Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Acculturation: Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Foreign Medical Graduates: Physicians who hold degrees from medical schools in countries other than the ones in which they practice.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.MexicoCell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.IsraelMexican Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.Thioglycolates: Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.United StatesUSSRHispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Dermatitis, Irritant: A non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants and not explained by delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms.Arthus Reaction: A dermal inflammatory reaction produced under conditions of antibody excess, when a second injection of antigen produces intravascular antigen-antibody complexes which bind complement, causing cell clumping, endothelial damage, and vascular necrosis.Suriname: A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)Injections, Intralymphatic: Injections into the lymph nodes or the lymphatic system.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.American Medical Association: Professional society representing the field of medicine.Croton Oil: Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.Somalia: Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.AlbaniaAsia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Central AmericaNeutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Mice, Inbred C57BLColonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Concentration Camps: Facilities in which WARFARE or political prisoners are confined.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.LuxembourgAsian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Selectins: Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.Healthcare Financing: Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.Los AngelesCoturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Leukocyte-Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome: Rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the beta 2 integrin receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION) comprising the CD11/CD18 family of glycoproteins. The syndrome is characterized by abnormal adhesion-dependent functions, especially defective tissue emigration of neutrophils, leading to recurrent infection.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Mesenteric Veins: Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Hemoglobinopathies: A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.LebanonTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Complement C5a, des-Arginine: A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.AfricaEdema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.EuropeCervical Ripening: A change in the CERVIX UTERI with respect to its readiness to relax. The cervix normally becomes softer, more flexible, more distensible, and shorter in the final weeks of PREGNANCY. These cervical changes can also be chemically induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.IraqTrees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.ItalyPneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.CaliforniaBirth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Cuba: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies, south of Florida. With the adjacent islands it forms the Republic of Cuba. Its capital is Havana. It was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage in 1492 and conquered by Spain in 1511. It has a varied history under Spain, Great Britain, and the United States but has been independent since 1902. The name Cuba is said to be an Indian name of unknown origin but the language that gave the name is extinct, so the etymology is a conjecture. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p302 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p132)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.PhilippinesAnts: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.SwedenLangerhans Cells: Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Annexin A1: Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.South AmericaLymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Communicable DiseasesHealthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Dermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Great BritainMedically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.MassachusettsCell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Branchial Region: A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.TexasMental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine: A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)DenmarkDNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.

*  Turkey: A Transformation from Emigration to Immigration | migrationpolicy.org

... immigration, and asylum, Turkey has also become a country of transit for immigrants, according to Kemal Kirisci of Boagazici ... After decades of being known as a country of substantial emigration, Turkey today is facing challenges to its immigration and ... The Ottoman Empire, the predecessor of the Turkish Republic, had a long history of emigration, immigration, and forced ... Emigration. Large-scale Turkish labor emigration to Europe started with an agreement signed by the Turkish and West German ...

*  Michigan Emigration and Immigration Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Emigration and Immigration The "United States Emigration and Immigration" Wiki article lists several important sources for ... Michigan Emigration and Immigration. From FamilySearch Wiki. Revision as of 20:50, 11 September 2012 by Donchallis (talk , ... More detailed information on these sources is in United States Emigration and Immigration. ... United States Immigration and Naturalization Services. Detroit District Manifest Records of Aliens Arriving from Foreign ...

*  Illinois Emigration and Immigration Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Illinois Emigration and Immigration. From FamilySearch Wiki. Revision as of 19:01, 15 August 2008 by Heaton75 (talk , contribs) ... Other sources on emigration and immigration can be found in the Family History Library Catalog by using a Place Search under: ... The "Emigration and Immigration" section of the United States Research Outline lists several important sources for finding ... Emigration Records From the German Eifel Region, 1834-1911: with Major Emphasis on Those Emigrants Whose Final Destinations ...

*  London Emigration and Immigration Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

London Emigration and Immigration. From FamilySearch Wiki. Revision as of 02:03, 11 January 2012 by Murphynw (talk , contribs) ... Emigration and Immigration London was the major port of departure for ships carrying emigrants abroad from the 1500s to modern ... Emigration and Immigration · Gazetteers · Genealogy · Heraldic Visitations · History · Jewish Records · Land and Property · ... Retrieved from "https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/index.php?title=London_Emigration_and_Immigration&oldid=852984" ...

