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ElastinTropoelastin: A salt-soluble precursor of elastin. Lysyl oxidase is instrumental in converting it to elastin in connective tissue.Desmosine: A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.Elastic Tissue: Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.Isodesmosine: 2-(4-Amino-4-carboxybutyl)-1-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-3,5-bis(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)pyridinium. A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase: An enzyme oxidizing peptidyl-lysyl-peptide in the presence of water & molecular oxygen to yield peptidyl-allysyl-peptide plus ammonia & hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.4.3.13.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Aortic Stenosis, Supravalvular: A pathological constriction occurring in the region above the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Cutis Laxa: A group of connective tissue diseases in which skin hangs in loose pendulous folds. It is believed to be associated with decreased elastic tissue formation as well as an abnormality in elastin formation. Cutis laxa is usually a genetic disease, but acquired cases have been reported. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Matrix Metalloproteinase 12: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Aminopropionitrile: Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.Microfibrils: Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.

*  cutis laxa - oi
An Elastin Gene Mutation Producing Abnormal Tropoelastin and Abnormal Elastic Fibres in a Patient with Autosomal Dominant Cutis ... Autosomal dominant cutis laxa can be caused by mutations in the elastin gene. Mutations in the gene encoding fibulin-5 can ...
  http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095655239
*  Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis | St. Louis Children's Hospital
Isolated SVAS is caused by genetic changes in the elastin gene (ELN) that can be passed from parent to child. Elastin defects ... The elastin gene provides instructions for making a protein called tropoelastin. Elastin is the major component of elastic ... In children with Williams syndrome, the elastin gene is deleted along with 25-27 other genes that cause developmental delays ...
  http://www.stlouischildrens.org/diseases-conditions/supravalvular-aortic-stenosis
*  Williams syndrome - Wikipedia
The insufficient supply of elastin may also be the cause of full cheeks, harsh or hoarse voice, hernias and bladder diverticula ... The FISH test examines chromosome #7 and probes for the existence of two copies of the elastin gene. Since 98-99% of ... Researchers have found this hemizygosity for the ELN gene, which codes for the protein elastin, is associated with the ... "Strong correlation of elastin deletions, detected by FISH, with Williams syndrome: Evaluation of 235 patients". American ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Williams_syndrome
*  Patent US7208300 - Member of the lysyl oxidase gene family - Google Patents
Elastin and collagen (types I and III) are the principal structural proteins of the aorta. These fibrillar proteins impart both ... Increased elastin cross-linking in the inner elastic lamina prevents development of aneurysms. Increased EER-7 lysyl oxidase ... Lysyl oxidase (LO, E.C. 1.4.3.13) initiates covalent crosslinking between and within the molecular units of elastin and of ... The infrarenal aorta would therefore appear to be predisposed to aneurysms induced by any process causing accelerated elastin ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US7208300?dq=5787449
*  THE CHANGES IN CHEMICAL COMPOSITION DURING DEVELOPMENT OF THE BOVINE NUCHAL LIGAMENT | JCB
Insoluble elastin concentration was low until the end of the 7th fetal month, at which time it began to rise rapidly. The rate ... Insoluble elastin was quantitatively prepared from the fresh ligaments by extraction with hot alkali and by a combination of ... Collagen appeared in appreciable quantities before elastin, but its concentration was rapidly halved at about the time of birth ... Total collagen production and elastin deposition continue at a steady, maximal rate over the interval from 235 days of ...
  http://jcb.rupress.org/content/33/3/469
*  Fibulin-5
Up-regulation of elastin and fibulin-5 mRNA levels in ICA were strongly correlated with family history of cardiovascular ... Essential for elastic fiber formation, is involved in the assembly of continuous elastin (ELN) polymer and promotes the ... Gene expression levels of elastin and fibulin-5 according to differences between carotid plaque regions.. ...
  https://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/Q9UBX5
*  Efficacy of Minoxidil in Children With Williams-Beuren Syndrome - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Other data demonstrate that minoxidil specifically stimulate elastin synthesis.. Working Hypothesis:If insufficient elastin ... Loss of elastin gene in WBS patients has been claimed to provide a biological basis for the abnormal elastic fibre properties ... Elastin, which is part of the extracellular matrix, controls proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and ... Therefore, as a pharmacological agent capable to stimulate elastin expression, minoxidil might be a useful drug for the ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00876200?cond=%22Williams+syndrome%22&rank=4
*  Systemic elastin degradation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease | Thorax
As elastin fibres degrade, they thicken and occupy a greater relative area,17 which can be quantified to assess elastin ... We speculate that the systemic elastin degradation demonstrated in the skin may also occur in other elastin-rich structures, ... Panel A shows a slide with mild elastin degradation and panel B with severe elastin degradation at 10× magnification. ... Non-sun-exposed skin elastin degradation (percentage of dermis occupied by elastin fibres) was associated with airflow ...
  http://thorax.bmj.com/content/67/7/606
*  Elastin fragments are pro-inflammatory in the progression of emphysema | Thorax
Elastin fragment inhibition by elastin fragment antibody reduced lung macrophage accumulation and airspace disease in this ... Houghton AM, Quintero PA, Perkins DL, et al. Elastin fragments drive disease progression in a murine model of emphysema. J Clin ... Fractionation of BAL fluid from wild-type mice found that elastin fragments were the only matrix protein fragments present in ... The use of an elastin fragment antibody resulted in monocyte chemotaxis inhibition, even in the presence of cigarette smoke. ...
  http://thorax.bmj.com/content/61/7/567
*  Serum Elastase Activity, Serum Elastase Inhibitors, and Occurrence of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques | Circulation
