown to be thyrotrophs. In addition, there were decreases in plasma levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), and testosterone, and an increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The number of lymphocytes in the marginal zones of lymphoid follicles in spleen and lymph nodes and B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood decreased. Hyperplasia of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow and decreases in both leukocytes and erythrocytes in the peripheral blood were prominent. Hyperplasia of bile ductular epithelial cells with periportal mononuclear cell infiltration in the liver and increased cellularity in alveolar walls in the lung were also characteristic. In in vitro studies, hn TNF-alpha inhibited both proliferation and peroxidase activity of thyroid follicular epithelial cells. These findings demonstrate that hn TNF-alpha may induce histologic vacuolation of thyrotrophs by causing a decrease in plasma levels of T3 and T4; hyperplasia of the thyroid follicular epithelium, which may be attributed to the increased plasma level of TSH; hyperplasia of testicular interstitial cells, by lowering the plasma level of testosterone; hyperplasia of bile ductular epithelial cells; hyperplasia of hematopoietic cells in bone marrow; and the increase in cellularity in pulmonary alveolar walls. In addition, hn TNF-alpha may suppress the differentiation of B-lymphocytes.  (+info)

(5/371) Klinefelter's syndrome accompanied by mixed connective tissue disease and diabetes mellitus.

We report a rare case of Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), diabetes mellitus (DM) and several endocrine disorders. A 57-year-old man presented with polyarthritis and tapering fingers with Raynaud's phenomenon on admission. In addition to a karyotype of 47, XXY, a marked restrictive change in respiratory functional test, a myogenic pattern in electromyogram, the positive tests for anti-RNP antibody indicated that this was a case of KS complicated with MCTD. The patients also presented DM with insulin resistance, hyperprolactinemia, slight primary hypothyroidism and hypoadrenocorticism. The mechanism for these coincidences remains to be elucidated.  (+info)

(6/371) Autoantibodies against recombinant human steroidogenic enzymes 21-hydroxylase, side-chain cleavage and 17alpha-hydroxylase in Addison's disease and autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type III.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of autoantibodies (Ab) against 21 hydroxylase (21OH), side-chain cleavage (SCC) and 17alpha-hydroxylase (17OH), in Addison's disease (AD) and autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type III (APSIII). DESIGN AND METHODS: We used radiobinding assays and in vitro translated recombinant human (35)S-21OH, (35)S-SCC or (35)S-17OH and studied serum samples from 29 AD (18 idiopathic, 11 granulomatous) and 18 APSIII (autoimmune thyroid disease plus type 1 diabetes mellitus, without AD) patients. Results were compared with those of adrenocortical autoantibodies obtained with indirect immunofluorescence (ACA-IIF). RESULTS: ACA-IIF were detected in 15/18 (83%) idiopathic and in 1/11 (9%) granulomatous AD subjects. 21OHAb were found in 14/18 (78%) idiopathic and in the same (9%) granulomatous AD subject. A significant positive correlation was shown between ACA-IIF and 21OHAb levels (r(2)=0.56, P<0.02). The concordance rate between the two assays was 83% (24/29) in AD patients. SCCAb were found in 5/18 (28%) idiopathic (4 of whom were also positive for 21OHAb) and in the same (9%) granulomatous AD subject. 17OHAb were found in only 2/18 (11%) idiopathic and none of the granulomatous AD patients. Two APSIII patients were positive for ACA-IIF, but only one was positive for 21OHAb and SCCAb. 17OHAb were found in another two APSIII patients. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of 21OHAb should be the first step in immune assessment of patients with AD and individuals at risk for adrenal autoimmunity, in addition to ACA-IIF. Due to their low prevalence in AD, measurement of SCCAb and 17OHAb should be indicated only for 21OHAb negative patients and/or for those with premature ovarian failure, regardless of ACA-IIF results.  (+info)

(7/371) Effects of genistein exposure on sexually dimorphic behaviors in rats.

