Embryonic Structures: The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.


embryonic structures. Identifiers:doi:10.14258/abs.v1i3-4.914 The aim of this report was to to build phylogenies using bird egg ...

*  reptile - Hearing | animal | Britannica.com

Obviously, these embryonic structures are not present in the fossil record. However, one can recognize that they existed in the ... Toes often with hooflike structures. Many with heavy armor and horns. Largest about 9 metres (30 ft) long.. †Order Saurischia ( ... One example of a feature both groups held in common was the presence of extra-embryonic membranes (essentially, the amniotic ...

*  RTECS:NQ9450000 - Isocyanic acid, methyl ester - The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances | CDC/NIOSH

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord). Reproductive: Specific ...

*  The Great Dothan Debate - creation.com

His third argument was for the retention of ancestral embryonic structures. If embryos from diverse organisms all follow the ... He showed that the "post-anal tail" is a misnomer and why it only appears to be a tail, as embryologists know (see Embryonic ... Pierson did not see why this was a problem, for it did not counter the pseudogene argument, nor did it deal with embryonic ... There is no highly conserved embryonic stage in the vertebrates: implications for current theories of evolution and development ...

*  ZFIN Anatomy Ontology: embryonic structure

embryonic structures. Definition:. Anatomical structure that is part of the embryo and is comprised of portions of tissue or ...

*  Classics in the History of Psychology -- Baldwin (1901) Definitions Ce - Cn

They form the embryonic structures, from which arise the fore-, mid-, and hind-brain. Though the ventricles are derived from ... Embryonic expansions of the medullary tube giving rise to the several major divisions of the brain. See BRAIN (Embryology). ... Sometimes vacuoles and other structures living (Plastids) and lifeless are present. Cf. the figure. See CELL THEORY, AMITOSIS, ...

*  ES-D3 [D3] ATCC ® CRL-1934™ Mus musculus The clonal embryoni

The cells spontaneously differentiate into embryonic structures in the absence of a feeder layer or conditioned medium. They ... The cells spontaneously differentiate into embryonic structures in the absence of a feeder layer or conditioned medium. ... The clonal embryonic stem cell line ES-D3 was derived from blastocysts of a 129S2/SvPas mouse. ... Targeted mutation of the Hprt gene in mouse embryonic stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 8583-8587, 1988. PubMed: ...

*  Vasculogenesis of the embryonic heart: Origin of blood island-like structures - Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics,...

Vasculogenesis of the embryonic heart: Origin of blood island-like structures Share Share Share Share ...

*  PPT - Chapter 27 PowerPoint Presentation - ID:2130844

Similar embryonic structures as penis (contains same tissue that forms the erectile corpora cavernosa) ... Chapter 2 Basic Structures: Sets, Functions, Sequences and Sums and part of Chapter 3 -2.1 sets. basic structure upon which all ... Perineal structures: collectively known as external genitalia *Reproductive Tract = all chambers and passageways that connect ... other (discrete and continuous) structures are built.a set is a collection of objects.an object is anything of interest, ...

*  Plus it

Barx2, in common with other Bar class genes, is expressed during the development of anterior embryonic structures (6) . Other ... is expressed in neural and craniofacial structures during development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94: 2632-2637, 1997. ... particularly in the central and peripheral nervous system and in craniofacial structures (6) . Expression of Barx2 was limited ...

*  Lisa Kratz - Research Output - Johns Hopkins University

Embryonic Structures Neurons 2015 Adult presentation of X-linked Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome. Posey, J. E., Burrage, L. C ...

*  FGF signaling is required for β-catenin-mediated induction of the zebrafish organizer | Development

... a homeodomain protein essential for induction of gastrula organizer and dorsoanterior embryonic structures. Development 126, ... Class 1 embryos lack head and trunk; class 1a lack all structures anterior to spinal cord; class 2 lack structures anterior to ... 1R-T) and floating head (flh) (data not shown) in the embryonic shield region at 50% epiboly. These embryos went on to express ... Mohammadi, M., McMahon, G., Sun, L., Tang, C., Hirth, P., Yeh, B. K., Hubbard, S. R. and Schlessinger, J. (1997). Structures of ...

*  A role for MKP3 in axial patterning of the zebrafish embryo | Development

... a homeodomain protein essential for induction of gastrula organizer and dorsoanterior embryonic structures. Development 126, ... Embryonic expression of mkp3 in zebrafish. (A-P) Lateral views, except in D and Q-T, animal view. (A) mkp3 is not expressed as ... 5B with 5A; Table 1). At 24 hpf, mkp3-injected embryos often displayed a loss of anterior structures and in some instances a ... 7N-Q). fgf3 or fgf8-injected ich embryos were able to form anterior structures such as eyes and forebrain, but failed to ...