Since elastase has been shown to degrade elastin (elastin is the most resistant fibrous protein of the organisms),3 interest ... Increased elastin-degrading activity and neointimal formation in porcine aortic organ culture: reduction of both features with ... Bizbiz L, Robert L. Micro-methods for serial determinations of elastin metabolism parameters in blood plasma and serum. Pathol ... Robert L, Robert AM, Jacotot B, Elastin-elastase-atherosclerosis revisited. Atherosclerosis. 1998; 140: 281-295. ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/105/22/2638
*  Pancreatic elastase - Wikipedia
The wide specificity of elastases for non-aromatic uncharged side chains can explain its ability to break down native elastin. ... beta barrel domains converging at the active site that hydrolyze amides and esters amongst many proteins in addition to elastin ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancreatic_elastase
*  Elastin - Wikipedia
Elastin helps skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched. Elastin is also an important load-bearing ... "Elastin (ELN)". Retrieved 31 October 2011.. *^ Muiznieks LD, Weiss AS, Keeley FW (Apr 2010). "Structural disorder and dynamics ... Elastin is also very important in the lungs, elastic ligaments, elastic cartilage, the skin, and the bladder. It is present in ... Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elastin
*  COLLAGEN SOLUTIONS
Elastin Collagen Cream, Wrinkle Reducing Shea Butter , Body Butter, Hand Lotion and DermaSoft® Gloves, Microdermabrasion Kit, ...
  http://www.dermasoft.com/collagen.html
*  Articles, tagged with "elastin protein"
Restoring Elastin In Skin Isn't As Hard As You Might Think - Provided You Use The Right Ingredients. 17th June 2009 ... Natural Skincare Ingredients Can Re-Build Collagen And Elastin. 13th February 2009 ...
  http://www.articlealley.com/tags-306851.html
*  Effects of Elastin Peptides on Ion Fluxes | SpringerLink
The degradation of elastin by elastase-type enzymes was shown to play an important role in several pathological processes such ... are able to hydrolyze elastin and release soluble peptides. The released peptides (mainly kappa elastin, KE) were shown to have ... The degradation of elastin by elastase-type enzymes was shown to play an important role in several pathological processes such ... Rabbits immunized with elastin peptides were shown to develop severe arteriosclerosis (Robertet al., 1971; Jacobet al., 1984) ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5598-4_63
*  Body Lotion, Renewing, Collagen & Elastin - Wegmans
Why We (Love) Collagen & Elastin: Collagen and elastin proteins are naturally present in healthy skin. Support these key ... Body Lotion, Renewing, Collagen & Elastin St. Ives Body Lotion, Renewing, Collagen & Elastin 00077043608029 ...
  https://www.wegmans.com/products/personal-care-and-makeup/bath-and-body/lotion/body-lotion-skin-renewing-collagen-elastin.html
*  Elastin Degradation in Human and Experimental Emphysema | SpringerLink
Pulmonary Emphysema Entire Lung Leukocyte Elastase Pancreatic Elastase Elastin Content These keywords were added by machine and ... Mandl I., Darnule T.V., Fierer J.A., Keller S., Turino G.M. (1977) Elastin Degradation in Human and Experimental Emphysema. In ... Work in progress is designed to distinguish the peptides resulting from digestion of human lung elastin by these enzymes on the ... In support of this mechanism we show (1) by biochemical analysis - that elastin content of connective tissue has been decreased ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-9093-0_19
*  Elastin Sports Tape
Browse fuzing.com to find Elastin Sports Tape sellers, suppliers, wholesalers, companies, manufacturers, exporters, factories. ... Elastin Sports Tape. You May Also Be Interested In: cotton fibres elastic adhesive tape sports tape The Elastin Sports Tape is ...
  https://www.fuzing.com/Elastin-Sports-Tape/l/381d5098-b00c-9c3f-69c6-e894b79cde23
*  ONCOR LICENSES ELASTIN GENE PROBE | BioWorld
BioWorld Online is the news service of record for the biotechnology industry and is updated every business morning. BioWorld Online will keep you up to date on all of the industry's business, science and regulatory news -- mergers and collaborations, FDA hearings and results, breakthroughs in research and much more.
  http://www.bioworld.com/content/oncor-licenses-elastin-gene-probe
*  June Jacobs Elastin Collagen Serum | SkinStore
Buy June Jacobs Elastin Collagen Serum online at SkinStore with free shipping! We have a great range of June Jacobs Spa Skin ...
  https://www.skinstore.com/june-jacobs-elastin-collagen-serum/11288202.html
*  Collagen Elastin Creme - Angie's Cosmetics
Rich, emollient cream helps plump and firm skin. Smoothes, soothes and helps improve moisture retention. Potent antioxidants protect against future damage from environmental aggressors. Paraben-free.
  http://www.angiescosmetics.com/collagen-elastin-creme/
*  The elastin receptor: a galactoside-binding protein | Science
The elastin receptor complex contains a component of 67 kilodaltons that binds to a glycoconjugate affinity column containing ... Since lactose also blocks elastic fiber formation by cultured chondroblasts, the galactoside-binding property of the elastin ... and its association with immobilized elastin is inhibited by lactose. ...
  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/239/4847/1539
*  glossary:elastin [Lymphedema People]
glossary:elastin. Elastin:. A yellow elastic fibrous mucoprotein that is the major protein of elastic structures such as blood ... glossary/elastin.txt · Last modified: 2012/10/16 14:40 (external edit) ...
  http://lymphedemapeople.com/wiki/doku.php?id=glossary:elastin
*  What do collagen and elastin do? | Healthy Skin - Sharecare
Collagen and elastin are fibers that make up the supporting structure of the skin. Collagen gives skin its firmness while ... Collagen and elastin are the structure of the skin that maintains both elasticity and firmness. Fibroblast cells create both ... The only way to boost collagen and elastin in the skin is to turn on the fibroblast cells that produce these fibers. This can ... Elastin, as its name implies, enables your skin to stretch and bounce back; it is elastic. ...
  https://www.sharecare.com/health/healthy-skin/what-collagen-and-elastin-do
*  BRAD Biophotonic Ultra Elastin Lift Review - Truth In Aging
Does BRAD Biophotonic Ultra Elastin Lift Active Sculpting Ferment actually work? Click here to read the full review from Truth ... BRAD Biophotonic Ultra Elastin Lift Review Review. is a Solution for: Age Spots, Dry Skin, Dull Skin, Large Pores, Wrinkles, ... I think this Ultra Elastin Lift might be the next step up from that, at more than twice the price. I would consider switching… ... I love the ease of BRAD Biophotonic Ultra Elastin Lift; no smell, just a good clean feeling on the skin, and that subtle easing ...
  https://www.truthinaging.com/review/brad-biophotonic-ultra-elastin-lift-review