*  Sweden Emigration and Immigration Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

SWEDEN, [COUNTY], [CITY] - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION Emigration Archives. Sweden has several regional emigration archives. The ... If you do not find your ancestor in emigration or immigration records, you may find emigration information about your ... Sweden Emigration and Immigration. From FamilySearch Wiki. Revision as of 05:39, 13 December 2011 by Cwirwin (talk , contribs) ... COUNTRY] - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION Extracts of Parish Records. Parish ministers were required to send yearly extract records ...

*  LDS Emigration and Immigration Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

MORMONS- EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION Written Accounts of Voyages.. To find written accounts of voyages, check the following ... LDS Emigration and Immigration. From FamilySearch Wiki. Revision as of 19:13, 22 February 2008 by DiltsGD (talk , contribs) ( ... The "Emigration and Immigration" section of the research outline of the nation from which he or she came. ... It indexes Church emigration registers that were not included in the European Emigration Card Index cited previously. ...

*  New Jersey Emigration and Immigration Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Portal:United States Emigration and Immigration ,New Jersey The United States Emigration and Immigration portal lists several ... New Jersey Emigration and Immigration. From FamilySearch Wiki. Revision as of 03:08, 22 June 2009 by DiltsGD (talk , contribs) ... Nineteenth Century Immigration. Beginning in the 1840s, immigration to New Jersey increased dramatically. About 80 percent of ... Twentieth Century Immigration. Blacks are now the largest minority group in New Jersey. They were first brought into New Jersey ...

*  New York Emigration and Immigration Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

New York Emigration and Immigration. From FamilySearch Wiki. Revision as of 01:57, 8 March 2012 by Murphynw (talk , contribs) ( ... UNITED STATES - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION - INDEXES (on 188 Family History Library films beginning with film 418161). ... The United States Emigration and Immigration Wiki article provides several important sources for finding information about ... Emigration and Immigration · Ethnic, Political, or Religious Groups · Gazetteers · Genealogy · History · Land and Property · ...

*  Changes related to "Brazil Emigration and Immigration" Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Brazil, São Paulo, Immigration Cards (FamilySearch Historical Records)‎ (diff , hist) . . (+25)‎ . . Deborahemangum1 (talk , ... Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Immigration Cards (FamilySearch Historical Records)‎ (diff , hist) . . (+25)‎ . . Deborahemangum1 (talk ... Retrieved from "https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Special:RecentChangesLinked/Brazil_Emigration_and_Immigration" ... Changes related to "Brazil Emigration and Immigration". ← Brazil Emigration and Immigration. Jump to: navigation, search ...

*  Revision history of "Finland Emigration and Immigration" Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Revision history of "Finland Emigration and Immigration". View logs for this page ... Emigration from Finland: Added link). *(cur , prev). 20:10, 7 July 2016‎ Mirandanmacfarlane (talk , contribs)‎ m . . (13,474 ... Retrieved from "https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Finland_Emigration_and_Immigration" ...

*  Immigration and Emigration - The New York Times

Commentary and archival information about immigration and emigration from The New York Times. ... Commentary and archival information about immigration and emigration from The New York Times. ... News about Immigration and Emigration, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. More ... News about immigration and emigration, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. ...
https://nytimes.com/topic/subject/immigration-and-emigration?query=Shah, Sami&field=per&match=exact

*  Difference between revisions of "Connecticut Emigration and Immigration" Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Portal:United States Emigration and Immigration ,Connecticut People. Colonial settlers of Connecticut generally came from Great ... EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION - INDEXES). 1848-1891, 1902-1906, 1906-1920, and book indexes 1899-1940 These years are listed in ... EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION). The following indexes are also available: 1820-1874. These years are indexed in the Supplemental ... EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION - INDEXES. Also consult passenger lists of other New England ports and for ports in Canada. Records ...

*  Difference between revisions of "Germany Emigration and Immigration" Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Emigration and Immigration]]. +. [[Category:Germany,Emigration and Immigration. ]] [[Category:Germany_Emigration_and_ ... Alsace Emigration Books. Cornelia Schrader-Muggenthaler used the Alsace Emigration Index, other emigration records, passenger ... EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION Le Havre. The only lists available for the French port of Le Havre are lists of crews and passengers ... EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION Stuttgart (Württemberg). The Family History Library has indexed the Stuttgart-area passport records ...

