Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Opiate Alkaloids: Alkaloids found in OPIUM from PAPAVER that induce analgesic and narcotic effects by action upon OPIOID RECEPTORS.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Enteroendocrine Cells: Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Neuroimmunomodulation: The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Frasier Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE and GONADAL DYSGENESIS in phenotypic females with karyotype of 46,XY or female individual with a normal 46,XX karyotype. It is caused by donor splice-site mutations of Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) on chromosome 11.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia: A group of autosomal dominant diseases characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors involving two or more ENDOCRINE GLANDS that secrete PEPTIDE HORMONES or AMINES. These neoplasias are often benign but can be malignant. They are classified by the endocrine glands involved and the degree of aggressiveness. The two major forms are MEN1 and MEN2 with gene mutations on CHROMOSOME 11 and CHROMOSOME 10, respectively.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia characterized by the presence of medullary carcinoma (CARCINOMA, MEDULLARY) of the THYROID GLAND, and usually with the co-occurrence of PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA, producing CALCITONIN and ADRENALINE, respectively. Less frequently, it can occur with hyperplasia or adenoma of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. This disease is due to gain-of-function mutations of the MEN2 gene on CHROMOSOME 10 (Locus: 10q11.2), also known as the RET proto-oncogene that encodes a RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disease.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b: Similar to MEN2A, it is also caused by mutations of the MEN2 gene, also known as the RET proto-oncogene. Its clinical symptoms include medullary carcinoma (CARCINOMA, MEDULLARY) of THYROID GLAND and PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of ADRENAL MEDULLA (50%). Unlike MEN2a, MEN2b does not involve PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It can be distinguished from MEN2A by its neural abnormalities such as mucosal NEUROMAS on EYELIDS; LIP; and TONGUE, and ganglioneuromatosis of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT leading to MEGACOLON. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disease.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pancreatic Polypeptide: A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.

*  AIPMT PMT Endocrine System MCQs for Medical Entrance Exams

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*  3.3 TheRoleOfHormoneInHuman | Endocrine System | Hormone

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*  Answers: Endocrine System

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*  Evaluation of Patients With Endocrine-Related Conditions - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

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*  endocrine system | anatomy | Britannica.com

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*  HS35 Harmonizing the Endocrine System

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*  Which gland in the endocrine system serves to control and regulate the other glands? | eNotes

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*  Endocrine System. - WriteWork

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*  The Endocrine System - body, effects, parts, disease, care

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*  Endocrine System

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*  Hormones And The Endocrine System Guide Answers Free PDF Library

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*  The endocrine system

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*  Endocrine System

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*  Bio Ch 5

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*  Anatomy Week 7: Endocrine System Flashcards - Cram.com

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*  General Considerations In Endocrinology And The Endocrine System | HubPages

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*  Endocrine System - 4 My Dollar

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*  The Endocrine System

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*  Endocrine System by on Prezi

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*  Endocrine System: MedlinePlus

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*  Chronic Protein Deficiency In Horses | The Equine Practice, Inc

... immune system charging, systems processing, and more? Proteins are essential for everything in you and your horse's lives and ... Take this issue X years and at some point metabolic disease and or endocrine issues … or both will raise their ugly head. Not ... At first glance, you would assume that your horse is deficient in only EAA #3. In reality mammals have a system where if one ... a training or conditioning system). But without the nails (EAA's), no barn is built (the horse breaks down). ...
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*  Nutritional requirements in advanced cancer patients | OncologyPRO

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*  Comparison of the Change in Fat Distribution in Overweight and Obese Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes After Insulin Treatment -...