Elastin: Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. Elastin helps skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched.Tropoelastin: Tropoelastin is a water-soluble molecule with a molecular weight of approximately 72,000 daltons. Multiple tropoelastin molecules covalently bind together with crosslinks to form the protein elastin that is very prevalent in the body.DesmosineInternal elastic laminaElastaseDegenerative suspensory ligament desmitis: Degenerative Suspensory Ligament Desmitis commonly called DSLD, also known as Equine Systemic Proteoglycan Accumulation (ESPA) is a systemicCollagenDe Barsy syndrome: De Barsy syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder. Symptoms include cutis laxa (loose hanging skin) as well as other eye, musculoskeletal, and neurological abnormalities.Austin B. Williams: Austin Beatty Williams (October 17, 1919 – October 27, 1999) was an American carcinologist, "the acknowledged expert on and leader in studies of the systematics of eastern American decapod crustaceans".}}Moens–Korteweg equation: In biomechanics, the Moens–Korteweg equation models the relationship between wave speed or pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the incremental elastic modulus of the arterial wall or its distensibility. The equation was derived independently by Adriaan Isebree Moens and Diederik Korteweg.Dense connective tissue: Dense connective tissue, also called dense fibrous tissue, has fibers as its main matrix element.Extracellular matrixAminopropionitrileMicrofibril: A microfibril is a very fine fibril, or fiber-like strand, consisting of glycoproteins and cellulose. It is usually, but not always, used as a general term in describing the structure of protein fiber, e.

