Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.TurkeyIndiaNigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.

*  Nutrition Education for Kids - Need of the Hour

Does Parents' BMI and Educational Status Affect Children's Nutritional Status?. Parents are not only responsible for passing or ... Disclaimer - All information and content on this site are for information and educational purposes only. The information should ...

*  Measuring the habitat as an indicator of socioeconomic position: methodology and its association with hypertension.

Educational Status. Female. Health Surveys. Humans. Hypertension / epidemiology, etiology*. Male. Middle Aged. Occupations / ... DESIGN: Population survey measuring SSH, detailed educational and occupational histories, and blood pressure. The SSH is a ...

*  Risk factors associated with newly diagnosed high blood pressure in men and women.

Educational Status. Exercise. Female. Humans. Hypertension / etiology*, physiopathology, prevention & control. Logistic Models ...

*  Will Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Be Resolved Primarily Outside of Standard Medical Care? | Annals of Internal...

Educational status and active life expectancy among older blacks and whites.. N Engl J Med ... The health status of educated minorities is far closer to that of the educated white population than to that of poor minorities ... Conversely, poor white populations and poor minorities have similar but lower health status. These relationships are largely ... Trends in racial and ethnic-specific rates for the health status indicators: United States, 1990-98. ...

*  benign mesothelioma of peritoneum 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Educational Status. Family Health. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Occupational Exposure / ... Find MEDLINE records with the abstract status: has abstract does not have abstract include both record types include both ...

*  Curriculum Vitae and Publications. Curriculum Vitae - PDF

EDUCATIONAL STATUS & DEGREES CURRICULUM VITAE Fatma ÇELİK, MSc Adress: Hacettepe Universitesi, Saglik Bilimleri Fakultesi, ... while consolidating on its undergraduate innovative educational programs, decided to ...

*  Plus it

The only proxy for socioeconomic status we were able to measure was maternal educational status. The effect remains after ... Maternal education in this population is a proxy for socioeconomic status and did not seem to be a significant independent risk ... In contrast to Perth, there was no apparent association with maternal socioeconomic status, low infant birth weight, or sex of ... Assays performed in the puerperium are only indirect measures of prior status during pregnancy. These assay data may also be ...

*  Cipralex in Treatment of Depressive Symptoms and Chronic Back Pain - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Other psychosocial features are poor social and educational status, previous sexual or physical abuse. Furthermore, mechanical ... premorbid association with work status or employment dissatisfaction, unemployment, poor self-rated health and low levels of ...

*  Class Endogamy

More importantly, while racial endogamy rates have generally declined, those for educational status are noticeably increasing. ... Men with a six years of schooling or less were more than ten times as likely to marry wives with an equivalent educational ... Status is, therefore, not strictly inherited and marriages between members of different strata are permissible. However, they ... revealed a strong tendency for people to seek partners with similar educational attainments, especially at the extreme ends of ...

*  Anaemia prevalence and associated factors among lactating mothers in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2005 and 2011 demographic and...

Paternal educational status was found to be a predictor of anaemia in lactating mothers. Lactating mothers with husbands who ... However, maternal educational status was not statistically associated with anaemia, which is in contradiction to many other ... Serum retinol, iron status and body composition of lactating women in Nandi, Kenya. Ann Nutr Metab 2003;47:276-83. doi:10.1159/ ... Iron zinc and copper concentrations in breast milk are independent of maternal status. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:111-15. ...

*  Columbia River Mental Health Services (CRMHS) | NCWD/Youth

Program impact was assessed in four domains: living situation, educational status, employment status, and criminal justice ... Employment status showed strong improvement. At the time of data collection, close to 40% of the youth had worked in some form ... NCWD/Youth is based at the Institute for Educational Leadership. It is supported by grant OD-23804-12-75-4-11 from the U.S. ... Involvement in educational programs remained high over the nine-month period with approximately 70% involved in either high ...