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Endocrine glandBMC Endocrine Disorders: BMC Endocrine Disorders is an open access peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original research articles in all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of endocrine disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.References ==Hormone: A hormone (from Greek , "impetus") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3 classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins).Endocrine Research: Endocrine Research is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers endocrinology in the broadest context. Subjects of interest include: receptors and mechanism of action of hormones, methodological advances in the detection and measurement of hormones; structure and chemical properties of hormones.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Enteroendocrine cellAlligatorFrasier syndrome: Frasier syndrome is a urogenital anomaly associated with the WT1 (Wilms tumor 1 gene) gene.Follicular cellBifemelaneToxicityXenobiotic: A xenobiotic is a foreign chemical substance found within an organism that is not normally naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism. It can also cover substances which are present in much higher concentrations than are usual.Prenatal testosterone transfer: Prenatal Testosterone Transfer (also known as prenatal androgen transfer or prenatal hormone transfer) refers to the phenomenon in which testosterone synthesized by a developing male fetus transfers to one or more developing fetuses within the womb and influences development. This typically results in the partial masculinization of specific aspects of female behavior, cognition, and morphology, though some studies have found that testosterone transfer can cause an exaggerated masculinization in males.Multiple endocrine neoplasiaCongenital estrogen deficiency: Congenital estrogen deficiency is a genetic condition by which the body is unable to produce or use estrogens.Vitamin DAlkylphenolPesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Estradiol cypionate: Estradiol cypionate (INN, USAN) (brand names Depo-Estradiol, Depofemin, Estradep, and many others), or estradiol cipionate, is a synthetic ester, specifically the 3-cyclopentylpropanoyl ester, of the natural estrogen, estradiol. It was first introduced in 1952 by Upjohn in the United States, and has been in widespread use since.Prolactin cellAlcohol and cortisol: Recent research has looked into the effects of alcohol on the amount of cortisol that is produced in the human body. Continuous consumption of alcohol over an extended period of time has been shown to raise cortisol levels in the body.Somatotropic cellBlood–testis barrier: The blood–testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubule and as such isolates the further developed stages of germ cells from the blood.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Pancreatic bud: The ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds (or pancreatic diverticula) are outgrowths of the duodenum during human embryogenesis. They join together to form the adult pancreas.Pine Islet LightConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GICalcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Coles PhillipsUR-AK49

(1/572) Effect of chronic high-dose exogenous cortisol on hippocampal neuronal number in aged nonhuman primates.

Chronic exposure to increased glucocorticoid concentrations appears to lower the threshold for hippocampal neuronal degeneration in the old rat. It has been proposed that increased brain exposure to glucocorticoids may lower the threshold for hippocampal neuronal degeneration in human aging and Alzheimer's disease. Here, we asked whether chronic administration of high-dose cortisol to older nonhuman primates decreases hippocampal neuronal number as assessed by unbiased stereological counting methodology. Sixteen Macaca nemestrina (pigtailed macaques) from 18 to 29 years of age were age-, sex-, and weight-matched into pairs and randomized to receive either high-dose oral hydrocortisone (cortisol) acetate (4-6 mg/kg/d) or placebo in twice daily palatable treats for 12 months. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity was monitored by measuring plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol, 24 hr urinary cortisol, and CSF cortisol. Urinary, plasma, and CSF cortisol were elevated, and plasma adrenocorticotropin was reduced in the active treatment group. Total hippocampal volume, subfield volumes, subfield neuronal density, and subfield total neuronal number did not differ between the experimental groups. These findings suggest that chronically elevated cortisol concentrations, in the absence of stress, do not produce hippocampal neuronal loss in nonhuman primates.  (+info)

(2/572) Effects of dioxins on human health: a review.

The toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) has been known since 1950s. TCDD is a by-product of herbicide 2,4-dichloroacetophenol (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichloroacetophenol (2,4,5-T), but it was first found in fryash of municipal incinerator in 1979 in Japan. In 1998, the survey of municipal incinerators revealed that 105 out of 1,641 produced above the allowed emission level of 80 ng TEQ/m3. Total annual release of dioxins is estimated to be about 5,000 g TEQ in 1997 in Japan. Japanese government started a comprehensive survey for dioxin levels in milk and blood of residents around incinerators, and their health effects. Human effects by dioxin exposures in Western countries were mostly acute and at high level in accidentally and/or occupationally. Health effects of low-dose and long lasting exposure has not been well understood. Certain amount of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is accumulated in our body. Mother's milk is also contaminated by PCDD/PCDF. Health effects of the polychlorinated chemicals are summarized, and the necessity of regulations and recommendations for making a guideline is discussed in this review.  (+info)

(3/572) Review of psychosocial stress and asthma: an integrated biopsychosocial approach.

