Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Expressed Emotion: Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Emotional Intelligence: The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Anger: A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Social Control, Informal: Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Kinesics: Systematic study of the body and the use of its static and dynamic position as a means of communication.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Repression, Psychology: The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Shame: An emotional attitude excited by realization of a shortcoming or impropriety.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Frustration: The motivational and/or affective state resulting from being blocked, thwarted, disappointed or defeated.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Defense Mechanisms: Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.Psychophysiology: The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Guilt: Subjective feeling of having committed an error, offense or sin; unpleasant feeling of self-criticism. These result from acts, impulses, or thoughts contrary to one's personal conscience.Rejection (Psychology): Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Tape Recording: Recording of information on magnetic or punched paper tape.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Negativism: State of mind or behavior characterized by extreme skepticism and persistent opposition or resistance to outside suggestions or advice. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Irritable Mood: Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Unconscious (Psychology): Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Resilience, Psychological: The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Laughter: An involuntary expression of merriment and pleasure; it includes the patterned motor responses as well as the inarticulate vocalization.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Emotion and memory: Emotion can have a powerful response on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.Emotional responsivity: Emotional responsivity refers to the ability to acknowledge an affective stimuli by exhibiting emotion. Any response, whether it is appropriate or not, would showcase the presence of this phenomena.Manas Kumar Mandal: Manas Kumar Mandal, is a scientist and psychologist who is the former director of the Defence Institute of Psychological Research, Delhi, India since January 5, 2004 to February, 2013. Presently he is Chief Controller (Life Sciences), Defence Research and Development Organisation; India.Happiness at work: Despite a large body of positive psychological research into the relationship between happiness and productivity,Carr, A.: "Positive Psychology: The Science of Happiness and Human Strengths" Hove, Brunner-Routledge 2004Isen, A.Angels Anger Overkill: Angels Anger Overkill is In Strict Confidence's 3rd full-length album.Simulation theory of empathy: Simulation theory of empathy is a theory that holds that humans anticipate and make sense of the behavior of others by activating mental processes that, if carried into action, would produce similar behavior. This includes intentional behavior as well as the expression of emotions.Timothy's Law: Timothy's Law is the reference used for a New York state statute signed into law on December 22, 2006 by Governor George E. Pataki which took effect January 1, 2007.Fritz Heider: Fritz Heider (February 19, 1896 – January 2, 1988)American Psychologist., "Fritz Heider (1896 - 1988)".Low arousal theory: Low arousal}}HyperintensityCat behaviorFear conditioning: Fear conditioning is a behavioral paradigm in which organisms learn to predict aversive events. It is a form of learning in which an aversive stimulus (e.Motivated forgetting: Motivated forgetting is a theorized psychological behavior in which people may forget unwanted memories, either consciously or unconsciously. It is not a defence mechanism, since these are unconscious coping techniques used to reduce anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful impulses.Biosignal: A biosignal is any signal in living beings that can be continually measured and monitored. The term biosignal is often used to refer to bioelectrical signals, but it may refer to both electrical and non-electrical signals.Face.com: Face.com was a Tel Aviv-based technology company that developed a platform for efficient and accurate facial recognition in photos uploaded via web and mobile applications.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Voice changer: The term voice changer (also known as voice enhancer) refers to a system of altering a person's voice to either make them sound like someone else or to disguise their voice.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Gary H. Posner: Gary H. Posner (born c.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.More Joy, Less ShameHypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Continuous flash suppression: Continuous flash suppression (CFS) is an adapted version of the original flash suppression method. In CFS, the first eye is presented with a static stimulus, such as a schematic face, while the second eye is presented with a series of rapidly changing stimuli.Music of Israel: The music of Israel is a combination of Jewish and non-Jewish music traditions that have come together over the course of a century to create a distinctive musical culture. For almost 150 years, musicians have sought original stylistic elements that would define the emerging national spirit.Geometrical frustration: In condensed matter physics, the term geometrical frustration (or in short: frustrationThe psychological side of this problem is treated in a different article, frustration) refers to a phenomenon, where atoms tend to stick to non-trivial positions or where, on a regular crystal lattice, conflicting inter-atomic forces (each one favoring rather simple, but different structures) lead to quite complex structures. As a consequence of the frustration in the geometry or in the forces, a plenitude of distinct ground states may result at zero temperature, and usual thermal ordering may be suppressed at higher temperatures.Psychophysiology: Psychophysiology (from Greek , psȳkhē, "breath, life, soul"; , physis, "nature, origin"; and , [is the branch of psychology] that is concerned with the [[physiology|physiological bases of psychological processes. While psychophysiology was a general broad field of research in the 1960s and 1970s, it has now become quite specialized, and has branched into subspecializations such as social psychophysiology, cardiovascular psychophysiology, cognitive psychophysiology, and cognitive neuroscience.Dyssemia: Dyssemia is a difficulty with receptive and/or expressive nonverbal communication. The word comes from the Greek roots dys (difficulty) and semia (signal).Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Image fusion: In computer vision, Multisensor Image fusion is the process of combining relevant information from two or more images into a single image.Haghighat, M.Vincible ignorance: Vincible ignorance is, in Catholic ethics, a moral or doctrinal matter that could have been removed by diligence reasonable to the circumstances. It contrasts with invincible ignorance, which can not be removed at all, or only by supererogatory efforts (i.Atypical depressionImmaculate perception: The expression immaculate perception has been used in various senses by various philosophers.Cingulate sulcus: The cingulate sulcus is a sulcus (brain fold) on the medial wall of the cerebral cortex. The frontal and parietal lobes are separated from the cingulate gyrus by the cingulate sulcus.Preservation of magnetic audiotape: Preservation of magnetic audiotape involves techniques for handling, cleaning and storage of magnetic audiotapes in an archival repository. Multiple types of magnetic media exist but are mainly in the form of open reels or enclosed cassettes.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Religion and schizophrenia: == Background ==I Love You Love Me Love: "I Love You Love Me Love" was a popular song by Gary Glitter. Written by Gary Glitter and Mike Leander and produced by Mike Leander, "I Love You Love Me Love" was Glitter's second number one single in the UK Singles Chart, spending four weeks at the top of the chart in November 1973, and establishing itself as Britain's best-selling single in 1973.Cue stick: A cue stick (or simply cue, more specifically pool cue, snooker cue, or billiards cue), is an item of sporting equipment essential to the games of pool, snooker and carom billiards. It is used to strike a ball, usually the .Morality and religion: Morality and religion is the relationship between religious views and morals. Many religions have value frameworks regarding personal behavior meant to guide adherents in determining between right and wrong.Positive affectivity: Positive affectivity is a characteristic that describes how animals and humans experience positive emotions and interact with others and with their surroundings.Naragon, K.The Art of Negative Thinking: The Art of Negative Thinking (Norwegian: Kunsten å tenke negativt) is a 2006 Norwegian black comedy film directed and written by Bård Breien. The storyline revolves around a man (played by Fridtjov Såheim) who is adjusting to life in a wheelchair, and the socializing group he is made to join.Bicameralism (psychology): Bicameralism (the philosophy of "two-chamberedness") is a hypothesis in psychology that argues that the human mind once assumed a state in which cognitive functions were divided between one part of the brain which appears to be "speaking", and a second part which listens and obeys—a bicameral mind. The term was coined by Julian Jaynes, who presented the idea in his 1976 book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, wherein he made the case that a bicameral mentality came to be the normal and ubiquitous state of the human mind until as recently as 3000 years ago.Unconscious cognition: Unconscious cognition is the processing of perception, memory, learning, thought, and language without being aware of it.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Giulio Maria Pasinetti: Giulio Maria Pasinetti is a U.S.Cerebral hemisphere: The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.Death from laughter: Death from laughter refers to a rare instance of death, usually resulting from cardiac arrest or asphyxiation, caused by a fit of laughter. Instances of death by laughter have been recorded from the times of Ancient Greece to the modern day.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Bipolar disorderMotion Picture Association of America film rating systemMiddle frontal gyrus: The middle frontal gyrus makes up about one-third of the frontal lobe of the human brain. (A gyrus is one of the prominent "bumps" or "ridges" on the surface of the human brain.Social anxiety disorderConscientiousness: Conscientiousness is the personality trait of being thorough, careful, or vigilant. Conscientiousness implies a desire to do a task well.Claustrophobia: Claustrophobia is the fear of having no escape and being in closed or small space or room It is typically classified as an anxiety disorder and often results in panic attack, and can be the result of many situations or stimuli, including elevators crowded to capacity, windowless rooms, and even tight-necked clothing. The onset of claustrophobia has been attributed to many factors, including a reduction in the size of the amygdala, classical conditioning, or a genetic predisposition to fear small spaces.Quantitative electroencephalography: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.Hyperthymic temperament: Hyperthymic temperament, or hyperthymia, from Greek hyper ("over", meaning here excessive) + θυμός ("spirited"), is a proposed personality type characterized by an excessively positive disposition similar to, but more stable than, the hypomania of bipolar disorder.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Print permanence: Print permanence refers to the longevity of printed material, especially photographs, and preservation issues. Over time, the optical density, color balance, lustre, and other qualities of a print will degrade.
