Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Visual Prosthesis: Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Electric Organ: In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gymnotiformes: An order of neotropical electric fish found chiefly in the waters of South America. They continually emit weak electric discharges, which they use in object location and communication. A most popular species of research interest is the electric eel, ELECTROPHORUS electricus.Electric Injuries: Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Electric Wiring: An arrangement of wires distributing electricity.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Torpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Burns, Electric: Burns produced by contact with electric current or from a sudden discharge of electricity.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Electrochemotherapy: A treatment modality that uses pulsed electrical currents to permeabilize cell membranes (ELECTROPORATION) and thereby enhance the uptake of chemotherapeutic agents, vaccines, or genes into the body's cells.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Electrophorus: A genus of fish, in the family GYMNOTIFORMES, capable of producing an electric shock that immobilizes fish and other prey. The species Electrophorus electricus is also known as the electric eel, though it is not a true eel.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Birefringence: The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Mice, Inbred C57BLIsoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Electromagnetic Phenomena: Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Self Stimulation: Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

*  Brevet US20080097541 - Apparatus and method for spatially and temporally distributing cardiac ... - Google Brevets

In order to spatially and temporally distribute the stimulation, the pulses are delivered through a switchable pulse output ... A cardiac electro-stimulatory device and method for operating same in which stimulation pulses are distributed among a ... System, adaptor and method to provide medical electrical stimulation. US5800464 *. 3 oct. 1996. 1 sept. 1998. Medtronic, Inc.. ... Apparatus and method for reversal of myocardial remodeling with electrical stimulation. US6640135 *. 6 avr. 2000. 28 oct. 2003 ...

*  Patent EP1172125B1 - An implantable heart stimulation system with automatic mode switching ... - Google Patentsuche

It is the function of a pacemaker to provide electrical stimulation pulses to the appropriate chamber(s) of the heart (atria or ... An implantable heart stimulation system with automatic mode switching controlled by sympatho-vagal balance. EP 1172125 B1 ... Adaptive baroreflex stimulation therapy for disordered breathing. US7938782. 12. Mai 2008. 10. Mai 2011. Cardiac Pacemakers, ... An implantable heart-stimulation system (10) having sensing elements (12, 13) for sensing atrial and ventricular signals, a ...

*  The Neurocritic: Bad news for DARPA's RAM program: Electrical Stimulation of Entorhinal Region Impairs Memory

There are so many questions about what direct electrical stimulation actually does, and what the best parameters (stimulation ... 2012) began by reviewing all the potential benefits of entorhinal stimulation:. In rodents, electrical stimulation of the ... It has also been shown that electrical stimulation can enhance neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Whether direct stimulation of ... electrical stimulation (at 50 Hz) was delivered to the EC or hippocampus. No stimulation was given in block 4.. Spatial ...

*  Patent US5797970 - System, adaptor and method to provide medical electrical stimulation - Google Patents

... of the leads such that electrical stimulation of a first amplitude is not passed through the diode while electrical stimulation ... diode which directs electrical stimulation pulses of a first amplitude to the first lead and directs electrical stimulation ... the means for directing electrical stimulation pulses coupled to the pulse generator. In the preferred embodiment the diode is ... the pulse generator generating electrical stimulation pulses of a first amplitude and a second amplitude, first and second ...

*  New & Used Ultrasound and Electrical Stimulation Unit | Buy Used Ultrasound and Electrical Stimulation Unit Equipment

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*  Gastric electrical stimulation - Wikipedia

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*  Brain Power Boosted With Electrical Stimulation - Slashdot

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*  ASMBS: Electrical Stimulation Helps Diabetes, Obesity | Medpage Today

Source Reference: Bohdjalian A, et al, "The Tantalus meal-activated gastric electrical stimulation improves glycemic control in ... Vagal nerve stimulation led to HbA1c reductions approaching 2% in a smaller study reported at the meeting. Originally developed ... A second report at the meeting showed that vagal nerve stimulation induced HbA1c reductions that averaged 1.4% at one month, ... Explain to patients that two different types of implantable electrical stimulators improved diabetes control and induced weight ...

*  Can creativity be boosted through electrical stimulation?

One group of scientists state they have found a way to improve creativity through brain stimulation. ... Is it possible to boost creativity by applying electrical stimulation to the brain? ... More about Creativity, Brain, electrical brain stimulation, Psychology More news from Creativity. Brain. electrical brain sti ... Electrical brain stimulation is a form of electrotherapy and technique used in research and clinical neurobiology to stimulate ...

*  Non-pacing Electric Stimulation for Heart Failure | Medgadget

A report via PRNewswire on a cardiac stimulation system from Impulse Diagnostics, Inc, which has just started Phase II trials: ... Non-pacing Electric Stimulation for Heart Failure. April 19th, 2005 Nicholas Genes Cardiology, Critical Care ... A report via PRNewswire on a cardiac stimulation system from Impulse Diagnostics, Inc, which has just started Phase II trials: ... It seems novel to use electricty for a purpose other than pacing - but they've got data showing nonstimulatory electric pulses ...

*  Patent US5336255 - Electrical stimulation heat/cool pack - Google Patents

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*  Electrical stimulation of brain alters dreams: study - NY Daily News

Electrical stimulation of brain enables 'lucid dreaming,' new study finds. Electrical stimulation of brain alters dreams: study ... Scientists said they had used a harmless electrical current to modify sleep so that an individual has 'lucid dreams,' a ... The study, reported in the journal Nature Neuroscience, found that a harmless electrical current could bring on 'lucid dreaming ... However, brain stimulation should always be carefully monitored by a physician,' she cautioned. ...

*  Patent US5038796 - Electrical stimulation electrode with impedance compensation - Google Patents

Further adjustment of the electrical conductivity may also be achieved by varying the conductivity of individual fibers ... and electrical shunt means disposed along the conductive material for causing more uniform resistivity between any two equally ... A flexible transcutaneous electrical nerve and/or muscle stimulation electrode is provided which utilizes a conductive material ... spaced apart points on the conductive material than without the electrical shunt means. ...

*  Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Swallowing | Sinai

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*  Functional electrical stimulation - Wikipedia

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*  Patent US20060247718 - Dual mode electrical stimulation to treat obesity - Google Patents

In a sense, the electrical stimulation electrically mimics the physiological effects of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure ... In this manner, the electrical stimulation limits food intake and caloric absorption, providing a two-pronged therapy for ... A first set of stimulation pulses is delivered to the stomach to suppress appetite and limit food intake, and a second set of ... stimulation pulses is delivered to the small intestine to accelerate food transit and reduce caloric absorption. ...