Environmental stressors may impact asthma morbidity through neuroimmunological mechanisms which are adversely impacted and/or buffered y social networks, social support, and psychological functioning. In addition, life stress may impact on health beliefs and behaviours that may affect asthma management. Whereas earlier psychosomatic models have supported a role for psychological stress in contributing to variable asthma morbidity among those with existing disease, a growing appreciation of the interactions between behavioural, neural, endocrine, and immune processes suggest a role for these psychosocial factors in the genesis of asthma as well. While a causal link between stress and asthma has not bee established, this review provides a framework in which we can begin to see links between these systems that might provide new insights to guide future explorations. The complexity of these interactions underscore the need for a multidisciplinary approach which combines the idea that the origin of asthma is purely psychogenic in nature with the antithetical consideration that the biological aspects are all important. These distinctions are artificial, and future research that synthesizes biological, psychological, sociocultural, and family parameters is urgently needed to further our understanding of the rising burden of asthma.  (+info)

(4/572) Does an association between pesticide use and subsequent declines in catch of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) represent a case of endocrine disruption?

Historical aerial applications of the insecticide Matacil 1.8D provide an opportunity to look for potential effects of the endocrine disrupting compound 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations. Matacil 1.8D contained the carbamate insecticide aminocarb, with 4-NP as primary solvent. Between 1975 and 1985 Matacil 1.8D was applied to forests in Atlantic Canada to control damage from the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana). After spraying, estimated concentrations of 4-NP in water fell within a range in which estrogenic effects might be anticipated. The spraying coincided with final stages of smolt development in salmon. Salmon catch data were evaluated considering effects on survival of the smolt stage. There was a significant negative relationship between the returns of salmon and the proportion of tributaries sprayed within the Restigouche River drainage basin in 1977. There was also a broader event of unusually heavy salmon smolt mortality in 1977, which contains a significant relationship indicating that where Matacil 1.8D spraying occurred, the smolt mortality increased. For 16 rivers exposed to spraying between 1973 and 1990, a significant proportion (p<0.005) of the lowest salmon catches coincided with Matacil 1.8D spraying. A decline coinciding with the use of Matacil 1.8D was also apparent in blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) catches in New Brunswick. Because similar relationships were not evident for Matacil 1.8F or fenitrothion, neither of which were formulated with 4-NP, we hypothesize that the 4-NP in Matacil 1.8D was the causal agent. Concentrations of 4-NP described here are within current ranges encountered in industrial effluents and municipal sewage outfalls.  (+info)

(5/572) Biological regulation of receptor-hormone complex concentrations in relation to dose-response assessments for endocrine-active compounds.

Some endocrine-active compounds (EACs) act as agonists or antagonists of specific hormones and may interfere with cellular control processes that regulate gene transcription. Many mechanisms controlling gene expression are universal to organisms ranging from unicellular bacteria to more complex plants and animals. One mechanism, coordinated control of batteries of gene products, is critical in adaptation of bacteria to new environments and for development and tissue differentiation in multi-cellular organisms. To coordinately activate sets of genes, all living organisms have devised molecular modules to permit transitions, or switching, between different functional states over a small range of hormone concentration, and other modules to stabilize the new state through homeostatic interactions. Both switching and homeostasis are regulated by controlling concentrations of hormone-receptor complexes. Molecular control processes for switching and homeostasis are inherently nonlinear and often utilize autoregulatory feedback loops. Among the biological processes contributing to switching phenomena are receptor autoinduction, induction of enzymes for ligand synthesis, mRNA stabilization/activation, and receptor polymerization. This paper discusses a variety of molecular switches found in animal species, devises simple quantitative models illustrating roles of specific molecular interactions in creating switching modules, and outlines the impact of these switching processes and other feedback loops for risk assessments with EACs. Quantitative simulation modeling of these switching mechanisms made it apparent that highly nonlinear dose-response curves for hormones and EACs readily arise from interactions of several linear processes acting in concert on a common control point. These nonlinear mechanisms involve amplification of response, rather than multimeric molecular interactions as in conventional Hill relationships.  (+info)

(6/572) Localized expression of aromatase in human vascular tissues.