(1/4689) Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation suppresses learning-induced synaptic elimination.
Auditory filial imprinting in the domestic chicken is accompanied by a dramatic loss of spine synapses in two higher associative forebrain areas, the mediorostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) and the dorsocaudal neostriatum (Ndc). The cellular mechanisms that underlie this learning-induced synaptic reorganization are unclear. We found that local pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the MNH, a manipulation that has been shown previously to impair auditory imprinting, suppresses the learning-induced spine reduction in this region. Chicks treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) during the behavioral training for imprinting (postnatal day 0-2) displayed similar spine frequencies at postnatal day 7 as naive control animals, which, in both groups, were significantly higher than in imprinted animals. Because the average dendritic length did not differ between the experimental groups, the reduced spine frequency can be interpreted as a reduction of the total number of spine synapses per neuron. In the Ndc, which is reciprocally connected with the MNH and not directly influenced by the injected drug, learning-induced spine elimination was partly suppressed. Spine frequencies of the APV-treated, behaviorally trained but nonimprinted animals were higher than in the imprinted animals but lower than in the naive animals. These results provide evidence that NMDA receptor activation is required for the learning-induced selective reduction of spine synapses, which may serve as a mechanism of information storage specific for juvenile emotional learning events. (+info)
(2/4689) Level of chronic life stress predicts clinical outcome in irritable bowel syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Life stress contributes to symptom onset and exacerbation in the majority of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD); research evidence is conflicting, however, as to the strength of these effects. AIMS: To test prospectively the relation of chronic life stress threat to subsequent symptom intensity over time. PATIENTS: One hundred and seventeen consecutive outpatients satisfying the modified Rome criteria for IBS (66% with one or more concurrent FD syndromes) participated. METHODS: The life stress and symptom intensity measures were determined from interview data collected independently at entry, and at six and 16 months; these measures assessed the potency of chronic life stress threat during the prior six months or more, and the severity and frequency of IBS and FD symptoms during the following two weeks. RESULTS: Chronic life stress threat was a powerful predictor of subsequent symptom intensity, explaining 97% of the variance on this measure over 16 months. No patient exposed to even one chronic highly threatening stressor improved clinically (by 50%) over the 16 months; all patients who improved did so in the absence of such a stressor. CONCLUSION: The level of chronic life stress threat predicts the clinical outcome in most patients with IBS/FD. (+info)
(3/4689) Receptor binding, behavioral, and electrophysiological profiles of nonpeptide corticotropin-releasing factor subtype 1 receptor antagonists CRA1000 and CRA1001.