*  Difference between revisions of "Texas Emigration and Immigration" Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Emigration and Immigration,Portal. :. United States Emigration and Immigration. ]]&. gt. ;[[. Texas. ,. Texas. ]] ... Records of major ethnic groups are listed in the catalog under TEXAS - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION and TEXAS - MINORITIES. You ... Records of major ethnic groups are listed in the catalog under TEXAS - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION and TEXAS - MINORITIES. You ... Records of major ethnic groups are listed in the catalog under TEXAS - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION and TEXAS - MINORITIES. You ...

*  Pages that link to "England Emigration and Immigration" Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Pages that link to "England Emigration and Immigration". ← England Emigration and Immigration ... The following pages link to England Emigration and Immigration: View (previous 500 , next 500) (20 , 50 , 100 , 250 , 500)* ... Retrieved from "https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Special:WhatLinksHere/England_Emigration_and_Immigration" ...

*  Difference between revisions of "Iowa Emigration and Immigration" Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

United States Emigration and Immigration. Iowa. Emigration and Immigration Iowa has no ports; consequently, many Iowa residents ... Northern Iowa immigration came primarily from Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and the Middle Atlantic and New England states. ... Southern Iowa immigration began as the American government negotiated treaties extinguishing the remaining Indian claims. ... Passenger lists since 1820 may contain a person's age, the state or country of birth, immigration date, occupation, names of ...

*  Difference between revisions of "LDS Emigration and Immigration" Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Emigration+and+Immigration&. presubject. =. Mormons+-+Emigration+and+Immigration MORMONS- EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION] ,!--{ ... Emigration and Immigration,. Emigration and Immigration]]. ' section of the United States Research Outline (30972). . ... Emigration+and+Immigration&presubject. =. Mormons+-+Emigration+and+Immigration ''. Mormon Pioneer Companies Crossing the Plains ... Mormons+Emigration+and+Immigration&. placeName=&author_givenName=&author_surname. = MORMONS- EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION] ,!--{ ...

*  Difference between revisions of "Arizona Emigration and Immigration" Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Emigration and Immigration. The article United States Emigration and Immigration lists several important sources for finding ... Emigration and Immigration · Ethnic Groups · Gazetteers · Genealogy · History · Land and Property · Maps · Military Records · ... For detailed information on passenger lists, see United States Emigration and Immigration. ... For detailed information on passenger lists, see [[United States Emigration and Immigration]]. ...

*  Difference between revisions of "California Emigration and Immigration" Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Immigration]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[California]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[California_Emigration_and_Immigration,Emigration ... Emigration and Immigration · Ethnic, Political, or Religious Groups · Gazetteers · Genealogy · History · Land and Property · ... United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[United States Emigration and Immigration,U.S. ... the Chinese Exclusion Act suspended the immigration of Chinese laborers to the U. .. S. . Other nationalities who arrived in ...

*  Difference between revisions of "Illinois Emigration and Immigration" Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Other sources on emigration and immigration can be found in the Family History Library Catalog by using a Place Search under: ... "Emigration and Immigration" NOTE: All of the information from the original research outline has been imported into this Wiki ... Emigration Records From the German Eifel Region, 1834-1911: with Major Emphasis on Those Emigrants Whose Final Destinations ... Wyman, Mark.Immigration History and Ethnicity in Illinois: A Guide. Springfield, Illinois: Illinois State Historical Society, ...

*  Difference between revisions of "North Carolina Emigration and Immigration" Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

United States Emigration and Immigration North Carolina North Carolina Emigration and Immigration Adopt-a-wiki page ... NORTH CAROLINA - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION. NORTH CAROLINA, [COUNTY] - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION. Migration. Three of the ... The United States Emigration and Immigration Wiki article lists several important sources for finding information about ... Difference between revisions of "North Carolina Emigration and Immigration". From FamilySearch Wiki ...

*  Difference between revisions of "New York Emigration and Immigration" Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

U.S. Emigration & Immigration New York Emigration & Immigration Arriving immigrants behold the Statue of Liberty.. ... New_York_Emigration_and_Immigration,Emigration and Immigration]]'' ,br, {{Infobox. +. ''[[United States,United States]] [[Image ... United States Emigration and Immigration,U.S. Emigration & Immigration]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png,. go to. ]] [[New York]] [[Image ... United States Emigration and Immigration,U.S. Emigration and Immigration]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png,. RTENOTITLE. ]] [[New York ...