*  Leading The Way 2009

genitourinary system cancer 14%, lung cancer 14%, head and neck 4. Educational status of our nurses: Two of them graduated from ... It is an educational patients (80% to 90%) can be controlled if an extra step was taken and medical institution, and has a ... In addition, we developed a class activity to enable the child to return to his educational framework. The staff accompanied the ... contains a wide variety of updated audio and visual educational materials provided by the Ministry of Health, WHO, UNFPA, and ...

*  Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine | BMC...

... educational status, marital status, place of residence, monthly household income, disease stage, period relapsed since the ... educational and economic status with the pattern of use of medicinal plants to treat psoriasis. In Palestine, little is known ... However, educational level, place of residence, stage of the disease and time relapsed since diagnosis were not significantly ... Nonparametric correlation showed that age and marital status were significantly and positively correlated with the use of ...

*  IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Water and Sanitation in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Health and Educational Outcomes | HTML

... papers met the criteria of exploring the effects of the availability of water and/or sanitation facilities in educational ... sanitation provisions in schools are needed to more adequately characterize the impact of water and sanitation on educational ... economic success and educational status has been documented [55]. Measures that enable women and girls to continue attendance ... School WASH interventions improve overall sanitation, hygiene and daily water intake in both educational and non-educational ...

*  PRODUCTS WITH ORAL HEALTH BENEFITS - UCL BUSINESS PLC

It is widely accepted that sex, socio-economic and educational status, age and marital quality determine periodontal status (30 ... Current status of a mucosal vaccine against caries. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 14: 1-20. ... HAJISHENGALLIS G, MICHALEK SM: "Current status of a mucosal vaccine against caries", ORAL MICROBIOL. IMMUNOL., vol. 14, 1999, ...

*  Delivering the Promise: Progress, Challenges, Opportunities | Hypertension

And they are representative of disparities in health outcomes based on race, geography, and socioeconomic or educational status ... Impact of socioeconomic status on longitudinal accumulation of cardiovascular risk in young adults: the CARDIA study (USA). ... Marmont M. Status syndrome: a challenge to medicine. JAMA. 2006; 295: 1304-1307. ... In the United States, major differences are seen with socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, gender, and geographic location. ...

*  Scabies Outbreak Investigation among â  Yekolo Temarisâ  in Gondar Town, North Western Ethiopia, November 2015

Educational status. Religious 30. 55. 85. 88.5. Secular and religious. 2. 9. 11. 11.5. ... Status. Cases. Controls. COR (95% CI) Chi-Square Value P-Value. Had shared cloth with ill person Yes. 16. 17. 2.76 (1.04-7.41) ... religious/traditional and educational factors which makes them different from other group of people in Ethiopia. They have ...

*  RACIAL DISPARITIES IN STILLBIRTH RISK ACROSS GESTATION IN THE UNITED STATES

... and infant mortality cannot be accounted for by educational status16. One study of North Carolina vital statistics from 1988- ... the cultural and social determinants of racial disparities in risk among blacks and Hispanics as higher educational status ... In general, a higher educational level (, 12 years) was associated with a substantial reduction in stillbirth risk for white ... The influence of higher educational level on reducing cumulative hazard of stillbirth was much less for blacks (RR=0.91 [95% C. ...

*  Vitamin D deficiency in Malaysian adolescents aged 13 years: findings from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal...

The sociodemographic information such as gender, age, ethnic group, the educational status and occupational status of the ... Although the occupational and educational status of the parents did not produce any significant differences in vitamin D levels ... Is vitamin D status known among children living in Northern Italy? Eur J Nutr 2012;51:143-9. doi:10.1007/s00394-011-0200-9. ... Vitamin D status is a biological determinant of health disparities. J Acad Nutr Diet 2013;113: 643-51. doi:10.1016/j.jand. ...

*  PSC Overview | LIU

Educational background and status;. *Economic status (see section above);. *Religious affiliation and level of observance; and, ... Group therapy (support, psycho-educational and psychotherapy) for individuals of all ages, specific types of issues (e.g., ... Faculty supervisors participate in a monthly meeting - to review the status and address outstanding training and supervision ... about their infant or toddler aged children can come in for an assessment and feedback about their child's mental health status ...