(1/1299) Repopulation of different layers of host human Bruch's membrane by retinal pigment epithelial cell grafts.

PURPOSE: To determine the morphology of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) after reattachment to different ultrastructural layers of human Bruch's membrane (BM). METHODS: Bruch's membrane explants were prepared from eyes of 23 human donors (age range, 11-89 years). The basal lamina of the RPE, inner collagenous layer, and elastin layer were removed sequentially by mechanical and enzymatic techniques. First-passage cells of human RPE (15,000 cells/6 mm explant) from three donors (ages, 52, 64, and 80 years) were plated onto different layers of human BM, and the explants were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy up to 21 days later. RESULTS: RPE flattened and extended footplates 6 hours after plating onto basal lamina. Cells remained round 6 and 24 hours after plating onto the inner collagenous, elastin, or outer collagenous layer. The RPE cells became confluent 14 days after plating onto basal lamina but did not become confluent up to 21 days after plating onto the inner collagenous or elastin layer. Sparse round cells were observed 21 days after plating onto deeper layers, suggesting extensive loss of RPE. CONCLUSIONS: The morphology and subsequent behavior of the RPE reattached to BM depends on the anatomic layer of BM available for cell reattachment. The results suggest that the ability of transplanted RPE to repopulate BM in age-related macular degeneration and other disorders may depend on the layer of BM available to serve as a substrate for cell reattachment.  (+info)

(2/1299) Suppression of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms by systemic treatment with a hydroxamate-based matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (RS 132908).