*  Difference between revisions of "North Carolina Emigration and Immigration" Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

NORTH CAROLINA - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION. NORTH CAROLINA, [COUNTY], [TOWN] - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION. Works on migration ... Portal:United States Emigration and Immigration ,North Carolina The "Emigration and Immigration" section of the United States ... Portal:United States Emigration and Immigration,Portal:United States Emigration and Immigration ]],[[North Carolina,North ... Portal:United States Emigration and Immigration,Portal:United States Emigration and Immigration ]],[[North Carolina,North ...

*  American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 to 1940, Emigration and Immigration, Italian...

Emigration and Immigration Remove Subject: Italian Americans Remove ...
https://loc.gov/collections/federal-writers-project/?fa=subject:emigration and immigration|subject:italian americans

List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Inequality within immigrant families in the United States: Inequality within immigrant families refers to instances in which members of the same family have differing access to resources. Much literature focuses on inequality between families, but inequality often exists within families as well.Prison commissary: A prison commissary or canteen is a store within a correctional facility, from which inmates may purchase products such as hygiene items, snacks, writing instruments, etc. Spices, including those packaged with instant ramen noodles, are a popular item due to the often bland nature of prison food.Ron WaksmanHaptotaxis: Haptotaxis (from Greek ἅπτω (hapto, "touch, fasten") and τάξις (taxis, "arrangement, order")) is the directional motility or outgrowth of cells, e.g.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Al-Waleed (camp): Al-Waleed () is a makeshift Palestinian refugee camp in Iraq, near the border with Syria and the al-Tanf Crossing, and not far from the border with Jordan. It was set up in 2006 by Palestinian refugees stranded at the Iraqi-Syrian border The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has two field staff stationed in the camp.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Neutrophil granulocyteVenuleNomad Rock: Nomad Rock () is an isolated rock in Bransfield Strait, 5 nautical miles (9 km) off the north coast of Trinity Peninsula and 9 nautical miles (17 km) northeast of Cape Legoupil. So named by United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee (UK-APC) because of confusion about the identity of geographic points along this coast, and because of the wandering of features and names on charts of this vicinity.Truncal neural crest: The truncal neural crest or trunk neural crest is a form of neural crest.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Old Portal de Mercaderes (Mexico City): Old Portal de Mercaderes in the historic center of Mexico City was and is the west side of the main plaza (otherwise known as the "Zócalo"). This side of the plaza has been occupied by commercial structures since the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in 1521.Cell adhesionTel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center: Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (commonly referred to as Ichilov Hospital) is the main hospital serving Tel Aviv, Israel, and its metropolitan area. It is the third-largest hospital complex in the country.Thioglycolic acidP-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1: Selectin P ligand, also known as SELPLG or CD162 (cluster of differentiation 162), is a human gene.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Yevgeny Vesnik: Yevgeny Yakovlevich Vesnik (; January 15, 1923 — April 10, 2009) was a Russian and Soviet stage and a film actor. The son of Yakov Vesnik, the first director of the Kryvorizhstal plant, he fought the Germans in the Second World War.Defatting (medical): Defatting is the chemical dissolving of dermal lipids, from the skin, on contact with defatting agents. This can result in water loss from the affected area and cause the whitening and drying of the skin which may result in cracking, secondary infection and chemical irritant contact dermatitis.Transport in Suriname: The Republic of Suriname () has a number of forms of transport.TiGenix: TiGenix is an advanced biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercialising novel therapeutics from its validated, proprietary platform of allogeneic, expanded, adipose-derived stem cells, or eASCs, in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. TiGenix was founded in 2000 by Prof.Charles Alfred Tyrrell: Charles Alfred Tyrrell(1843–1918) was a promoter of medical devices, most notably an enema appliance. He was also author of tracts promoting the use of his device for colon cleansing as therapy for detoxification pursuant to a theory of auto-intoxication.Tiglic acidTransport in Somalia: Transport in Somalia refers to the transportation networks and modes of transport in effect in Somalia. They include highways, airports and seaports, in addition to various forms of public and private vehicular, maritime and aerial transportation.Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation: Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation (Chinese: 陽光社會福利基金會) is a charity established in 1981 in Taiwan to provide comprehensive services for burn survivors and people with facial disfigurement.Bibliography of Albania: This is a list of books in the English language which deal with Albania and its geography, history, inhabitants, culture, biota, etc.Miss Asia Pacific 2005Athletics at the 2002 Central American and Caribbean GamesFrance–Niger relations: France–Niger relations refer to foreign relations between France and the Niger. Their relations are based on a long shared history and the more than sixty year rule of Niger by French colonial empire beginning with the French conquest in 1898.EcosystemDown syndrome cell adhesion molecule like 1: Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule like 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the DSCAML1 gene.Food Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.The Flash ChroniclesHassall's corpuscles: Hassall's corpuscles (or thymic corpuscles (bodies)) are structures found in the medulla of the human thymus, formed from eosinophilic type VI epithelial reticular cells arranged concentrically. These concentric corpuscles are composed of a central mass, consisting of one or more granular cells, and of a capsule formed of epithelioid cells.Danane concentration camp: The Danane concentration camp was an Italian concentration camp established near Mogadishu in Italian East Africa after the Second Italo-Ethiopian War.Michael R.Spontaneous bacterial peritonitisPanmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Transport in Luxembourg: Transport in Luxembourg is ensured principally by road, rail and air. There are also services along the River Moselle which forms the border with Germany.List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.SelectinLos Angeles County Department of Public HealthOld World quail: Old World quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds in the pheasant family Phasianidae.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Genetic variation: right|thumbPrimary immunodeficiency: Primary immunodeficiencies are disorders in which part of the body's immune system is missing or does not function normally. To be considered a primary immunodeficiency, the cause of the immune deficiency must not be secondary in nature (i.Superior mesenteric vein: In anatomy, the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the small intestine (jejunum and ileum). At its termination behind the neck of the pancreas, the SMV combines with the splenic vein to form the hepatic portal vein.Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act of 1983QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.HemoglobinopathyInternational Law Enforcement Academy: International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) are international police academies administered by the U.S.Nest (protein structural motif): The Nest is a type of protein structural motif. Peptide nests are small anion-binding molecular features of proteins and peptides.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Inflammation: Inflammation (Latin, [is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen]s, damaged cells, or irritants.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Beit Beirut: Beit Beirut (; literally "the house of Beirut") is a museum and urban cultural center that was scheduled to open in 2013 in Beirut's Ashrafieh neighborhood. 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(1/1974) Cancer incidence in the south Asian population of England (1990-92).