Receptor binding, behavioral, and electrophysiological profiles of 2-[N-(2-methylthio-4-isopropylphenyl)-N-ethylamino]-4-[4-(3-flu orophe nyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-1-yl)-6-methylpyrimidine (CRA1000) and 2-[N-(2-bromo-4-isopropylphenyl)-N-ethylamino]-4-[4-(3-fluoropheny l)- 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-1-yl)-6-methylpyrimidine (CRA1001), putative novel and selective antagonists for corticotropin-releasing factor1 (CRF1) receptor were examined. Both CRA1000 and CRA1001 inhibited 125I-ovine CRF binding to membranes of rat frontal cortex with IC50 values of 20.6 and 22.3 nM, respectively. Likewise, CRA1000 and CRA1001 inhibited 125I-ovine CRF binding to membranes of rat pituitary. In contrast, both CRA1000 and CRA1001 were without affinity for the CRF2beta receptor when examined using rat heart. In mice orally administered CRA1000 and CRA1001 reversed the swim stress-induced reduction of the time spent in the light area in the light/dark exploration task. In nonstress conditions, CRA1000 and CRA1001 were without effect on the time spent in the light area in the same task in mice. Orally administered CRA1000 and CRA1001 dose dependently reversed the effects of i.c.v. infusion of CRF on time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus-maze in rats. Lesioning of olfactory bulbs induced hyperemotionality, and this effect was inhibited by either acute or chronic oral administration of CRA1000 and CRA1001 in rats. The firing rate of locus coeruleus neurons was increased by i.c.v.-infused CRF. This excitation of locus coeruleus neurons was significantly blocked by pretreatment with i.v. administration of CRA1000 and CRA1001. CRA1000 and CRA1001 had no effects on the hexobarbital-induced anesthesia in mice, the rotarod test in mice, the spontaneous locomotor activity in mice, and a passive avoidance task in rats. These observations indicate that both CRA1000 and CRA1001 are selective and competitive CRF1 receptor antagonists with potent anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like properties in various experimental animal models, perhaps through inhibition of CRF1 receptors. CRA1000 and CRA1001 may prove effective for treating subjects with depression- and/or anxiety-related disorders without the side effects seen in the related currently prescribed medications. (+info)
(4/4689) Development and application of an index of social function.
Brief indexes of social function were constructed in a project to develop a health index questionnaire designed to measure the social, emotional, and physical function of free-living populations. The social function items have been found to be generally applicable, capable of application by lay interviewers, and acceptable to interviewees. Initial evaluations to form composite scores for social function items have demonstrated their validity against concurrent assessments of a health professional. These social function indexes have been successfully applied in two randomized trials of innovative primary care services. The criteria for inclusion of items in the social function index questionnaire, the generation of the instrument, and the evaluation of questionnaire responses for their validity are summarized here. (+info)
(5/4689) Emotional stress and characteristics of brain noradrenaline release in the rat.
We have investigated several characteristics of the rat brain noradrenaline (NA) release caused by various stressful situations. Stresses such as immobilization or electric foot shock, wherein the physical factors rather than emotional ones were greatly involved, caused more marked increases in NA release in the more extended brain regions, as compared to psychological stress and conditioned fear, which caused increases in NA release preferentially in the hypothalamus, amygdala and locus coeruleus (LC) region. When the electric shock stress and psychological stress for 1 hr daily were repeated for 5 consecutive days, increases in brain NA release induced by electric shock were rapidly reduced, but those caused by psychological stress were enhanced rather than reduced. Rats with no stressor controllability (uncontrollable) had more severe gastric lesions and more marked increases in NA release in such brain regions as the hypothalamus and amygdala after 21 hrs of training than controllable rats. Rats with no opportunity to predict electric shock exhibited more severe gastric lesions and more marked increases in hypothalamic NA release than the predictable rats. The rats not allowed to express their aggression had more severe gastric mucosal lesions and a more noticeable and persistent increases in extracellular NA content in the amygdala determined by intracerebral microdialysis than the rats allowed to express aggression by biting a wooden stick in front of them during stress exposure. In aged rats (12 months old), recovery from increases in NA release in the hypothalamus and amygdala and increases in plasma corticosterone were much later than in young (2-month-old) rats. When rats were exposed to a series of six 15-min stress interrupted by 18-min non-stress periods for 180 min, they had much greater increases in brain NA release than rats stressed continuously for 180 min. Based upon these findings, we suggest that such stresses might be harmful to our health as psychological, uncontrollable and unpredictable stresses, stress unable to express aggression, stress in elderly people, and stress with lack of suitable rest. (+info)
(6/4689) T-lymphocyte activation increases hypothalamic and amygdaloid expression of CRH mRNA and emotional reactivity to novelty.