*  Electric Stimulation of Brain may Help Patients With Spinal Cord Injuries

Scientists have successfully used electric stimulation of brain and spine to make rats with spinal cord injuries regain the use ... Electric Stimulation of Brain may Help Patients With Spinal Cord Injuries. by Kathy Jones on June 1, 2012 at 7:35 PM Research ... The rats were then made to undergo an intensive program which included electric stimulation in the brain, spinal cord and ... The researchers said that the rats underwent intensive training program and electric stimulation of brain and spine that ...

*  epidural electrical stimulation - epidural electrical stimulation online Wholesalers

... epidural electrical stimulation online Wholesalers - choose epidural electrical stimulation from 21 list of China epidural ... electric stimulation , electrical stimulation unit , electrical stimulation , electric stimulation home use massager , electric ... electrical stimulation toys , electrical stimulation machine , electric stimulation machine , electrical stimulator , ... tens electrical stimulation , nerve electrical stimulation , transcutaneous electrical stimulation , medical electric ...

*  Electrical Stimulation After Total Knee Arthroplasty - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Electrical Stimulation After Total Knee Arthroplasty. The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date has ... Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be used to improve strength and function following injury or surgery. This ... The aims of this study are: 1) to assess the effectiveness of high-level neuromuscular electrical stimulation as an adjunct to ... The specific aims of this proposal are: 1) To assess the effectiveness of high-level neuromuscular electrical stimulation is an ...

*  United States Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device Market Report 2017 | Medgadget

United States Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device Market Report 2017. June 14th, 2017 Research N Reports Releases ... "United States Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device Market Report 2017" Purchase This Report by calling ResearchnReports. ... In this report, the United States Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is ... This market report offers a comprehensive analysis of the global Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device market. This report ...

*  EndoStim Electrical Stimulation Therapy - Wikipedia

EndoStim Electrical Stimulation Therapy is a form of anti-reflux surgery, intended to assist in correcting a problem with the ... EndoStim's proprietary technology uses functional electrical stimulation (a type of neuromodulation) to restore esophageal ... "Electrical Stimulation Therapy (EST) of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) Is Successful in Treating GERD - Final Results of ... electrical stimulation therapy significantly and consistently increased LES pressure. An open-label trial conducted in Chile ...

*  Electrical stimulation therapy can relieve low back pain in older adults: study

"Electrical stimulation therapy can relieve low back pain in older adults: study." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 13 ... Electrical stimulation therapy could offer older adults with chronic pain an effective alternative to other treatments, ... Health, U. (2015, November 13). "Electrical stimulation therapy can relieve low back pain in older adults: study." Medical News ... The study is the first to compare response to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation therapy, or TENS, across age groups. ...

*  Patent US7769472 - Electrical stimulation lead with conformable array of electrodes - Google Patents

... pelvic floor stimulation to alleviate incontinence or sexual dysfunction, or deep brain stimulation to alleviate neurological ... The lead may be useful in a variety of applications such as spinal cord stimulation to alleviate chronic pain, gastrointestinal ... An implantable electrical lead may include a conformable array of electrodes. The array of electrodes may be distributed across ... a rounded surface to position the electrodes in various positions and orientations relative to a target stimulation site. ...

*  Stroke Gait Rehabilitation Using Functional Electrical Stimulation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Fast treadmill walking with ankle electrical stimulation. Other: Fast walking and FES Fast treadmill walking with electrical ... Fast treadmill walking without electrical stimulation. Other: Fast treadmill walking Fast treadmill walking without electrical ... Stroke Gait Rehabilitation Using Functional Electrical Stimulation. This study is currently recruiting participants. See ... Also, magnetic brain stimulation maybe used to measure brain-muscle connections, and muscle stimulation may be used to measure ...

*  Procedure Overview of Electric Stimulation Therapy -- ChiroACCESS

Electric Stimulation Therapy AND Contraindications Electric Stimulation Therapy AND Methods Electric Stimulation Therapy AND ... One RCT was located that compared neuromuscular electrical stimulation to submotor electrical stimulation and sham stimulation ... Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Septic Shock (Status: Not yet recruiting) Electrical Stimulation Therapy Using the MC5 ... Electrical Stimulation in Patients With Unipolar Major Depression (Status: Completed) Electrical Stimulation in Patients With ...

Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Sensory stimulation therapy: Sensory stimulation therapy (SST) is an experimental therapy that aims to utilize neural plasticity mechanisms to aid in the recovery of somatosensory function after stroke or cognitive ageing. Stroke and cognitive ageing are well known sources of cognitive loss, the former by neuronal death, the later by weakening of neural connections.Horseshoe bat: Horseshoe bats make up the bat family Rhinolophidae. In addition to the single living genus, Rhinolophus, one extinct genus, Palaeonycteris, has been recognized.Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis is a technology for restoring sight to blind patients suffering from degenerative retinal diseases. In retinal degenerative diseases such as Retinitis Pigmentosa and Age-Related Macular Degeneration, patients loss ‘image capturing’ photo-receptors, but, neurons in the ‘image-processing’ inner retinal layers are relatively well preserved.Blind electric rayPrelingual deafness: A prelingual deaf individual is someone who was born with a hearing loss, or whose hearing loss occurred before they began to speak. Infants usually start saying their first words around one year.Pitch spaceEquivalent rectangular bandwidth: The equivalent rectangular bandwidth or ERB is a measure used in psychoacoustics, which gives an approximation to the bandwidths of the filters in human hearing, using the unrealistic but convenient simplification of modeling the filters as rectangular band-pass filters.Psychoacoustics: Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception. More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound (including speech and music).Homeostatic plasticity: In neuroscience, homeostatic plasticity refers to the capacity of neurons to regulate their own excitability relative to network activity, a compensatory adjustment that occurs over the timescale of days. Synaptic scaling has been proposed as a potential mechanism of homeostatic plasticity.Ventricular action potentialReference electrode: A reference electrode is an electrode which has a stable and well-known electrode potential. The high stability of the electrode potential is usually reached by employing a redox system with constant (buffered or saturated) concentrations of each participants of the redox reaction.Cats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingElectromagnetic environment: In telecommunication, the term electromagnetic environment (EME) has the following meanings:Periodic current reversalHSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).New Zealand rabbitBioelectrogenesis: Bioelectrogenesis is the generation of electricity by living organisms, a phenomenon that belongs to the science of electrophysiology. The nerve impulse is a bioelectric event.Chicago Electrical Trauma Research Institute: The Chicago Electrical Trauma Research Institute(CETRI) |url=http://www.cetri.NeurostimulationNeurotechnology: Neurotechnology is any technology that has a fundamental influence on how people understand the brain and various aspects of consciousness, thought, and higher order activities in the brain. It also includes technologies that are designed to improve and repair brain function and allow researchers and clinicians to visualize the brain.Overhead power line: An overhead power line is a structure used in electric power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy along large distances. It consists of one or more conductors (commonly multiples of three) suspended by towers or poles.Electrical conductivity meterGene electrotransfer: Gene electrotransfer is a versatile biotechnology technique that enables the transfer of genetic material into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. It is based on a physical method named electroporation, where a transient increase in the permeability of cell membrane is achieved when submitted to short and intense electric pulses, thus enabling the transport of large molecules (naked plasmid DNA, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA) into cells that otherwise cannot permeate through the cell membrane.Proton exchange membrane fuel cellTorpedo ram: A torpedo ram is a type of torpedo boat combining a ram with torpedo tubes. Incorporating design elements from the cruiser and the monitor, it was intended to provide small and inexpensive weapon systems for coastal defence and other littoral combat.Jakob SegalCalcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Electroanalgesia: Electroanalgesia is a form of analgesia, or pain relief, that uses electricity to ease pain. Electrical devices can be internal or external, at the site of pain (local) or delocalized throughout the whole body.Pentameric protein: A pentameric protein is a quaternary protein structure that consists of five protein subunits. These sub-units come together to form a channel.Reversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.Bipolar electrochemistry: Bipolar electrochemistry is a phenomenon in electrochemistry based on the polarization of conducting objects in electric fields. Indeed, this polarization generates a potential difference between the two extremities of the substrate that is equal to the electric field value multiplied by the size of the object.Muscle contraction: Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length such as holding a heavy book or a dumbbell at the same position.Master of Advanced Studies in Interaction Design (MAIND), SUPSIHyperphosphorylation: Hyperphosphorylation occurs when a biochemical with multiple phosphorylation sites is fully saturated. Hyperphosphorylation is one of the signalling mechanisms used by the cell to regulate mitosis.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Cell membraneCephalic phase: The cephalic phase of gastric secretion occurs even before food enters the stomach, especially while it is being eaten. It results from the sight, smell, thought, or taste of food, and the greater the appetite, the more intense is the stimulation.Multielectrode array: Multielectrode arrays (MEAs) or microelectrode arrays are devices that contain multiple plates or shanks through which neural signals are obtained or delivered, essentially serving as neural interfaces that connect neurons to electronic circuitry. There are two general classes of MEAs: implantable MEAs, used in vivo, and non-implantable MEAs, used in vitro.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Inyoite: BO)(OH)·4(HO)Aging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.Outline of biophysics: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biophysics:A. N. Hartley: Annie Norah Hartley (1902 – 1994), usually known simply as Norah Hartley, was a dog breeder and the first female board member of the Kennel Club.Crosstalk (biology): Biological crosstalk refers to instances in which one or more components of one signal transduction pathway affects another. This can be achieved through a number of ways with the most common form being crosstalk between proteins of signalling cascades.Withdrawal reflex: The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli. It is polysynaptic, causing stimulation of sensory, association, and motor neurons.Neutron magnetic moment: The neutron magnetic moment is the intrinsic magnetic dipole moment of the neutron, symbol μn. Protons and neutrons, both nucleons, comprise the nucleus of atoms, and both nucleons behave as small magnets whose strengths are measured by their magnetic moments.Miljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant: 230px|thumb|right|Miljacka Hydroelectric Power Plant.Kennel clubMyokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Electroshock (wrestler)Coles PhillipsElectromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy: ENB (Electromagnetic Navigation Bronchoscopy) or EMN bronchoscopy is a medical procedure utilizing electromagnetic technology designed to localize and guide endoscopic tools or catheters through the bronchial pathways of the lung. Using a virtual, three-dimensional (3D) bronchial map from a recently computed tomography (CT) chest scan and disposable catheter set, physicians are able to navigate to a desired location within the lung to biopsy lesions, stage lymph nodes, insert markers to guide radiotherapy or guide brachytherapy catheters.Neuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.

(1/19053) Inhibitory innervation of cat sphincter of Oddi.

1 Electrical stimulation with trains of 0.1-0.2 ms pulses of the cat isolated sphincter of Oddi inhibited the spontaneous contractile activity and lowered base-line tension considerably. A contraction usually followed the period of stimulation. 2 These inhibitory effects were prevented by tetrodotoxin 0.1-0.5 mug/ml but were not reduced by hexamethonilm, morphine, or blockade of alpha- or beta-adrenoreceptors of cholinoceptors with phenoxy-benzamine propranolol or atropine, respectively. 3 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) inhibited the spontaneous sphincter activity and caused relaxation thus mimicking the effects of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (C8-CCK), isoprenaline and prostaglandin E1 and E2. 4 ATP alone (greater than 100 mug/ml) or ATP (greater than 10 mug/ml) plus dipyridamole (1 mug/ml), relaxed the sphincter to the same degrees as did the field stimulation. 5 In sphincter maximally contracted by acetylcholine, the effect of stimulation was more marked than that recorded in uncontracted preparations. 6 The present findings suggest that the sphincter of Oddi receives inhibitory nerves that are neither cholinergic nor adrenergic.  (+info)

(2/19053) Further evidence that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline from adrenergic nerve terminals by restriction of availability of calcium.