Cancer incidence among English south Asians (residents in England with ethnic origins in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh) is described and compared with non-south Asian and Indian subcontinent rates. The setting for the study was areas covered by Thames, Trent, West Midlands and Yorkshire cancer registries. The study identified 356 555 cases of incident cancer (ICD9:140-208) registered between 1990 and 1992, including 3845 classified as English south Asian. The main outcome measures were age specific and directly standardized incidence rates for all cancer sites (ICD9:140-208). English south Asian incidence rates for all sites combined were significantly lower than non-south Asian rates but higher than Indian subcontinent rates. English south Asian rates were substantially higher than Indian subcontinent rates for a number of common sites including lung cancer in males, breast cancer in females and lymphoma in both sexes. English south Asian rates for childhood and early adult cancer (0-29 years) were similar or higher than non-south Asian rates. English south Asian rates were significantly higher than non-south Asian rates for Hodgkin's disease in males, cancer of the tongue, mouth, oesophagus, thyroid gland and myeloid leukaemia in females, and cancer of the hypopharynx, liver and gall bladder in both sexes. The results are consistent with a transition from the lower cancer risk of the country of ethnic origin to that of the country of residence. They suggest that detrimental changes in lifestyle and other exposures have occurred in the migrant south Asian population.  (+info)

(2/1974) Biochemical indices of osteomalacia in pregnant Asian immigrants in Britain.

Serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase, and urinary calcium excretion were examined during the second trimester of uncomplicated normal pregnancy in Asian immigrants to Britain and in local Caucasians. The mean serum calcium was significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians, and the mean serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in Asians. The geometric mean of the urinary calcium excretion was highly significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians. The variances of the serum calcium, serum alkaline phosphatase, and urine calcium excretion did not differ significantly in the two populations. This indicates that there is a shift in values of immigrant Asians as a group compared with Caucasians. A comparison with figures obtained on normal nonpregnant persons of both suggests that the shift is not an inherent feature of the Asian population.  (+info)

(3/1974) Ancestral Asian source(s) of new world Y-chromosome founder haplotypes.