The atheroprotective effects of estrogen are well established and the presence of an estrogen receptor in vascular tissues has recently been reported. Therefore, we investigated the localization of the estrogen-producing enzyme aromatase in vascular tissues to assess the possible contribution of endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine modes of action. Aromatase was found in human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) but not in endothelial cells on in situ hybridization. These observations were further supported by quantitative analysis of aromatase mRNA and the activity in 15 human vascular specimens. Only trace levels of expression were detected in the 3 infants examined, whereas 0.0088 to 0.0806 amol/ microg RNA of aromatase mRNA and 12.9 to 122.3 fmol. h-1. mg-1 protein of the activity were detected in 12 of the adult individuals. The switching of tissue-specific exon 1 of the human aromatase gene was also observed in some cases. Aromatase was found to be expressed only in cultured SMCs and not in cultured endothelial cells of human aorta and pulmonary artery and to be regulated through dexamethasone and the signaling pathways of protein kinase A and C. Study results revealed the localized expression of aromatase in vascular SMCs, which indicated a possible direct action of locally produced estrogen in an autocrine or paracrine manner, with possible cross talk between smooth muscle and endothelial cells.  (+info)

(7/572) An approach to the development of quantitative models to assess the effects of exposure to environmentally relevant levels of endocrine disruptors on homeostasis in adults.

The workshop "Characterizing the Effects of Endocrine Disruptors on Human Health at Environmental Exposure Levels" was held to provide a forum for discussions and recommendations of methods and data needed to improve risk assessments of endocrine disruptors. This article was produced by a working group charged with determining the basic mechanistic information that should be considered when designing models to quantitatively assess potential risks of environmental endocrine disruptors in adults. To reach this goal, we initially identified a set of potential organ system toxicities in males and females on the basis of known and/or suspected effects of endocrine disruptors on estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone systems. We used this integrated, systems-level approach because endocrine disruptors have the potential to exert toxicities at many levels and by many molecular mechanisms. Because a detailed analysis of all these untoward effects was beyond the scope of this workshop, we selected the specific end point of testicular function for a more detailed analysis. The goal was to identify the information required to develop a quantitative model(s) of the effects of endocrine disruptors on this system while focusing on spermatogenesis, sperm characteristics, and testicular steroidogenesis as specific markers. Testicular function was selected because it is a prototypical integrated end point that can be affected adversely by individual endocrine disruptors or chemical mixtures acting at one specific site or at multiple sites. Our specific objective was to gather the information needed to develop models in the adult organism containing functional homeostatic mechanisms, and for this reason we did not consider possible developmental toxicities. Homeostatic mechanisms have the potential to ameliorate or lessen the effects of endocrine disruptors, but these pathways are also potential target sites for the actions of these chemicals.  (+info)

(8/572) Evaluating the effects of endocrine disruptors on endocrine function during development.