1 Guinea-pig vasa deferentia were continuously superfused after labelling the transmitter stores with [3H](-)-noradrenaline. Release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was induced by transmural nerve stimulation. 2 Prostglandin E2 (14 nM) drastically reduced the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline, while tetraethylammonium (2 mM), rubidium (6 mM), phenoxybenzamine (3 muM) each in the presence or absence of Uptake 1 or 2 blockade, and prolonged pulse duration (from 0.5 to 2.0 ms) all significantly increased the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline per nerve impulse. 3 The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on evoked release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration, whilst it was actually enhanced by phenoxybenzamine. This indicates that increased release of noradrenaline per nerve impulse does not per se counteract the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2. 4 It is concluded that tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration counteracted the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on T3H]-(-)-noradrenaline release by promoting calcium influx during the nerve action potential. The results are consistent with, and add more weight to the view that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline by restriction of calcium availability.  (+info)

(3/19053) Automatic activity in depolarized guinea pig ventricular myocardium. Characteristics and mechanisms.

Membrane potential was changed uniformly in segments, 0.7-1.0 mm long, of guinea pig papillary muscles excised from the right ventricle by using extracellular polarizing current pulses applied across two electrically insulated cf preparations superfused with Tyrode's solution at maximum diastolic membrane potentials ranging from-35.2+/-7.5 (threshold) to +4.0+/-9.2 mV. The average maximum dV/dt of RAD ranged from 17.1 to 18.0 V/sec within a membrane potential range of -40 to +20 mV. Raising extracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]0 from 1.8 to 6.8 mM, or application of isoproterenol (10(-6)g/ml) enhanced the rate of RAD, but lowering [Ca2+]0 to 0.4 mM or exposure to MnCl2 (6 mM) abolished RAD. RAD were enhanced by lowering extracellular K+ concentration [K+]0 from 5.4 to 1.5 mM. RAD were suppressed in 40% of fibers by raising [K+]0 to 15.4 mM, and in all fibers by raising [K+]0 to 40.4 mM. This suppression was due to increased [K+]0 and not to K-induced depolarization because it persisted when membrane potential was held by means of a conditioning hyperpolarizing puled gradually after maximum repolarization. These observations suggest that the development of RAD in depolarized myocardium is associated with a time-dependent decrease in outward current (probably K current) and with increase in the background inward current, presumably flowing through the slow cha-nel carrying Ca or Na ions, or both.  (+info)

(4/19053) Reduction in baroreflex cardiovascular responses due to venous infusion in the rabbit.

We studied reflex bradycardia and depression of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during left aortic nerve (LAN) stimulation before and after volume infusion in the anesthetized rabbit. Step increases in mean right atrial pressure (MRAP) to 10 mm Hg did not result in a significant change in heart rate or MAP. After volume loading, responses to LAN stimulation were not as great and the degree of attenuation was propoetional to the level of increased MRAP. A change in responsiveness was observed after elevation of MRAP by only 1 mm Hg, corresponding to less than a 10% increase in average calculated blood volume. after an increase in MRAP of 10 mm Hg, peak responses were attenuated by 44% (heart rate) and 52% (MAP), and the initial slopes (rate of change) were reduced by 46% (heart rate) and 66% (MAP). Comparison of the responses after infusion with blood and dextran solutions indicated that hemodilution was an unlikely explanation for the attenuation of the reflex responses. Total arterial baroreceptor denervation (ABD) abolished the volume-related attenuation was still present following bilateral aortic nerve section or vagotomy. It thus appears that the carotid sinus responds to changes inblood volume and influences the reflex cardiovascular responses to afferent stimulation of the LAN. On the other hand, cardiopulmonary receptors subserved by vagal afferents do not appear to be involved.  (+info)

(5/19053) The effect of cardiac contraction on collateral resistance in the canine heart.

We determined whether the coronary collateral vessels develop an increased resistance to blood flow during systole as does the cognate vascular bed. Collateral resistance was estimated by measuring retrograde flow rate from a distal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery while the main left coronary artery was perfused at a constant pressure. Retrograde flow rate was measured before and during vagal arrest. We found that in 10 dogs the prolonged diastole experienced when the heart was stopped caused no significant change in the retrograde flow rate, which indicated that systole has little effect on the collateral resistance. However, when left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was altered by changing afterload or contractility, a direct relationship between end-diastolic pressure and collateral resistance was noted.  (+info)

(6/19053) Effect of electrotonic potentials on pacemaker activity of canine Purkinje fibers in relation to parasystole.

Isolated false tendons excised form dog hearts were mounted in a three-chamber tissue bath. Isotonic sucrose solution was perfused in the central chamber to provide a region of depressed conductivity between the fiber segments in chambers 1 and 3, which were perfused with Tyrode's solution. The electrotonic influence of spontaneous or driven responses evoked in chamber 3 during the first half of the spontaneous cycle of a chamber 1 peacemaker delayed the next spontaneous discharge. This effect changed to acceleration when the chamber 3 segment fired during the second half of the spontaneous cycle. We found that subthreshold depolarizing current pulses 50-300 msec applied across the sucrose gap caused similar degrees of delay or acceleration. Furthermore, hyperpolarizing currents caused the reverse pattern. The results indicate that the discharge pattern of a parasystolic focus may be altered by the electrotonic influence of activity in the surrounding tissue. The significance of these findings is considered in relation to the mechanism of production of parasystolic rhythms.  (+info)

(7/19053) Evaluation of the force-frequency relationship as a descriptor of the inotropic state of canine left ventricular myocardium.

The short-term force-frequency characteristics of canine left ventricular myocardium were examined in both isolated and intact preparations by briefly pertubing the frequency of contraction with early extrasystoles. The maximum rate of rise of isometric tension (Fmas) of the isolated trabeculae carneae was potentiated by the introduction of extrasystoles. The ratio of Fmas of potentiated to control beats (force-frequency ratio) was not altered significantly by a change in muscle length. However, exposure of the trabeculae to isoproterenol (10(-7)M) significantly changed the force-frequency ratio obtained in response to a constant frequency perturbation. Similar experiments were performed on chronically instrumented conscious dogs. Left ventricular minor axis diameter was measured with implanted pulse-transit ultrasonic dimension transducers, and intracavitary pressure was measured with a high fidelity micromanometer. Atrial pacing was performed so that the end-diastolic diameters of the beats preceding and following the extrasystole could be made identical. Large increases in the maximum rate of rise of pressure (Pmas) were seen in the contraction after the extrasystole. The ratio of Pmax of the potentiated beat to that of the control beat was not changed by a 9% increase in the end-diastolic diameter, produced by saline infusion. Conversely, isoproterenol significantly altered this relationship in the same manner as in the isolated muscle. Thus, either in vitro or in situ, left ventricular myocardium exhibits large functional changes in response to brief perturbations in rate. The isoproterenol and length data indicate that the force-frequency ratio reflects frequency-dependent changes in the inotropic state, independent of changes in length.  (+info)

(8/19053) Developmental synaptic changes increase the range of integrative capabilities of an identified excitatory neocortical connection.