*  embryology - Wikidata

All structured data from the main and property namespace is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; text in the other namespaces is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...

*  Patterned Differentiation of Individual Embryoid Bodies in Spatially Organized 3D Hybrid Microgels

Embryogenesis is a highly programmed process that results in polarized embryonic structures with proximal-distal and anterior- ... The capacity of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to differentiate into virtually any cell type opens tremendous opportunities to ... Morphogen gradients have traditionally thought to be the major strategy for embryonic patterning. Here we showed that besides ... and endoderm which recapitulate the early embryonic development.[2] Despite the presence of cells from all three-germ layers in ...

*  Annual MEDLINE/PubMed Year-End Processing (YEP): Background Information

... but it now maps to Embryonic Structures which is a parent term to both Embryo, Mammalian and Embryo, Nonmammalian. This mapping ...

*  EvC Forum: A Critique of the "Evolution Essay" A GREAT DEBATE S1WC and anglagard ONLY

Yes embryonic structures do develop in embryos that diverge into different functions according to the evolution of the host. ... Vestigial structures are often homologous to structures that are functioning normally in other species. Therefore, vestigial ... Re: Vestigial Structures. Ok, I've finally found the time and mood to come back here. I noticed you haven't been posting for a ... Re: Vestigial Structures. Sorry for the long wait, and apologies for the next long wait in the future. Classes have started, ...

*  Brevet US6432081 - Systems and methods for promoting tissue growth - Google Brevets

Apparatus for the treatment of volume deficiency disorders of body structures and related syndromes and, more particularly, ... or derived from the same or similar embryonic structures.. In another aspect of the present invention, methods are provided for ... 2A-2B, alternative structures for balloon attachment can be described. FIG. 2A illustrates a balloon 26 which, in an uninflated ... Apparatus for the treatment of volume deficiency disorders of body structures and related syndromes and, more particularly, ...

*  Mouse DISPA / DISP1 Protein (Recombinant His + T7) (aa1141-1435) - LS-G16251

The pattern of cellular proliferation and differentiation that leads to normal development of embryonic structures often ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

This flat mounting protocol is broadly applicable to the study of many embryonic structures that emerge during early zebrafish ... Epithelial-mesenchymal-mesothelial interactions are also critical to embryonic lung morphogenesis. Early embryonic lung organ ... the pancreas originates from distinct embryonic outgrowths of the dorsal and ventral foregut endoderm at embryonic day (E) 9.5 ... The whole embryonic organ can be cultured at multiple stages of development 2-4. These culture methods have been useful to test ...

*  Endothelial cell plasticity: how to become and remain a lymphatic endothelial cell | Development

... embryonic structures that develop from LEC fusion and dilation into surrounding mesenchyme tissue and from which most of the ... Early during embryogenesis, mesodermally derived ECs give rise to the primitive embryonic and extra-embryonic vasculature ( ... the embryonic structures from which the entire lymphatic vasculature is eventually derived. ... Embryonic development and organ formation require a constant source of blood, which is provided by the blood vascular network. ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Embryonic Structures, Nervous System, Nervous System Diseases, Neurotrophic Peptides, TUNEL, Apoptosis, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... Fortunately, the oligosaccharide structures, which are critical for binding with GM-CSF, are more similar to the structures of ... At these mid-embryonic stages, the LV is clearly visible through the chest wall for invasive pressure measurements because the ... Cultured embryonic and adult skeletal muscle cells have a number of different uses. The micro-dissected explants technique ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

This flat mounting protocol is broadly applicable to the study of many embryonic structures that emerge during early zebrafish ... Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved ... The ITS2 Database is not only a database for storage and retrieval of ITS2 sequence-structures. It also provides several tools ... The chick embryo is a valuable tool in the study of early embryonic development. Its transparency, accessibility and ease of ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

This flat mounting protocol is broadly applicable to the study of many embryonic structures that emerge during early zebrafish ... Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved ... Thus, for accurate analysis and imaging of experimental phenotypes in fixed embryonic specimens between the tailbud and 20 ... Simultaneous Multicolor Imaging of Biological Structures with Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy. Authors: ...

(1/126) Facial visceral motor neurons display specific rhombomere origin and axon pathfinding behavior in the chick.