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are associated with chronic inflammation, disruption of medial elastin, and increased local production of elastolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a hydroxamate-based MMP antagonist (RS 132908) might affect the development of experimental AAAs. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent intraluminal perfusion of the abdominal aorta with 50 units of porcine pancreatic elastase followed by treatment for 14 days with RS 132908 (100 mg/kg/day subcutaneously; n = 8) or with vehicle alone (n = 6). The external aortic diameter (AD) was measured in millimeters before elastase perfusion and at death, with AAA defined as an increase in AD (DeltaAD) of at least 100%. Aortic wall elastin and collagen concentrations were measured with assays for desmosine and hydroxyproline, and fixed aortic tissues were examined by light microscopy. RESULTS: AAAs developed in all vehicle-treated rats, with a mean AD (+/- SE) that increased from 1.60 +/- 0.03 mm before perfusion to 5.98 +/- 1.02 mm on day 14 (DeltaAD = 276.4 +/- 67.7%). AAAs developed in only five of eight animals (62.5%) after MMP inhibition, with a mean AD that increased from 1.56 +/- 0.05 mm to 3.59 +/- 0.34 mm (DeltaAD = 128.1 +/- 18.7%; P <.05, vs vehicle). The overall inhibition of aortic dilatation attributable to RS 132908 was 53.6 +/- 6.8%. Aortic wall desmosine fell by 85.4% in the vehicle-treated rats (1210.6 +/- 87.8 pmol/sample to 176.7 +/- 33.4 pmol/sample; P <.05) but only by 65.6% in the animals treated with RS 312908 (416.2 +/- 120.5 pmol/sample). In contrast, hydroxyproline was not significantly affected by either elastase perfusion or drug treatment. Microscopic examination revealed the preservation of pericellular elastin and a greater degree of fibrocollagenous wall thickening after MMP inhibition, with no detectable difference in the extent of inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic MMP inhibition suppresses aneurysmal dilatation in the elastase-induced rodent model of AAA. Consistent with its direct inhibitory effect on various MMPs, RS 132908 promotes the preservation of aortic elastin and appears to enhance a profibrotic response within the aortic wall. Hydroxamate-based MMP antagonists may therefore be useful in the development of pharmacologic approaches to the suppression of AAAs.  (+info)

(3/1299) Connective tissues: matrix composition and its relevance to physical therapy.

In the last 2 decades, the understanding of CT structure and function has increased enormously. It is now clear that the cells of the various CTs synthesize a variety of ECM components that act not only to underpin the specific biomechanical and functional properties of tissues, but also to regulate a variety of cellular functions. Importantly for the physical therapist, and as discussed above, CTs are responsive to changes in the mechanical environment, both naturally occurring and applied. The relative proportions of collagens and PGs largely determine the mechanical properties of CTs. The relationship between the fibril-forming collagens and PG concentration is reciprocal. Connective tissues designed to resist high tensile forces are high in collagen and low in total PG content (mostly dermatan sulphate PGs), whereas CTs subjected to compressive forces have a greater PG content (mostly chondroitin sulphate PGs). Hyaluronan has multiple roles and not only provides tissue hydration and facilitation of gliding and sliding movements but also forms an integral component of large PG aggregates in pressure-resisting tissues. The smaller glycoproteins help to stabilize and link collagens and PGs to the cell surface. The result is a complex interacting network of matrix molecules, which determines both the mechanical properties and the metabolic responses of tissues. Patients with CT problems affecting movement are frequently examined and treated by physical therapists. A knowledge of the CT matrix composition and its relationship to the biomechanical properties of these tissues, particularly the predictable responses to changing mechanical forces, offers an opportunity to provide a rational basis for treatments. The complexity of the interplay among the components, however, requires that further research be undertaken to determine more precisely the effects of treatments on the structure and function of CTs.  (+info)

(4/1299) Interaction between leukocyte elastase and elastin: quantitative and catalytic analyses.