Excitatory synaptic transmission between pyramidal cells and fast-spiking (FS) interneurons of layer V of the motor cortex was investigated in acute slices by using paired recordings at 30 degrees C combined with morphological analysis. The presynaptic and postsynaptic properties at these identified central synapses were compared between 3- and 5-week-old rats. At these two postnatal developmental stages, unitary EPSCs were mediated by the activation of AMPA receptors with fast kinetics at a holding potential of -72 mV. The amplitude distribution analysis of the EPSCs indicates that, at both stages, pyramidal-FS connections consisted of multiple functional release sites. The apparent quantal size obtained by decreasing the external calcium ([Ca2+]e) varied from 11 to 29 pA near resting membrane potential. In young rats, pairs of presynaptic action potentials elicited unitary synaptic responses that displayed paired-pulse depression at all tested frequencies. In older animals, inputs from different pyramidal cells onto the same FS interneuron had different paired-pulse response characteristics and, at most of these connections, a switch from depression to facilitation occurred when decreasing the rate of presynaptic stimulation. The balance between facilitation and depression endows pyramidal-FS connections from 5-week-old animals with wide integrative capabilities and confers unique functional properties to each synapse.  (+info)



Neuromuscular

  • Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can be used in swallowing therapy. (lifebridgehealth.org)
  • The aims of this study are: 1) to assess the effectiveness of high-level neuromuscular electrical stimulation as an adjunct to ongoing intensive, early rehabilitation in restoring quadriceps strength and improving the functional outcome after primary TKA, and 2) to identify the physiological and morphological bases for improvements in quadriceps strength and functional outcome. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be used to improve strength and function following injury or surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • FES is sometimes also referred to as neuromuscular electrical stimulation ^(NMES). (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lateral electrical surface stimulation is a neuromuscular stimulation treatment for idiopathic scoliosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a non-invasive scoliosis treatment that utilizes electrical muscle stimulation, which is also known as neurostimulation or neuromuscular stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In LESS treatment, the patient is treated through neuromuscular stimulation each night during sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurostimulation electrodes "are placed on the convex side of the curve in the region of the posterior to midaxillary line" in order to engage the back muscles through neuromuscular stimulation as the patient sleeps. (wikipedia.org)

Functional Electrical

  • Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a technique that uses low energy electrical pulses to artificially generate body movements in individuals who have been paralyzed due to injury to the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this embodiment, FES is used as a short-term therapy, the objective of which is restoration of voluntary function and not lifelong dependence on the FES device, hence the name functional electrical stimulation therapy, FES therapy (FET or FEST). (wikipedia.org)
  • EndoStim's proprietary technology uses functional electrical stimulation (a type of neuromodulation) to restore esophageal function, thereby reducing GERD symptoms. (wikipedia.org)

transcutaneous

  • A flexible transcutaneous electrical nerve and/or muscle stimulation electrode is provided which utilizes a conductive material, preferably a conductive fabric, and electrical shunt means disposed along the conductive material for causing more uniform resistivity between any two equally spaced apart. (google.com)
  • The study is the first to compare response to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation therapy, or TENS, across age groups. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This category includes a variety of electrical currents to include high voltage galvanic, interferential, Russian stimulation, transcutaneous nerve stimulation and micro-current, etc. (chiroaccess.com)
  • This is distinct from transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), in which an electric current is used for pain therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS or TNS) is the use of electric current produced by a device to stimulate the nerves for therapeutic purposes. (wikipedia.org)

deep brain stimu

  • The lead may be useful in a variety of applications such as spinal cord stimulation to alleviate chronic pain, gastrointestinal stimulation to alleviate gastroparesis or obesity, pelvic floor stimulation to alleviate incontinence or sexual dysfunction, or deep brain stimulation to alleviate neurological disorders. (google.co.uk)
  • Alim Louis Benabid is a French emeritus professor, neurosurgeon and member of the French Academy of Sciences, who has had a global impact in the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • For patients suffering from Parkinson's disease, Benabid and Pierre Pollak, a neurologist at the University Hospital of Grenoble, also developed deep brain stimulation (DBS) in 1987. (wikipedia.org)

Cranial Electrother

  • Fisher Wallace Laboratories, LLC, headquartered in New York City, markets the Fisher Wallace Stimulator, a cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) device. (wikipedia.org)
  • June 11, 2014 FDA To Propose Approval/Reclassification of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Devices for Insomnia Melinda Beck for the Wall Street Journal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rigorous clinical trial evidence is lacking on the use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) in acute depression. (wikipedia.org)

gastroparesis

  • Gastric electrical stimulation, also known as implantable gastric stimulation, is the use of specific devices to provide electrical stimulation to the stomach to try to bring about weight loss in those who are overweight or improve gastroparesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Originally developed as a nonpharmacologic alternative for treatment of gastroparesis, gastric stimulation has been evaluated as a weight-loss aid and most recently as an option for patients with diabetes unresponsive to drug therapy. (medpagetoday.com)

delivery of electrical stimulation

  • In one example, a method includes receiving, via a programmer for an electrical stimulator, user input that graphically manipulates at least one of size and a shape of a graphical representation of at least one electrical stimulation zone displayed on the programmer, and defining a program to control delivery of electrical stimulation therapy based on the user input. (google.co.uk)

pulses

  • It seems novel to use electricty for a purpose other than pacing - but they've got data showing nonstimulatory electric pulses improve heart contractility in failing hearts. (medgadget.com)
  • A first set of stimulation pulses is delivered to the stomach to suppress appetite and limit food intake, and a second set of stimulation pulses is delivered to the. (google.com)
  • 2 . The method of claim 1 , further comprising applying the first and second sets of electrical pulses substantially continuously. (google.com)
  • 14. The stimulator of claim 8 , wherein parameters of the electrical stimulation pulses are selected to alleviate symptoms of one or more of chronic pain, a gastrointestinal disorder, a urinary tract disorder, or sexual dysfunction. (google.co.uk)
  • Tiny pulses of electric current are delivered to the LES without causing any sensation. (wikipedia.org)