In the chick embryo, facial motor neurons comprise branchiomotor and visceral motor subpopulations, which innervate branchial muscles and parasympathetic ganglia, respectively. Although facial motor neurons are known to develop within hindbrain rhombomere 4 (r4) and r5, the precise origins of branchiomotor and visceral motor neuron subpopulations are unclear. We investigated the organization and axon pathfinding of these motor neurons using axonal tracing and rhombomere transplantation in quail-chick chimeras. Our results show that a large majority of branchiomotor neurons originate in r4 but that a cohort of these neurons undergoes a caudal migration from r4 into r5. By contrast, visceral motor neurons develop exclusively in r5. We found that a striking property of facial visceral motor neurons is the ability of their axons to navigate back to appropriate ganglionic targets in the periphery after heterotopic transplantation. These results complement previous studies in which heterotopic facial branchiomotor neurons sent axons to their correct, branchial arch, target. By contrast, when trigeminal branchiomotor neurons were transplanted heterotopically, we found that they were unable to pathfind correctly, and instead projected to an inappropriate target region. Thus, facial and trigeminal motor neuron populations have different axon pathfinding characteristics.  (+info)

(2/126) Drosophila wing development in the absence of dorsal identity.

The developing wing disc of Drosophila is divided into distinct lineage-restricted compartments along both the anterior/posterior (A/P) and dorsal/ventral (D/V) axes. At compartment boundaries, morphogenic signals pattern the disc epithelium and direct appropriate outgrowth and differentiation of adult wing structures. The mechanisms by which affinity boundaries are established and maintained, however, are not completely understood. Compartment-specific adhesive differences and inter-compartment signaling have both been implicated in this process. The selector gene apterous (ap) is expressed in dorsal cells of the wing disc and is essential for D/V compartmentalization, wing margin formation, wing outgrowth and dorsal-specific wing structures. To better understand the mechanisms of Ap function and compartment formation, we have rescued aspects of the ap mutant phenotype with genes known to be downstream of Ap. We show that Fringe (Fng), a secreted protein involved in modulation of Notch signaling, is sufficient to rescue D/V compartmentalization, margin formation and wing outgrowth when appropriately expressed in an ap mutant background. When Fng and alphaPS1, a dorsally expressed integrin subunit, are co-expressed, a nearly normal-looking wing is generated. However, these wings are entirely of ventral identity. Our results demonstrate that a number of wing development features, including D/V compartmentalization and wing vein formation, can occur independently of dorsal identity and that inter-compartmental signaling, refined by Fng, plays the crucial role in maintaining the D/V affinity boundary. In addition, it is clear that key functions of the ap selector gene are mediated by only a small number of downstream effectors.  (+info)

(3/126) Drosophila Tsc1 functions with Tsc2 to antagonize insulin signaling in regulating cell growth, cell proliferation, and organ size.

Tuberous sclerosis complex is a dominant disorder that leads to the development of benign tumors in multiple organs. We have isolated a mutation in the Drosophila homolog of TSC1 (Tsc1). Cells mutant for Tsc1 are dramatically increased in size yet differentiate normally. Organ size is also increased in tissues that contain a majority of mutant cells. Clones of Tsc1 mutant cells in the imaginal discs undergo additional divisions but retain normal ploidy. We also show that the Tsc1 protein binds to Drosophila Tsc2 in vitro. Overexpression of Tsc1 or Tsc2 alone in the wing and eye has no effect, but co-overexpression leads to a decrease in cell size, cell number, and organ size. Genetic epistasis data are consistent with a model that Tsc1 and Tsc2 function together in the insulin signaling pathway.  (+info)

(4/126) Morphogenesis of prechordal plate and notochord requires intact Eph/ephrin B signaling.

Eph receptors and their ligands, the ephrins, mediate cell-to-cell signals implicated in the regulation of cell migration processes during development. We report the molecular cloning and tissue distribution of zebrafish transmembrane ephrins that represent all known members of the mammalian class B ephrin family. The degree of homology among predicted ephrin B sequences suggests that, similar to their mammalian counterparts, zebrafish B-ephrins can also bind promiscuously to several Eph receptors. The dynamic expression patterns for each zebrafish B-ephrin support the idea that these ligands are confined to interact with their receptors at the borders of their complementary expression domains. Zebrafish B-ephrins are expressed as early as 30% epiboly and during gastrula stages: in the germ ring, shield, prechordal plate, and notochord. Ectopic overexpression of dominant-negative soluble ephrin B constructs yields reproducible defects in the morphology of the notochord and prechordal plate by the end of gastrulation. Notably disruption of Eph/ephrin B signaling does not completely destroy structures examined, suggesting that cell fate specification is not altered. Thus abnormal morphogenesis of the prechordal plate and the notochord is likely a consequence of a cell movement defect. Our observations suggest Eph/ephrin B signaling plays an essential role in regulating cell movements during gastrulation.  (+info)

(5/126) Generation of a novel functional neuronal circuit in Hoxa1 mutant mice.