*  Medline ® Abstracts for References 2-10 of '癌症的补充和替代疗法'

... educational status: 62% had postgraduate degrees, 50% had college degrees, 56% had some college, and 33% had a high school ... Several demographic factors, including age, race, marital status, education and income, were assessed for differences between ... Level of education, employment status and income showed a significant correlation with the use of CAM. ... indigent pay status, and surgery. After excluding spiritual practices and psychotherapy, 95.8% of participants were aware of ...

*  A Gadget to recruiting and retaining nursing staff in the hospital of Madurai District

Due to increased population & educational status the demand of improvised public service is increased particularly in health ... interests and educational qualifications.. It also offers the applicant the opportunity to describe themselves to the ...

*  Behavioral Surveillance Study: Sexual Risk Taking Behaviour in UK HIV Outpatient Attendees | SpringerLink

The association seen in this study between sexual risk behaviour and higher educational status differs from that found in some ... disclosed status to no-one/disclosed status to at least one other person); STI diagnosed in the previous 3 months (yes/no) and ... Sexual risk behaviour and knowledge of HIV status among community samples of gay men in the UK. AIDS. 2008;22(9):1063-70.PubMed ... "In the last 3 months, have you been in a stable relationship?"); disclosure of HIV status to at least one other person (based ...

*  Parent-reported Language and Communication Skills at One and Two Years of Age in Relation to Otitis Media in the First Two...

... were higher for children whose mothers had lower educational status than for those whose mothers had higher educational status ... Economic status was estimated broadly using health insurance status (Medicaid or private) as a proxy inasmuch as families of ... Middle ear status was monitored closely throughout the first 2 years of life. For each child, the cumulative percentage of days ... After adjusting for age in months, sex, race, maternal education, and health insurance status, percentage of time with total ...

*  Cardiovascular risk profile in patients with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1 | The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases

The groups differed in the educational status (p,0.001) and family income (p,0.001), with the control group presenting with ... We also evaluated the correlation between cardiovascular risk and the functional status of patients with HAM/TSP evaluated by ... In the HAM/TSP group, the functional status was evaluated using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scale, a highly ... There was no correlation between the functional status of HAM/TSP patients and the cardiovascular risk. ...

Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Addis Ababa Fistula HospitalClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Kocaeli University: The University of Kocaeli (KOU) is a state university in Kocaeli, Turkey. It was founded as the Academy of Engineering and Architecture of Kocaeli in 1976.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityNigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Soo Ik Lee: Soo Ik Lee, MD (died 1995) was a Korean-born American neurologist and a subspecialist in clinical neurophysiology based at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia.

(1/7234) Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea.

BACKGROUND: Childhood diarrhoea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nicaragua. Amongst the risk factors for its transmission are 'poor' hygiene practices. We investigated the effect of a large number of hygiene practices on diarrhoeal disease in children aged <2 years and validated the technique of direct observation of hygiene behaviour. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was carried out in a rural zone of Nicaragua. From the database of a previously conducted case-control study on water and sanitation 172 families were recruited, half of which had experienced a higher than expected rate of diarrhoea in their children and the other half a lower rate. Hygiene behaviour was observed over two mornings and diarrhoea incidence was recorded with a calendar, filled out by the mother, and collected every week for 5 months. RESULTS: Of 46 'good' practices studied, 39 were associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea, five were unrelated and only for two a higher risk was observed. Washing of hands, domestic cleanliness (kitchen, living room, yard) and the use of a diaper/underclothes by the child had the strongest protective effect. Schooling (>3 years of primary school) and better economic position (possession of a radio) had a positive influence on general hygiene behaviour, education having a slightly stronger effect when a radio was present. Individual hygiene behaviour appeared to be highly variable in contrast with the consistent behaviour of the community as a whole. Feasible and appropriate indicators of hygiene behaviour were found to be domestic cleanliness and the use of a diaper or underclothes by the child. CONCLUSION: A consistent relationship between almost all hygiene practices and diarrhoea was detected, more schooling producing better hygiene behaviour. The high variability of hygiene behaviour at the individual level requires repeated observations (at least two) before and after the hygiene education in the event one wants to measure the impact of the campaign on the individual.  (+info)

(2/7234) Cancer mortality by educational level in the city of Barcelona.