obesity

  • The disclosure describes techniques for electrical stimulation to regulate the caloric intake of a patient and thereby alleviate obesity. (google.com)
  • In this manner, the electrical stimulation limits food intake and caloric absorption, providing a two-pronged therapy for obesity. (google.com)

wherein

  • 2. The electrical stimulation body pack according to claim 1 wherein both pouch surfaces include a loop material and said flexible electrical stimulation electrode comprises hook means for providing placement of the electrode at various positions on both pouch surfaces. (google.com)
  • 5. The electrical stimulation body pack according to claim 4 wherein said means for positioning and compressing said flexible pouch against a body part comprises at least one loop attached to one side of the flexible pouch and a strap sized for passing through said loop and around the body part. (google.com)
  • 7. The electrical stimulation body pack according to claim 3 wherein the pouch and the flexible electrode attached thereto are washable. (google.com)
  • 2. The flexible stimulation electrode according to claim 1 wherein said conductive fabric comprises a knit of conductive fibers having a higher resistivity along a longitudinal direction of knit than along a transverse direction of knit. (google.com)
  • 3. The flexible stimulation electrode according to claim 2 wherein the resistivity along the longitudinal direction of knit is up to about 20 times the resistivity along the transverse direction of knit. (google.com)
  • 4. The flexible stimulation electrode according to claim 1 wherein said electrical shunt means includes a plurality of strands disposed in a vein-like manner having a dichotomous venation. (google.com)
  • 8. The flexible stimulation electrode according to claims 4, 5, 6 or 7 wherein said electrical shunt means is disposed on an opposite side of said conductive fabric and is held against said opposite side in an electrically conductive manner by the flexible solid conductive adhesive disposed in said interstitial area. (google.com)
  • 9. The flexible stimulation electrode according to claim 8 wherein said electrode shunt means comprises a plurality of strands of stainless steel wire having a diameter of about 8 microns. (google.com)
  • 2. The lead of claim 1 , wherein the distal end is flexible and at least partially conformable to a target stimulation site. (google.co.uk)
  • 4. The lead of claim 1 , wherein the stimulation electrodes include at least sixteen stimulation electrodes. (google.co.uk)
  • 11. The stimulator of claim 8 , wherein the stimulation electrodes include at least sixteen stimulation electrodes. (google.co.uk)
  • 18. The method of claim 15 , wherein the distal end is flexible and at least partially conformable to a target stimulation site. (google.co.uk)
  • 19. The method of claim 15 , wherein the stimulation electrodes include at least sixteen stimulation electrodes. (google.co.uk)
  • 21. The method of claim 15 , wherein the lead further comprises one or more sensing electrodes positioned on at least one of the concave surface or the convex surface of the distal end, the method further comprising sensing at least one electrical signal via the sensing electrodes. (google.co.uk)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 , wherein the electrical stimulation is configured to treat symptoms of occipital neuralgia. (google.de)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the electrical stimulation is configured to treat at least one of pain or tension in at least one of a head, neck or facial region of a patient. (google.de)
  • 6. The method of claim 1 , wherein the electrical stimulation device includes at least one electrode and a flexible member that at least partially encapsulates the at least partially bendable housing, and wherein the at least one electrode protrudes through the flexible member. (google.de)
  • 8. The method of claim 1 , wherein the at least partially bendable housing defines a hole, and wherein a suture is placed through the hole to anchor the electrical stimulation device at a stimulation site in the subcutaneous region. (google.de)
  • 9. The method of claim 1 , wherein the electrical stimulation device include a plurality of electrodes arranged in a two-dimensional array on a surface of the housing. (google.de)
  • 2 . The programmer of claim 1 , wherein the user input comprises stretching the representation of the at least one stimulation zone. (google.co.uk)
  • 3 . The programmer of claim 1 , wherein the user input further comprises moving the representation of the at least one stimulation zone from a first location on a display to a second location on the display. (google.co.uk)
  • 4 . The programmer of claim 1 , wherein the user interface further receives user input that defines an intensity of the at least one electrical stimulation zone. (google.co.uk)
  • 5 . The programmer of claim 1 , wherein the processor is configured to control at least one of a rate of change of a stretch of the at least one stimulation zone and a rate of change of a move of the at least one stimulation zone. (google.co.uk)

electrically

  • a lead wire electrically connected to the flexible nerve and muscle stimulation electrode. (google.com)
  • electrically conductive gel means for releasably coupling the flexible electrical nerve and muscle stimulation electrode to said body part, said electrically conductive gel means being removable from said flexible pouch. (google.com)
  • In a sense, the electrical stimulation electrically mimics the physiological effects of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure without the need for surgery. (google.com)
  • Electrical brain stimulation was first used in the first half of the 19th century by pioneering researchers such as Luigi Rolando[citation needed](1773-1831) and Pierre Flourens[citation needed](1794-1867), to study the brain localization of function, following the discovery by Italian physician Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) that nerves and muscles were electrically excitable. (wikipedia.org)

electrode

  • 6. The electrical stimulation body pack according to claim 3 comprising a plurality of flexible electrodes attached to said pouch in a spaced apart array with each electrode having a separate lead wire attached thereto. (google.com)
  • determine, without user intervention, an electrical stimulation contribution of the at least one defined electrode to the at least one stimulation zone. (google.co.uk)
  • generate, without user intervention, an electrical stimulation amplitude to be delivered by the at least one defined electrode based on the determined electrical stimulation contribution of the at least one defined electrode and a defined intensity. (google.co.uk)
  • modify, without user intervention, the electrical stimulation amplitude to be delivered by the electrode carried by the housing of the IMD in response to at least one of the user interface receiving user input graphically defining a representation of another electrical stimulation zone, the at least one electrical stimulation zone moving, and the at least one electrical stimulation zone stretching. (google.co.uk)