The major concerns with endocrine disruptors in the environment are based mostly on effects that have been observed on the developing embryo and fetus. The focus of the present manuscript is on disruption of three hormonal systems: estrogens, androgens, and thyroid hormones. These three hormonal systems have been well characterized with regard to their roles in normal development, and their actions during development are known to be perturbed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals. During development, organs are especially sensitive to low concentrations of the sex steroids and thyroid hormones. Changes induced by exposure to these hormones during development are often irreversible, in contrast with the reversible changes induced by transient hormone exposure in the adult. Although it is known that there are differences in embryonic/fetal/neonatal versus adult endocrine responses, minimal experimental information is available to aid in characterizing the risk of endocrine disruptors with regard to a number of issues. Issues discussed here include the hypothesis of greater sensitivity of embryos/fetuses to endocrine disruptors, irreversible consequences of exposure before maturation of homeostatic systems and during periods of genetic imprinting, and quantitative information related to the shape of the dose-response curve for specific developmental phenomena.  (+info)



glands


  • The foundations of the endocrine system are the hormones and glands. (kidshealth.org)
  • Endocrine glands , on the other hand, release more than 20 major hormones directly into the bloodstream where they can be transported to cells in other parts of the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • It's often called the "master gland" because it makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands. (kidshealth.org)
  • Endocrine glands are ductless glands. (slideshare.net)
  • Major Endocrine Glands and their Products A. Pituitary gland - grape sized hangs by a stalk from the hypothalamus has two functional lobes - anterior and posterior 1. (slideshare.net)
  • The anterior pituitary is sometimes called the master endocrine gland because controls the activity of so many other glands. (slideshare.net)
  • Such a system may range, at its simplest, from the neurosecretory, involving one or more centres in the nervous system , to the complex array of glands found in the human endocrine system . (britannica.com)
  • The glands of the human endocrine system. (britannica.com)
  • that is, primitive animals have served as relatively simple, sensitive indicators of the amount of hormone activity in extracts prepared from mammalian endocrine glands. (britannica.com)
  • True endocrine glands probably evolved later in the evolutionary history of the animal kingdom as separate, hormone-secreting structures. (britannica.com)
  • Some of the cells of these endocrine glands are derived from nerve cells that migrated during the process of evolution from the nervous system to various locations in the body. (britannica.com)
  • These independent endocrine glands have been described only in arthropods (where neurohormones are still the dominant type of endocrine messenger) and in vertebrates (where they are best developed). (britannica.com)
  • The endocrine system is the body's network of glands that produce more than fifty different known hormones or chemical messengers to maintain and regulate basic bodily functions. (faqs.org)
  • 10. For each of the following body regions, describe 2 endocrine glands, their hormonal secretions, and the hormone's actions: the head, the neck, the thoracic cavity, and the abdominopelvic cavity. (cuny.edu)
  • the lacrimal gland secretes tears through the lacrimal duct onto the eye's surface), endocrine glands have no ducts - they are ductless glands. (cuny.edu)
  • The endocrine system is like a symphony with several glands working both alone and together to orchestrate bodily functions. (healthy.net)
  • The hypothalamus sends special hormones called releasing factors to the pituitary instructing it how to manage the other endocrine glands. (healthy.net)
  • The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Usually no larger than a pea, the gland controls many functions of the other endocrine glands. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Though the components of the endocrine system can be conventionally classified into separate groups, based on their anatomy and location, the explosion of information in this field has brought to light several other tissues which have endocrine function in addition to the well recognized glands. (hubpages.com)
  • The endocrine system and its glands are of huge significance to Man, as they facilitate basic metabolic processes which sustain Man and keep him alive. (hubpages.com)

gland


  • Although it is no bigger than a pea, the pituitary (pronounced: puh-TOO-uh-ter-ee) gland , located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus, is considered the most important part of the endocrine system. (kidshealth.org)
  • 1. Explain the difference between an endocrine and an exocrine gland. (cuny.edu)
  • 9. Describe the interactions occurring within each of the following endocrine gland axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. (cuny.edu)
  • When the hormone from an endocrine gland circulates in the blood, it travels far from the endocrine gland that secreted it. (cuny.edu)
  • The conductor of the endocrine system is the anterior pituitary gland, nestled at the base of the brain. (healthy.net)
  • Each endocrine gland plays a distinct role in your body, but these actions overlap and therefore affect one another too. (healthy.net)
  • Although part of the endocrine system, the pineal gland isn't a gland per se. (healthy.net)