Haplotypes constructed from Y-chromosome markers were used to trace the origins of Native Americans. Our sample consisted of 2,198 males from 60 global populations, including 19 Native American and 15 indigenous North Asian groups. A set of 12 biallelic polymorphisms gave rise to 14 unique Y-chromosome haplotypes that were unevenly distributed among the populations. Combining multiallelic variation at two Y-linked microsatellites (DYS19 and DXYS156Y) with the unique haplotypes results in a total of 95 combination haplotypes. Contra previous findings based on Y- chromosome data, our new results suggest the possibility of more than one Native American paternal founder haplotype. We postulate that, of the nine unique haplotypes found in Native Americans, haplotypes 1C and 1F are the best candidates for major New World founder haplotypes, whereas haplotypes 1B, 1I, and 1U may either be founder haplotypes and/or have arrived in the New World via recent admixture. Two of the other four haplotypes (YAP+ haplotypes 4 and 5) are probably present because of post-Columbian admixture, whereas haplotype 1G may have originated in the New World, and the Old World source of the final New World haplotype (1D) remains unresolved. The contrasting distribution patterns of the two major candidate founder haplotypes in Asia and the New World, as well as the results of a nested cladistic analysis, suggest the possibility of more than one paternal migration from the general region of Lake Baikal to the Americas.  (+info)

(4/1974) The cost effectiveness of strategies for the treatment of intestinal parasites in immigrants.

BACKGROUND: Currently, more than 600,000 immigrants enter the United States each year from countries where intestinal parasites are endemic. At entry persons with parasitic infections may be asymptomatic, and stool examinations are not a sensitive method of screening for parasitosis. Albendazole is a new, broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug, which was approved recently by the Food and Drug Administration. International trials have shown albendazole to be safe and effective in eradicating many parasites. In the United States there is now disagreement about whether to screen all immigrants for parasites, treat all immigrants presumptively, or do nothing unless they have symptoms. METHODS: We compared the costs and benefits of no preventive intervention (watchful waiting) with those of universal screening or presumptive treatment with 400 mg of albendazole per day for five days. Those at risk were defined as immigrants to the United States from Asia, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Cost effectiveness was expressed both in terms of the cost of treatment per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted (one DALY is defined as the loss of one year of healthy life to disease) and in terms of the cost per hospitalization averted. RESULTS: As compared with watchful waiting, presumptive treatment of all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would avert at least 870 DALYs, prevent at least 33 deaths and 374 hospitalizations, and save at least $4.2 million per year. As compared with watchful waiting, screening would cost $159,236 per DALY averted. CONCLUSIONS: Presumptive administration of albendazole to all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would save lives and money. Universal screening, with treatment of persons with positive stool examinations, would save lives but is less cost effective than presumptive treatment.  (+info)

(5/1974) Impact of diet on lead in blood and urine in female adults and relevance to mobilization of lead from bone stores.

We measured high precision lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations in blood, urine, and environmental samples to assess the significance of diet as a contributing factor to blood and urine lead levels in a cohort of 23 migrant women and 5 Australian-born women. We evaluated possible correlations between levels of dietary lead intake and changes observed in blood and urine lead levels and isotopic composition during pregnancy and postpartum. Mean blood lead concentrations for both groups were approximately 3 microg/dl. The concentration of lead in the diet was 5.8 +/- 3 microg Pb/kg [geometric mean (GM) 5.2] and mean daily dietary intake was 8.5 microg/kg/day (GM 7.4), with a range of 2-39 microg/kg/day. Analysis of 6-day duplicate dietary samples for individual subjects commonly showed major spikes in lead concentration and isotopic composition that were not reflected by associated changes in either blood lead concentration or isotopic composition. Changes in blood lead levels and isotopic composition observed during and after pregnancy could not be solely explained by dietary lead. These data are consistent with earlier conclusions that, in cases where levels of environmental lead exposure and dietary lead intake are low, skeletal contribution is the dominant contributor to blood lead, especially during pregnancy and postpartum.  (+info)

(6/1974) mtDNA analysis of Nile River Valley populations: A genetic corridor or a barrier to migration?