therapy

  • Electrical stimulation therapy could offer older adults with chronic pain an effective alternative to other treatments, including prescription painkillers, the UF researchers say. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • TENS therapy uses a small battery-operated machine that delivers low-voltage electrical current through electrodes placed on the skin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Electric stimulation therapy is the use of electrical currents in the treatment of disease and injury. (chiroaccess.com)
  • Various programming techniques are described for medical devices that deliver electrical stimulation therapy that may include mapping between discrete electrical stimulation parameters and a graphical view of the electrical stimulation representing a stimulation zone generated by the parameters. (google.co.uk)
  • EndoStim Electrical Stimulation Therapy is a form of anti-reflux surgery, intended to assist in correcting a problem with the muscles at the bottom of the esophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first clinical study using EndoStim technology was published in 2010, showing that in patients with GERD, electrical stimulation therapy significantly and consistently increased LES pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Argentina's ANMAT Approves EndoStim® LES Stimulation Therapy for Patients with. (wikipedia.org)

spinal

  • A new study published in the online edition of the journal Science has revealed that scientists have successfully used electric stimulation of brain and spine to make rats with spinal cord injuries that had left their hind legs paralyzed to regain the use of their legs. (medindia.net)
  • The rats were then made to undergo an intensive program which included electric stimulation in the brain, spinal cord and chemical stimulation in the wound area. (medindia.net)
  • Also, magnetic brain stimulation maybe used to measure brain-muscle connections, and muscle stimulation may be used to measure spinal-cord circuits during the training. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The stimulation creates muscle contractions and strengthens the patient's back in order to gradually straighten out the spinal curvature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research into new treatments for spinal cord injuries includes stem cell implantation, engineered materials for tissue support, epidural spinal stimulation, and wearable robotic exoskeletons. (wikipedia.org)

nerve stimulation

  • Vagal nerve stimulation led to HbA1c reductions approaching 2% in a smaller study reported at the meeting. (medpagetoday.com)
  • A second report at the meeting showed that vagal nerve stimulation induced HbA1c reductions that averaged 1.4% at one month, 1.3% at three months, and 1.7% at six months. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In other words, the afferent nerves are stimulated to evoke a reflex, which is typically expressed as a coordinated contraction of one or more muscles in response to the sensory nerve stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the direction of propagation in case of the antidromic stimulation and the sensory nerve stimulation is the same, i.e., towards the central nervous system, their end effects are very different. (wikipedia.org)

muscles

  • It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the detection threshold of the skin to pain. (chiroaccess.com)
  • However, some authors imply that EMS can lead to exercise, since people toning their muscles with electrical stimulation are more likely afterwards to participate in sporting activities as the body becomes ready, fit, willing and able to take on physical activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was discovered that the body functions induced by electrical stimulation caused long-term changes in the muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent medical physiology research pinpointed the mechanisms by which electrical stimulation causes adaptation of cells of muscles, blood vessels and nerves. (wikipedia.org)

device

  • Gastric electrical stimulation is a pacemaker-like device with electrical connections to the surface of the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 34 patients in the study lost about 10 pounds and two inches from their waistline during a six-month evaluation of the device, which discharged electrical current into the gastric antrum. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The device senses food intake and transmits electrical current to the stomach to stimulate gastric contraction. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This market report offers a comprehensive analysis of the global Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device market . (medgadget.com)
  • This report focused on Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device market past and present growth globally. (medgadget.com)
  • A detailed overview of key market drivers, trends, restraints and analyzes the way they affect the Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device market in a positive as well as the negative aspect. (medgadget.com)
  • In this report, the United States Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (medgadget.com)
  • Production Analysis - Production of the Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device is analysed with respect to different regions, types and applications. (medgadget.com)
  • Here, price analysis of various Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device Market key players is also covered. (medgadget.com)
  • Sales and Revenue Analysis - Both, sales and revenue are studied for the different regions of the global Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device Market. (medgadget.com)
  • Supply and Consumption - In continuation with sales, this section studies supply and consumption for the Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device Market. (medgadget.com)
  • Competitors - In this section, various Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device industry leading players are studied with respect to their company profile, product portfolio, capacity, price, cost and revenue. (medgadget.com)
  • Other analyses - Apart from the aforementioned information, trade and distribution analysis for the Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device Market, contact information of major manufacturers, suppliers and key consumers is also given. (medgadget.com)
  • The report talks about the market dynamics - the trends that are shaping the global Respiratory Electrical Stimulation Device market. (medgadget.com)
  • The device may be a neurostimulation device having a miniaturized housing with a low profile that permits subcutaneous implantation at a stimulation site directly adjacent a neuralgic region at the back of the neck of a patient. (google.de)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 , further comprising implanting the electrical stimulation device in the subcutaneous region within the back of the neck of the patient. (google.de)
  • The lead is brought out into a small pocket located under the abdominal skin and connected to the stimulation device (IPG). (wikipedia.org)

nerves

  • Typically FES is concerned with stimulation of neurons and nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrical charge can stimulate both motor and sensory nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some applications, the nerves are stimulated to generate localized muscle activity, i.e., the stimulation is aimed at generating direct muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case where sensory nerves are stimulated, the reflex arcs are triggered by the stimulation on sensory nerve axons at specific peripheral sites. (wikipedia.org)

transcranial

  • To attempt to modify the DLPFC, researchers used a method called transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). (digitaljournal.com)
  • Researchers led by Ursula Voss at the J.W. Goethe University Frankfurt, used a technique called transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to explore the causes of lucid dreaming. (nydailynews.com)

electrodes

  • This process involves moving a weak constant electrical current through saline-soaked electrodes. (digitaljournal.com)
  • The gadget comprises two small boxes with electrodes that are placed next to the skull and send a very weak, low-frequency electrical signal across the brain. (nydailynews.com)
  • An implantable electrical lead may include a conformable array of electrodes. (google.co.uk)
  • The array of electrodes may be distributed across a rounded surface to position the electrodes in various positions and orientations relative to a target stimulation site. (google.co.uk)
  • Now, if someone were to probe the brain by placing electrodes in the primary visual cortex, they may find what appears to be random electrical activity. (wikipedia.org)

implantable electrical

  • Explain to patients that two different types of implantable electrical stimulators improved diabetes control and induced weight loss. (medpagetoday.com)

electrotherapy

  • Electrical brain stimulation is a form of electrotherapy and technique used in research and clinical neurobiology to stimulate a neuron or neural network in the brain through the direct or indirect excitation of its cell membrane by using an electric current. (digitaljournal.com)

ablation

  • As described in a 2010 interview with Benabid in the medical journal Lancet, electrical stimulation was used during surgery to locate the ablation target and predict lesioning effects. (wikipedia.org)