Solubilization of elastin by human leukocyte elastase (HLE) cannot be analyzed by conventional kinetic methods because the biologically relevant substrate is insoluble and the concentration of enzyme-substrate complex has no physical meaning. We now report quantitative measurements of the binding and catalytic interaction between HLE and elastin permitted by analogy to receptor-ligand systems. Our results indicated that a limited and relatively constant number of enzyme binding sites were available on elastin, and that new sites became accessible as catalysis proceeded. The activation energies and solvent deuterium isotope effects were similar for catalysis of elastin and a soluble peptide substrate by HLE, yet the turnover number for HLE digestion of elastin was 200-2000-fold lower than that of HLE acting on soluble peptide substrates. Analysis of the binding of HLE to elastin at 0 degrees C, in the absence of significant catalytic activity, demonstrated two classes of binding sites (Kd=9.3x10(-9) M and 2.5x10(-7) M). The higher affinity sites accounted for only 6% of the total HLE binding capacity, but essentially all of the catalytic activity, and dissociation of HLE from these sites was minimal. Our studies suggest that interaction of HLE with elastin in vivo may be very persistent and permit progressive solubilization of this structurally important extracellular matrix component.  (+info)

(5/1299) UVB irradiation stimulates deposition of new elastic fibers by modified epithelial cells surrounding the hair follicles and sebaceous glands in mice.

UVB irradiation stimulates the synthesis of elastin in the skin of humans and experimental animals. In this study we localized the site and the cells that are responsible for the synthesis of murine dermal elastic fibers. SKH-1 hairless mice were irradiated with UVB and the skin removed for light microscopy, electron microscopy, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical studies. In response to chronic low doses of UVB there was an initial moderate increase in tropoelastin mRNA in the papillary dermis. By contrast, there was a continuous marked elevation of collagen alpha1(I) message localizing to sites of inflammatory cell influx throughout the upper and lower dermis. After 25 wk of UV irradiation there was a 2-fold increase in skin elastin, yet total collagen remained unchanged. Serial desmosine analysis from en face sections indicated the increase in elastin content was due to dermal elastic fibers, an increase in the size and number of the dermal cysts, and an increase in subpanniculus elastic fibers. Elastin stains of en face sections suggested that the elastic fibers in the upper dermis were exclusively derived from cells lining the epithelial root sheath and sebaceous glands. In response to UV irradiation, the elastic fibers increased in number and size, wrapping around these structures and aligning in both directions as long fibers parallel to the body axis. Electron micrographs indicated that modified epithelial cells in close proximity to the flattened epithelial cells that encircled the root sheath and sebaceous glands were the source of the elastic fibers.  (+info)

(6/1299) Targeted overexpression of elafin protects mice against cardiac dysfunction and mortality following viral myocarditis.

Serine elastases degrade elastin, stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, and are associated with myocardial damage. To evaluate the impact of elastase inhibition on cardiovascular development and disease, transgenic mice were created in which the mouse preproendothelin-1 promoter was used to target elafin overexpression to the cardiovascular system. To distinguish the transgene from endogenous elafin, constructs were made incorporating a FLAG sequence; the COOH-terminus FLAG-tagged elafin construct produced a stable, functionally active gene product and was used to create transgenic mice. Consistent with endothelin expression, abundant elafin mRNA was observed in transgenic F1 embryos (embryonic day 13.5) and in adult transgenic mice heart, trachea, aorta, kidney, lung, and skin, but not in liver, spleen, and intestine. Functional activity of the transgene was confirmed by heightened myocardial elastase inhibitory activity. No tissue abnormalities were detected by light microscopy or elastin content. However, injection of 10 plaque-forming units (PFU) of encephalomyocarditis virus resulted in death within 11 days in 10 out of 12 nontransgenic mice compared with one out of nine transgenic littermates. This reduced mortality was associated with better cardiac function and less myocardial inflammatory damage. Thus, elafin expression may confer a protective advantage in myocarditis and other inflammatory diseases.  (+info)

(7/1299) The smooth muscle cell. III. Elastin synthesis in arterial smooth muscle cell culture.