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between educational level and mortality from cancer in the city of Barcelona. The data were derived from a record linkage between the Barcelona Mortality Registry and the Municipal Census. The relative risks (RR) of death and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to level of education were derived from Poisson regression models. For all malignancies, men in the lowest educational level had a RR of death of 1.21 (95% CI 1.13-1.29) compared with men with a university degree, whereas for women a significant decreasing in risk was observed (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.74-0.90). Among men, significant negative trends of increasing risk according to level of education were present for cancer of the mouth and pharynx (RR 1.70 for lowest vs. highest level of education), oesophagus (RR 2.14), stomach (RR 1.99), larynx (RR 2.56) and lung (RR 1.35). Among women, cervical cancer was negatively related to education (RR 2.62), whereas a positive trend was present for cancers of the colon (RR 0.76), pancreas (RR 0.59), lung (RR 0.55) and breast (RR 0.65). The present study confirms for the first time, at an individual level, the existence of socioeconomic differences in mortality for several cancer sites in Barcelona, Spain. There is a need to implement health programmes and public health policies to reduce these inequities.  (+info)

(3/7234) Moderate physical activity in relation to mammographic patterns.

High-risk mammographic patterns may be used as a surrogate end point for breast cancer in etiologic research as well as in prevention studies. Physical activity may be one of the few modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We examined the relationship between physical activity and mammographic patterns among 2720 Norwegian women, ages 40-56 years, who participated in both the Second and Third Tromso studies. Epidemiologic data were obtained through questionnaires. Two questions from the Second Tromso study and five questions from the Third elicited information on physical activity. The mammograms were categorized into five groups based on anatomical-mammographic correlations. For analysis, patterns I through III were combined into a low-risk group and patterns IV and V into a high-risk group. Odds ratios that were adjusted for age, education, menopausal status, body mass index, parity, age at menarche, oral contraceptive use, and alcohol intake, with 95% confidence intervals, were estimated using logistic regression. Women who reported moderate physical activity, i.e., more than 2 h/week, were 20% less likely (odds ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.1) to have high-risk mammographic patterns compared with those who reported being inactive. This relationship remains consistent when stratified by menopausal status, parity, and tertiles of body mass index. However, all of the associations between various measures of physical activity and high-risk patterns found in this study are weak with confidence intervals that include 1.0. Thus, chance is a reasonable explanation for the weak associations found. The relationship between physical activity and high-risk patterns should be examined further as a means to explore the biologic mechanisms relating physical activity to breast cancer risk.  (+info)

(4/7234) Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic.

Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogenous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival.  (+info)

(5/7234) Are sex and educational level independent predictors of dementia and Alzheimer's disease? Incidence data from the PAQUID project.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the age specific risk of Alzheimer's disease according to sex, and to explore the role of education in a cohort of elderly community residents aged 65 years and older. METHODS: A community based cohort of elderly people was studied longitudinally for 5 years for the development of dementia. Dementia diagnoses were made according to the DSM III R criteria and Alzheimer's disease was assessed using the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Among the 3675 non-demented subjects initially included in the cohort, 2881 participated in the follow up. Hazard ratios of dementia were estimated using a Cox model with delayed entry in which the time scale is the age of the subjects. RESULTS: During the 5 year follow up, 190 incident cases of dementia, including 140 cases of Alzheimer's disease were identified. The incidence rates of Alzheimer's disease were 0.8/100 person-years in men and 1.4/100 person-years in women. However, the incidence was higher in men than in women before the age of 80 and higher in women than in men after this age. A significant interaction between sex and age was found. The hazard ratio of Alzheimer's disease in women compared with men was estimated to be 0.8 at 75 years and 1.7 at 85 years. The risks of dementia and Alzheimer's disease were associated with a lower educational attainment (hazard ratio=1.8, p<0.001). The increased risk of Alzheimer's disease in women was not changed after adjustment for education. CONCLUSION: Women have a higher risk of developing dementia after the age of 80 than men. Low educational attainment is associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease. However, the increased risk in women is not explained by a lower educational level.  (+info)