To assess the extent to which the Nile River Valley has been a corridor for human migrations between Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa, we analyzed mtDNA variation in 224 individuals from various locations along the river. Sequences of the first hypervariable segment (HV1) of the mtDNA control region and a polymorphic HpaI site at position 3592 allowed us to designate each mtDNA as being of "northern" or "southern" affiliation. Proportions of northern and southern mtDNA differed significantly between Egypt, Nubia, and the southern Sudan. At slowly evolving sites within HV1, northern-mtDNA diversity was highest in Egypt and lowest in the southern Sudan, and southern-mtDNA diversity was highest in the southern Sudan and lowest in Egypt, indicating that migrations had occurred bidirectionally along the Nile River Valley. Egypt and Nubia have low and similar amounts of divergence for both mtDNA types, which is consistent with historical evidence for long-term interactions between Egypt and Nubia. Spatial autocorrelation analysis demonstrates a smooth gradient of decreasing genetic similarity of mtDNA types as geographic distance between sampling localities increases, strongly suggesting gene flow along the Nile, with no evident barriers. We conclude that these migrations probably occurred within the past few hundred to few thousand years and that the migration from north to south was either earlier or lesser in the extent of gene flow than the migration from south to north.  (+info)

(7/1974) Distribution of haplotypes from a chromosome 21 region distinguishes multiple prehistoric human migrations.

Despite mounting genetic evidence implicating a recent origin of modern humans, the elucidation of early migratory gene-flow episodes remains incomplete. Geographic distribution of haplotypes may show traces of ancestral migrations. However, such evolutionary signatures can be erased easily by recombination and mutational perturbations. A 565-bp chromosome 21 region near the MX1 gene, which contains nine sites frequently polymorphic in human populations, has been found. It is unaffected by recombination and recurrent mutation and thus reflects only migratory history, genetic drift, and possibly selection. Geographic distribution of contemporary haplotypes implies distinctive prehistoric human migrations: one to Oceania, one to Asia and subsequently to America, and a third one predominantly to Europe. The findings with chromosome 21 are confirmed by independent evidence from a Y chromosome phylogeny. Loci of this type will help to decipher the evolutionary history of modern humans.  (+info)

(8/1974) Cancer mortality in East and Southeast Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia, 1975-1995.

Routinely collected data for New South Wales were used to analyse cancer mortality in migrants born in East or Southeast Asia according to duration of residence in Australia. A case-control approach compared deaths from cancer at particular sites with deaths from all other cancers, adjusting for age, sex and calendar period. Compared with the Australian-born, these Asian migrants had a 30-fold higher risk of dying from nasopharyngeal cancer in the first 2 decades of residence, falling to ninefold after 30 years, and for deaths from liver cancer, a 12-fold risk in the first 2 decades, falling to threefold after 30 years. The initial lower risk from colorectal, breast or prostate cancers later converged towards the Australian-born level, the change being apparent in the third decade after migration. The relative risk of dying from lung cancer among these Asian migrants was above unity for each category of duration of stay for women, but at or below unity for men, with no trend in risk over time. An environmental or lifestyle influence for nasopharyngeal and liver cancers is suggested as well as for cancers of colon/rectum, breast and prostate.  (+info)

passenger lists

  • This indexes Church emigration register (passenger lists), books about Church member emigrants, Perpetual Emigration Fund lists, handcart pioneers, and Sons of Utah Pioneer records. (familysearch.org)
  • The Family History Library and the National Archives have passenger lists for Boston for 1820 to March 1874 and 1883 to 1935 (listed in the Family History Library Catalog under MASSACHUSETTS, SUFFOLK, BOSTON - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION). (familysearch.org)
  • Passenger lists since 1820 may contain a person's age, the state or country of birth, immigration date, occupation, names of children. (familysearch.org)


  • Ohio and Indiana contributed more settlers than all other states and immigration from Europe increased. (familysearch.org)


  • It indexes Church emigration registers that were not included in the European Emigration Card Index cited previously. (familysearch.org)