tissues


  • For example, one of the most intensively studied systems for understanding hormone actions on target tissues has been the receptors for progesterone and estrogens (hormones secreted by the gonads) from the oviducts of chickens. (britannica.com)
  • In addition to organized tissues like thyroid and adrenal which are composed of groups of endocrine cells, many tissues like the gut and brain are provided with single cells which secrete hormones. (hubpages.com)

body's


  • The endocrine system uses hormones to control and coordinate your body's internal metabolism (or homeostasis) energy level, reproduction, growth and development, and response to injury, stress, and environmental factors. (hopkinsmedicine.org)

hormone


  • Finally, some vertebrate and invertebrate animals have provided "model systems" for research that have yielded valuable information on the nature of hormone receptors and the mechanisms of hormone action. (britannica.com)

Disorders


  • Fatigue is one symptom that many endocrine disorders have in common. (healthy.net)
  • Endocrine dysfunction may manifest as overt clinical disorders such as Cushing's syndrome and acromegaly or silent biochemical abnormalities like hyperglycemia or failure of control mechanisms as in gonadal disturbances. (hubpages.com)

Diseases


  • The remarkable kinetics of hormones production are also shown, before the book is rounded out by chapters on evolution in the endocrine system, the genetics of endocrine diseases and doping. (springer.com)

organs


  • The tool includes over 750 carcinogens that target 35 specific organs across 9 biological systems. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The central component of this system is formed by the brain-pituitary system and peripheral component is made up of scattered paracrine cells in many organs. (hubpages.com)

functions


  • Your body produces its own chemicals and uses them to control certain functions, and the main system that coordinates these chemicals is called the endocrine system . (kidshealth.org)

metabolism


  • The endocrine system plays a role in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, metabolism, and sexual function and reproductive processes. (kidshealth.org)

Nerve


  • Whereas nerve impulses from the nervous system immediately prod the body into action, hormones from the endocrine system act more slowly to achieve their widespread and varied effects. (faqs.org)

thyroid


  • The paracrine system is seen mainly in the gastrointestinal tract, adrenal medulla and the 'c' cells of thyroid. (hubpages.com)

nervous system


  • Faster processes like breathing and body movement are controlled by the nervous system. (kidshealth.org)
  • But even though the nervous system and endocrine system are separate systems, they often work together to help the body function properly. (kidshealth.org)
  • The pituitary also secretes endorphins (pronounced: en-DOR-fins), chemicals that act on the nervous system and reduce feelings of pain. (kidshealth.org)
  • It is second only to the nervous system as the great controlling system of the body. (faqs.org)

hypothalamus


  • The hypothalamus (pronounced: hi-po-THAL-uh-mus), a collection of specialized cells that is located in the lower central part of the brain, is the main link between the endocrine and nervous systems. (kidshealth.org)

processes


  • In general, the endocrine system is in charge of body processes that happen slowly, such as cell growth. (kidshealth.org)
  • The bodily processes regulated by the endocrine system go on for relatively long periods of time. (faqs.org)

messengers


  • The effector arms of the endocrine system are hormones or chemical messengers which are secreted by specialized cells and released into circulation in response to specific signals. (hubpages.com)

evolution


  • Comparative endocrinologists investigate the evolution of endocrine systems and the role of these systems in animals' adaptation to their environments and their production of offspring. (britannica.com)

function


  • Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, it influences almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies. (kidshealth.org)

Health


  • Meridian Health, K. Hovnanian Children's Hospital and all related marks, logos, designs and slogans are registered and/or common-law trademarks and service marks of Meridian Health System, Inc. (kidshealth.org)

production


  • Endocrine system , any of the systems found in animals for the production of hormones, substances that regulate the functioning of the organism. (britannica.com)

natural


  • An understanding of how the endocrine system is regulated in nonmammals also provides essential information for regulating natural populations or captive animals. (britannica.com)
  • Once you've discovered the source of your fatigue--whether it's endocrine related or not--there are many natural remedies you can try under the guidance of a professional. (healthy.net)