Primate arterial smooth muscle cells and skin fibroblasts were examined for their ability to synthesize elastin in culture. In the presence of the lathyrogen beta-aminopropionitrile, the smooth muscle cells incorporate [3H]lysine into a lysyl oxidase substrate that was present in the medium and associated with the cell layer. A component having a mol wt of 72,000 and an electrophoretic mobility similar to that of authentic tropoelastin was isolated from the labeled smooth muscle cells by coacervation and fractionation with organic solvents. In the absence of beta-aminopropionitrile, long-term cultures of smooth muscle cells incorporated [14C]lysine into desmosine and isodesmosine, the cross-link amino acids unique to elastin. In contrast, no desmosine formation occurred in the fibroblast cultures. These characteristics demonstrate that arterial smooth muscle cells are capable of synthesizing both soluble and cross-lined elastin in culture.  (+info)

(8/1299) Identification of a large region of secondary structure in the 3'-untranslated region of chicken elastin mRNA with implications for the regulation of mRNA stability.

Synthesis of aortic elastin peaks in the perinatal period and then is strongly down-regulated with postnatal vascular development. Our laboratory has previously shown that changes in elastin mRNA stability contribute to this developmental decrease in elastin production. Here we identify a large region of stable secondary structure in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of chicken elastin mRNA. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 3'-UTR consistently resulted in products with an approximately 328-bp deletion from the central region of the 3'-UTR, suggesting the presence of secondary structure. The presence of this structure was confirmed by probing the 3'-UTR with RNases with selectivity for single- or double-stranded RNA. Gel migration shift assays using cytosolic extracts from 2-day old chicken aorta demonstrate specific binding of a cytosolic protein to riboprobes containing the 3'-UTR of elastin but not to riboprobes either corresponding to other areas of the message or containing the 3'-UTR but lacking the region of secondary structure. Binding of cytosolic protein was particularly prominent in aortic extracts from 2-day old chickens, a time when elastin message is stable, as compared with 8- and 15-week old chickens, when the elastin message is relatively unstable, suggesting that this region of secondary structure may play a role in developmental regulation of stability of elastin mRNA.  (+info)


  • emphysema
  • Other associated defects in elastin include Marfan syndrome , emphysema caused by α 1 -antitrypsin deficiency, atherosclerosis , Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome , Menkes syndrome , pseudoxanthoma elasticum , and Williams syndrome . (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue
  • Elastin is also an important load-bearing tissue in the bodies of vertebrates and used in places where mechanical energy is required to be stored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison between fresh and digested tissues shows that, at 35% strain, a minimum of 48% of the arterial load is carried by elastin, and a minimum of 43% of the change in stiffness of arterial tissue is due to the change in elastin stiffness. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycine
  • These hydrophobic domains, consisting overwhelmingly of alanine, proline, glycine, and valine, tend towards instability and disorderliness, ensuring that the elastin does not lock into any specific confirmation. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • It is found in elastin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extrapolating from an in-vitro elastin model under physiological conditions, the researchers found that the ratios of IDP to DESP corresponded extremely closely with values based on both a calculation of a theoretical Chichibabin pyridine synthesis of 3 mol allysine and 1 mol ammonia, and reported ratios of 2,3,5- to 3,4,5-trisubstituted pyridine ratios of a Chichibabin pyridine synthesis involving phenylacetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • They concluded with relative certainty that the pyridine cross-links found in elastin were, in fact, due to an in-vivo Chichibabin pyridine synthesis of ammonia and allysine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elastin is initially present as newly synthesized tropoelastin which can be found in association with S-Gal. (wikipedia.org)
  • name
  • Physically, the album received two versions, Prismatic and Elastin, the words that originated the name Pristin. (wikipedia.org)
  • area
  • I did find in the first few weeks of using BRAD Biophotonic Ultra Elastin Lift that I developed a few whiteheads around the nose and mouth area. (truthinaging.com)
  • high
  • One of the major reasons that elastin can withstand high levels of stress in the body without experiencing any physical deformation is that the underlying tropoelastin contains domains that are highly hydrophobic. (wikipedia.org)