  • If you do not find your ancestor in emigration or immigration records, you may find emigration information about your ancestor's neighbors. (familysearch.org)
  • By learning about an ancestor's immigration to Zion, you may find records that provide clues to births, marriages, and deaths that occurred along the way. (familysearch.org)
  • Here is a [http://home.arcor.de/emigration-research/ website] which will facilitate the search for an ancestor's hometown. (familysearch.org)


  • Emigration Records From the German Eifel Region, 1834-1911: with Major Emphasis on Those Emigrants Whose Final Destinations Were Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan. (familysearch.org)


  • 1848-1891, 1902-1906, 1906-1920, and book indexes 1899-1940 These years are listed in the Family History Library Catalog under MASSACHUSETTS, SUFFOLK, BOSTON - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION. (familysearch.org)


  • Overseas immigration of the 1840s and 1850s was composed mainly of Germans and Irish. (familysearch.org)
  • Emigration was minimal until the 1850s, after which large numbers left Sweden. (familysearch.org)

ethnic groups

  • Records of major ethnic groups are listed in the catalog under TEXAS - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION and TEXAS - MINORITIES. (familysearch.org)


  • Emigration records can help you determine where in Sweden your ancestor came from. (familysearch.org)
  • The history of emigration from Sweden. (familysearch.org)
  • Although Sweden held the colony for only 17 years, to 1655, this was the start of Swedish immigration to the United States. (familysearch.org)


  • Detroit District Manifest Records of Aliens Arriving from Foreign Contiguous Territory: Arrivals at Detroit, Michigan, 1906-1954 (Washington, D.C.: Immigration and Naturalization Services, [195? (familysearch.org)
  • Swedish emigration records can be a useful source of genealogical information. (familysearch.org)
  • Unfortunately, there are few pre-1866 Swedish emigration records. (familysearch.org)


  • The " United States Emigration and Immigration " Wiki article lists several important sources for finding information about immigrants. (familysearch.org)
  • The " Emigration and Immigration " section of the United States Research Outline lists several important sources for finding information about immigrants to this country. (familysearch.org)
  • Names of colonial immigrants listed in published sources are indexed in P. William Filby, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index , 15 Volumes. (familysearch.org)


  • Baird, Charles W. History of the Huguenot Emigration to America . (familysearch.org)
  • The Ottoman Empire, the predecessor of the Turkish Republic, had a long history of emigration, immigration, and forced migration. (migrationpolicy.org)
  • These are listed in the Family History Library Catalog under UNITED STATES - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION. (familysearch.org)
  • According to the Dictionary of American Immigration History (Francesco Cordasco, ed. (familysearch.org)

United States Research Outline

  • The " Emigration and Immigration " section of the United States Research Outline (30972). (familysearch.org)
  • More detailed information on U.S. immigration sources is in the United States Research Outline. (familysearch.org)


  • More detailed information on these sources is in United States Emigration and Immigration . (familysearch.org)
  • Emigration and immigration sources list the names of people leaving (emigrating) or coming into (immigrating) a country. (familysearch.org)


  • The "Emigration and Immigration" section of the research outline of the nation from which he or she came. (familysearch.org)


  • Date of departure and the microfilm number of the Church emigration register. (familysearch.org)
  • 4. On the film of the Church emigration register, look chronologically for the date of departure. (familysearch.org)


  • News about Immigration and Emigration, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. (nytimes.com)
  • This emigration continued into recent times through family reunification schemes and the asylum track. (migrationpolicy.org)


  • Traditionally, Turkey has been known as a country of emigration. (migrationpolicy.org)
  • What is less well known is that Turkey has long been a country of immigration and asylum. (migrationpolicy.org)


  • The changing patterns of immigration into Turkey and Turkey's efforts to become a member of the European Union are creating pressures for an overhaul of immigration and asylum policies. (migrationpolicy.org)
  • At the same time, there are also growing concerns in Europe that if Turkey were to become a member of the EU, there would be a massive wave of immigration from Turkey to the more prosperous members of the union. (migrationpolicy.org)


  • Amnesties, often associated with immigration, are central to the way the U.S. legal system functions. (nytimes.com)


  • Northern Iowa immigration came primarily from Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and the Middle Atlantic and New England states. (familysearch.org)


  • The government also established an immigration program encouraging Muslims and Turks from the Balkans to settle in Turkey. (migrationpolicy.org)
  • Southern Iowa immigration began as the American government negotiated treaties extinguishing the remaining Indian claims . (familysearch.org)