The phytoestrogen genistein, the principal isoflavone in soybeans, has adverse effects on animal reproduction. As adult physiology and behavior are sensitive to perturbation by developmental estrogens, exposure to genistein during development may produce behavioral alterations as well. Pregnant rats were fed soy-free diets containing 0, 25, 250, or 1250 ppm genistein (approximately 0, 2, 20, or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning on gestational day 7, and offspring continued on these diets through postnatal day (PND) 77. Male and female offspring were assessed for levels of sexually dimorphic behaviors: open field activity, play behavior, running wheel activity, and consumption of saccharin- and sodium chloride-flavored solutions. Consumption of the salt solution was affected by genistein, with animals in the 1250-ppm group drinking significantly more than controls; consumption of plain water was unaffected. Genistein treatment also significantly affected play behavior; although no treated group was significantly different from controls, and the effect was not sexually dimorphic. Running wheel activity and saccharin solution consumption showed significant sex differences, but no effects of genistein treatment. Gestational duration, total and live pups per litter, and total and live litter sex ratios were not significantly affected by genistein. However, average weight per live pup at birth and offspring body weights from PND 42-77 were significantly decreased in the 1250-ppm group. Body weight and food intake for the dams were also significantly decreased in the 1250-ppm group. These results indicate that developmental genistein treatment, at levels that decrease maternal and offspring body weight, causes subtle alterations in some sexually dimorphic behaviors.  (+info)

(8/371) Growth and endocrine function in children with acute myeloid leukaemia after bone marrow transplantation using busulfan/cyclophosphamide.

Longitudinal studies of growth and endocrine function of children with AML transplanted with BUCY are limited. We report a cohort of 23 children with AML transplanted (15 autologous and eight allogeneic) following a single chemotherapy protocol and surviving at least 2 years after BMT. Busulfan was given as a single daily dose. Growth and endocrine function was evaluated yearly from one up to 10 years post transplant (median 4.9 years). The mean height standard deviation score (HtSDS) of the entire group decreased from 0.01 (s.e.m. +/- 0.25) at diagnosis to -0.38 (+/- 0.28) at BMT (P = 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between HtSDS at BMT and yearly HtSDS from 1 to 5 years post BMT. There was no significant relationship between age at BMT and subsequent change in HtSDS. To date, five of six girls have needed sex steroid replacement. Six of 12 evaluable boys had abnormal gonadotrophins, but none required sex steroid replacement. Children with AML who undergo BMT with BUCY show no significant growth impairment, but gonadal dysfunction is prominent, particularly in girls. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000).  (+info)


  • The endocrine system is the body's network of glands that produce more than fifty different known hormones or chemical messengers to maintain and regulate basic bodily functions. (faqs.org)
  • Most endocrine tissues are glands (such as the thyroid gland) that release hormones directly into small blood vessels within and around the tissue. (merckvetmanual.com)


  • This book is a comprehensive, easy-to-read discussion of the organ-specific autoimmune endocrine diseases emphasizing new contributions and trends for research and management. (alldiscountbooks.net)
  • It begins with a brief chapter introducing the general principles of immunology, followed by discussions covering topics such as immunogenetics and animal models and how they can be applied toward interpreting human autoimmune endocrine diseases, autoimmune thyroid diseases, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus hypophysitis, and Addison's disease. (alldiscountbooks.net)
  • It is well-illustrated and will prove to be a useful reference source for internists, endocrinologists, and postgraduate students interested in human autoimmune endocrine diseases. (alldiscountbooks.net)


  • Whereas nerve impulses from the nervous system immediately prod the body into action, hormones from the endocrine system act more slowly to achieve their widespread and varied effects. (faqs.org)


  • The bodily processes regulated by the endocrine system go on for relatively long periods of time. (faqs.org)
  • These life processes include growth and development, reproduction, immunity (the body's ability to resist disease), and homeostasis (the body's ability to maintain the balance of its internal functions). (faqs.org)


  • If the disorder is secondary to anterior pituitary disease, the gonad-stimulating hormone should be administered. (faqs.org)


  • It is second only to the nervous system as the great controlling system of the body. (faqs.org)
  • The body monitors and adjusts the level of each hormone by using a feedback system specifically for that hormone. (merckvetmanual.com)


  • This is a phase 3, open-label, randomized study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Lilly/Alkermes inhaled insulin system compared to injected pre-meal insulin in non-smoking patients with type 1 diabetes. (clinicaltrials.gov)


  • The primary disease is usually treated by surgery, and testosterone may be given. (faqs.org)
  • It is not a disease and should not be treated with testosterone. (faqs.org)


  • A sudden decrease in sexual drive or performance may be caused by disease, trauma, or emotional factors. (faqs.org)