TENS

  • The key to TENS' effectiveness in older adults is ensuring they receive an adequate dose, or amplitude, of electrical stimulation, said lead investigator Corey Simon, Ph.D., D.P.T., a postdoctoral researcher in the Pain Research and Intervention Center of Excellence at the UF Clinical and Translational Science Institute. (medicalnewstoday.com)

elicit

  • An electrical stimulation can artificially elicit this action potential by changing the electric potential across a nerve cell membrane (this also includes the nerve axon) by inducing electrical charge in the immediate vicinity of the outer membrane of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • EBS could elicit the ritualistic, motor responses of sham rage in cats by stimulation of the anterior hypothalamus, as well as more complex emotional and behavioral components of "true rage" in both experimental animals by stimulaton of the lateral hypothalamus, and in human subjects by stimulating various deep areas of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the main goal of neural decoding is to characterize how the electrical activity of neurons elicit activity and responses in the brain. (wikipedia.org)

neurons

  • In neurons, information is coded and transmitted as a series of electrical impulses called action potentials, which represent a brief change in cell electric potential of approximately 80-90 mV. (wikipedia.org)

patients

  • American-Canadian neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield (1891-1976) and colleagues at the Montreal Neurological Institute used extensively electrical stimulation of the brain cortex in awake neurosurgical patients to investigate the motor and sensory homunculus (the representation of the body in the brain cortex according to the distribution of motor and sensory territories). (wikipedia.org)
  • EBS in human patients with epilepsy could trigger seizures in the surface of the brain and pathologic aggression and rage with stimulation of the amygdala. (wikipedia.org)

potentials

  • Becker has been credited with furthering the awareness of the scientific community to the study of electric potentials in organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1960s Becker's research also showed that living bone can piezoelectrically generate electric potentials, which led to work on using electricity in the treatment of ununited fractures. (wikipedia.org)
  • using evoked potentials and electrical stimulation. (wikipedia.org)

acute

  • A comprehensive review of EBS research compiled a list of many different acute impacts of stimulation depending on the brain region targeted. (wikipedia.org)

Therapeutic

  • Electrical muscle stimulation can be used as a training, therapeutic, or cosmetic tool. (wikipedia.org)

generate

  • Typically, FES is concerned with orthodromic stimulation and uses it to generate coordinated muscle contractions. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 19th and 20th centuries, researchers studied and documented the exact electrical properties that generate muscle movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, heterogeneous ionic conductivity fields in the presence of applied electric fields can, under certain conditions, generate an unstable flow field owing to electrokinetic instabilities (EKI). (wikipedia.org)

tissue

  • However, special care must be taken in designing safe FES devices, as passing electric current through tissue can lead to adverse effects such as decrease in excitability or cell death. (wikipedia.org)

neuroscience

  • The study, reported in the journal Nature Neuroscience, found that a harmless electrical current could bring on 'lucid dreaming. (nydailynews.com)

cortex

  • The stimulation of the surface of the cerebral cortex by using brain stimulation was used to investigate the motor cortex in animals by researchers such as Eduard Hitzig (1838-1907), Gustav Fritsch (1838-1927), David Ferrier (1842-1928) and Friedrich Goltz (1834-1902). (wikipedia.org)

Current

  • Activated from morning until bedtime, the VBLOC, made by EnteroMedics, delivers preprogrammed electrical current on an intermittent basis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Scientists said they had used a harmless electrical current to modify sleep so that an individual has 'lucid dreams,' a particularly powerful form of dreaming. (nydailynews.com)
  • Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. (chiroaccess.com)
  • His work showed that living organisms and animals show a direct current of electric charge which is measurable from their body surface. (wikipedia.org)

spine

  • The researchers said that the rats underwent intensive training program and electric stimulation of brain and spine that allowed them to regain the use of their paralyzed hind legs. (medindia.net)

Procedure

  • Since electrical stimulation itself sometimes seemed to quiet tremor during the procedure, Benabid reasoned this might be a solution. (wikipedia.org)

scientists

  • One group of scientists state they have found a way to improve creativity through brain stimulation. (digitaljournal.com)

brain

  • London - Is it possible to boost creativity by applying electrical stimulation to the brain? (digitaljournal.com)
  • While the findings are fascinating, further research is required not least to see if there are any on-going problems with the use of electrical stimulation of the brain. (digitaljournal.com)
  • However, brain stimulation should always be carefully monitored by a physician,' she cautioned. (nydailynews.com)
  • This approach was used by Dr.James Olds (1922-1976) and colleagues to discover brain stimulation reward and the pleasure center. (wikipedia.org)

continuously

  • As technology advanced to allow such stimulation to be continuously applied for a long time, DBS became widely adopted in the 1990s for treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. (wikipedia.org)

rats

  • Stimulation of partial limb regeneration in rats. (wikipedia.org)

includes

  • An electrical stimulation heat/cool pack includes a nonconductive pouch and straps for positioning and holding the nonconductive pouch against a body part. (google.com)

researchers

  • While previous research has suggested that older adults may have a diminished capacity for experiencing pain relief, University of Florida researchers have found that with the correct dosage, electrical stimulation treatment can help ease back pain in older adults. (medicalnewstoday.com)

activate

  • In other applications, stimulation is used to activate simple or complex reflexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Areas S2 in the left and right hemispheres are densely interconnected, and stimulation on one side of the body will activate area S2 in both hemispheres. (wikipedia.org)

body

  • State University of New York Press, Albany 1982, ISBN 0-87395-560-9 The Body Electric. (wikipedia.org)

Electromagnetic

  • JFETs can withstand electrical, electromagnetic interference (EMI) and other high radiation shocks better than MOSFET circuits. (wikipedia.org)

Thus

  • Kinetic energy from the moving ions would thus be converted to electrical energy. (wikipedia.org)

treatment

  • Lateral electrical surface stimulation as an alternative to bracing in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. (wikipedia.org)

method

  • In October 2003, Dr. Daniel Kwok, Dr. Larry Kostiuk and two graduate students from the University of Alberta discussed a method of hydrodynamic to electrical energy conversion by exploiting the natural electrokinetic properties of a liquid such as ordinary tap water, by pumping fluids through tiny micro-channels with a pressure difference. (wikipedia.org)

improve

  • The focus of this project is to understand the effects of different methods (such as treadmill walking and electrical stimulation) that can be used to improve walking in people with stroke. (clinicaltrials.gov)