Stimulation of T-cells with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) significantly elevates interleukin-2 (IL-2) and contemporaneous activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and c-fos in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of BALB/cByJ mice. Such neural signaling may promote cognitive and emotional adaptation before or during infectious illness. Because corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an anxiogenic neuropeptide that may mediate the stressor-like effects of immunological stimuli, we measured neuronal CRH mRNA alterations in mice challenged with SEB. Increased CRH mRNA levels were observed in the PVN and central nucleus of the amygdala (ceA) 4-6 hr after SEB administration. This was associated with plasma ACTH increases, which could be abrogated by the systemic administration of anti-CRH antiserum. Additional experiments did not support a role for IL-2 or prostaglandin synthesis in activating the HPA axis. Behavioral experiments testing for conditioned taste aversion did not confirm that SEB challenge promotes malaise. However, consistent with the notion that central CRH alterations induced by SEB may affect emotionality (e.g., fear), SEB challenge augmented appetitive neophobia in a context-dependent manner, being marked in a novel and stressful environment. It is hypothesized that immunological stimuli generate a cascade of events that solicit integrative neural processes involved in emotional behavior. As such, these data support the contention that affective illness may be influenced by immunological processes and the production of cytokines and are consistent with other evidence demonstrating that autoimmune reactivity is associated with enhanced emotionality. (+info)
(7/4689) Coping with infertility: distress and changes in sperm quality.
Infertility represents a serious stressor for some patients as well as a risk factor for a decrease in sperm quality. The purpose of the present study was to identify coping strategies that went along with both better emotional and physical adjustment to infertility. The sample consisted of 63 patients who contacted an andrological clinic more than one time. Prior to clinical examination, patients filled out a questionnaire referring to the way in which they coped with their wives' previous menstruation. Participants also completed a scale assessing perceived distress due to infertility. Change in sperm concentration since baseline semen analysis and the level of distress were used to evaluate patient's adjustment. The better-adjusted patients showed less prominent overall coping efforts, and a higher proportion of distancing coping strategies. An improvement in sperm quality also was associated with a low cognitive involvement in infertility. Situational uncontrollability of infertility could be a moderator of the effectiveness of coping employed by the better-adjusted patients. In addition, the coping behaviour related to better adjustment could be due to a dispositional stress resistance factor. For clinical implementation of the findings, the attitudes of a patient and the expectations of his wife have to be taken into consideration. (+info)
(8/4689) Different contributions of the human amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex to decision-making.
The somatic marker hypothesis proposes that decision-making is a process that depends on emotion. Studies have shown that damage of the ventromedial prefrontal (VMF) cortex precludes the ability to use somatic (emotional) signals that are necessary for guiding decisions in the advantageous direction. However, given the role of the amygdala in emotional processing, we asked whether amygdala damage also would interfere with decision-making. Furthermore, we asked whether there might be a difference between the roles that the amygdala and VMF cortex play in decision-making. To address these two questions, we studied a group of patients with bilateral amygdala, but not VMF, damage and a group of patients with bilateral VMF, but not amygdala, damage. We used the "gambling task" to measure decision-making performance and electrodermal activity (skin conductance responses, SCR) as an index of somatic state activation. All patients, those with amygdala damage as well as those with VMF damage, were (1) impaired on the gambling task and (2) unable to develop anticipatory SCRs while they pondered risky choices. However, VMF patients were able to generate SCRs when they received a reward or a punishment (play money), whereas amygdala patients failed to do so. In a Pavlovian conditioning experiment the VMF patients acquired a conditioned SCR to visual stimuli paired with an aversive loud sound, whereas amygdala patients failed to do so. The results suggest that amygdala damage is associated with impairment in decision-making and that the roles played by the amygdala and VMF in decision-making are different. (+info)