Early organization of the vertebrate brainstem is characterized by cellular segmentation into compartments, the rhombomeres, which follow a metameric pattern of neuronal development. Expression of the homeobox genes of the Hox family precedes rhombomere formation, and analysis of mouse Hox mutations revealed that they play an important role in the establishment of rhombomere-specific neuronal patterns. However, segmentation is a transient feature, and a dramatic reconfiguration of neurons and synapses takes place during fetal and postnatal stages. Thus, it is not clear whether the early rhombomeric pattern of Hox expression has any influence on the establishment of the neuronal circuitry of the mature brainstem. The Hoxa1 gene is the earliest Hox gene expressed in the developing hindbrain. Moreover, it is rapidly downregulated. Previous analysis of mouse Hoxa1(-/-) mutants has focused on early alterations of hindbrain segmentation and patterning. Here, we show that ectopic neuronal groups in the hindbrain of Hoxa1(-/-) mice establish a supernumerary neuronal circuit that escapes apoptosis and becomes functional postnatally. This system develops from mutant rhombomere 3 (r3)-r4 levels, includes an ectopic group of progenitors with r2 identity, and integrates the rhythm-generating network controlling respiration at birth. This is the first demonstration that changes in Hox expression patterns allow the selection of novel neuronal circuits regulating vital adaptive behaviors. The implications for the evolution of brainstem neural networks are discussed.  (+info)

(6/126) Drosophila neuralized is a ubiquitin ligase that promotes the internalization and degradation of delta.

The Drosophila gene neuralized (neur) has long been recognized to be essential for the proper execution of a wide variety of processes mediated by the Notch (N) pathway, but its role in the pathway has been elusive. In this report, we present genetic and biochemical evidence that Neur is a RING-type, E3 ubiquitin ligase. Next, we show that neur is required for proper internalization of Dl in the developing eye. Finally, we demonstrate that ectopic Neur targets Dl for internalization and degradation in a RING finger-dependent manner, and that the two exist in a physical complex. Collectively, our data indicate that Neur is a ubiquitin ligase that positively regulates the N pathway by promoting the endocytosis and degradation of Dl.  (+info)

(7/126) neuralized Encodes a peripheral membrane protein involved in delta signaling and endocytosis.

Activation of the Notch (N) receptor involves an intracellular proteolytic step triggered by shedding of the extracellular N domain (N-EC) upon ligand interaction. The ligand Dl has been proposed to effect this N-EC shedding by transendocytosing the latter into the signal-emitting cell. We find that Dl endocytosis and N signaling are greatly stimulated by expression of neuralized (neur). neur inactivation suppresses Dl endocytosis, while its overexpression enhances Dl endocytosis and Notch-dependent signaling. We show that neur encodes an intracellular peripheral membrane protein. Its C-terminal RING domain is necessary for Dl accumulation in endosomes, but may be dispensable for Dl signaling. The potent modulatory effect of Neur on Dl activity makes Neur a candidate for establishing signaling asymmetries within cellular equivalence groups.  (+info)

(8/126) Hindbrain patterning: Krox20 couples segmentation and specification of regional identity.

We have previously demonstrated that inactivation of the Krox20 gene led to the disappearance of its segmental expression territories in the hindbrain, the rhombomeres (r) 3 and 5. We now performed a detailed analysis of the fate of prospective r3 and r5 cells in Krox20 mutant embryos. Genetic fate mapping indicates that at least some of these cells persist in the absence of a functional Krox20 protein and uncovers the requirement for autoregulatory mechanisms in the expansion and maintenance of Krox20-expressing territories. Analysis of even-numbered rhombomere molecular markers demonstrates that in Krox20-null embryos, r3 cells acquire r2 or r4 identity, and r5 cells acquire r6 identity. Finally, study of embryonic chimaeras between Krox20 homozygous mutant and wild-type cells shows that the mingling properties of r3/r5 mutant cells are changed towards those of even-numbered rhombomere cells. Together, these data demonstrate that Krox20 is essential to the generation of alternating odd- and even-numbered territories in the hindbrain and that it acts by coupling the processes of segment formation, cell segregation and specification of regional identity.  (+info)


  • 4 ] The embryonic polarity is first established during gastrulation as patterned cellular differentiation occurs to yield spatially distinct cell types in embryo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)


  • The cells spontaneously differentiate into embryonic structures in the absence of a feeder layer or conditioned medium. (atcc.org)
  • The capacity of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to differentiate into virtually any cell type opens tremendous opportunities to generate renewable cell source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

stem cells

  • Myeloid leukaemia inhibitory factor maintains the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells. (atcc.org)
  • Targeted mutation of the Hprt gene in mouse embryonic stem cells. (atcc.org)


  • The in vitro development of blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cell lines: formation of visceral yolk sac, blood islands and myocardium. (atcc.org)
  • EBs give rise to three primary germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm which recapitulate the early embryonic development. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The pattern of cellular proliferation and differentiation that leads to normal development of embryonic structures often depends upon the localized production of secreted protein signals. (lsbio.com)