(6/7234) Serum and red blood cell folate concentrations, race, and education: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relations between race or ethnicity, educational attainment, and serum and red blood cell folate concentrations. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relation between educational attainment and serum and red blood cell folate concentrations in 8457 white, African American, and Mexican American men and women aged > or = 17 y. DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from Phase 1 of the third National health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1991). RESULTS: White men had significantly higher adjusted serum and red blood cell folate concentrations (16.9 and 502.6 nmol/L, respectively) than did African American men (15.6 and 423.3 nmol/L, respectively) or Mexican American men (16.0 and 457.0 nmol/L, respectively); white women had significantly higher concentrations (18.4 and 515.9 nmol/L, respectively) than did African American women (16.3 and 415.4 nmol/L, respectively) or Mexican American women (15.9 and 455.7 nmol/L, respectively). For the entire sample, rank correlation coefficients between educational attainment and serum and red blood cell folate were 0.11 and 0.12, respectively, and were larger in white participants than in other participants. No significant linear trends between adjusted serum or red blood cell folate and educational attainment were found. Among participants with > 12 y of education, the mean adjusted concentrations of serum folate were 15% and 18% lower and those of red blood cell were 18% and 22% lower in African American men and women than in white men and women, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: African Americans and Mexican Americans could benefit most from public health programs to boost folate intakes by encouraging increased intake of folate-rich foods and vitamin supplements.  (+info)

(7/7234) Alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, problem drinking, and socioeconomic status.

In general, a lower socioeconomic status (SES) is related to a lower health status, more health problems, and a shorter life expectancy. Although causal relations between SES and health are unclear, lifestyle factors play an intermediate role. The purpose of the present study was to obtain more insight into the relation between SES, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and problem drinking, through a general population survey among 8000 people in Rotterdam. Odds ratios were calculated using educational level as independent, and alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and problem drinking as dependent variables. Abstinence decreased significantly by increasing educational level for both sexes. For men, excessive drinking, and notably very excessive drinking, was more prevalent in the lowest educational group. For women, no significant relation between educational level and prevalence of excessive drinking was found. After controlling for differences in drinking behaviour, among men the prevalence of 'psychological dependence' and 'social problems' was higher in intermediate educational groups, whereas prevalence of 'drunkenness' was lower in intermediate educational groups. For women, a negative relation was found between educational level and 'psychological dependence'; prevalence of 'symptomatic drinking' was higher in the lowest educational group. Prevalence of problem drinking was not related to educational level in either sex. It is concluded that differences exist between educational levels with respect to abstinence, but only limited differences were found with respect to excessive drinking. Furthermore, there is evidence for higher prevalences of alcohol-related problems in lower educational levels, after controlling for differences in drinking behaviour, in both sexes.  (+info)

(8/7234) Potential explanations for the educational gradient in coronary heart disease: a population-based case-control study of Swedish women.

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between educational attainment and coronary heart disease (CHD) and the factors that may explain this association. METHODS: This population-based case-control study included 292 women with CHD who were 65 years or younger and 292 age-matched controls. RESULTS: Compared with the adjusted odds ratio for CHD associated with college education, the age-adjusted odds ratio associated with mandatory education (< or = 9 years) was 1.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23, 2.84) and the odds ratio for high school education was 1.35 (95% CI = 0.81, 2.25) (P for trend < .01). The odds ratio for mandatory education was reduced by 82%, to 1.16 (95% CI = 0.69, 2.09), after adjustment for psychosocial stress, unhealthy lifestyle patterns, hemostatic factors, hypertension, and lipids. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the increased risk of CHD in women with low education appears to be linked to psychosocial stress and lifestyle factors. Hemostatic factors, lipids, and hypertension also contribute to a lesser extent. These factors may be considered in strategies geared to reducing socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular health.  (+info)



socioeconomic status

  • Perhaps the most convincing evidence of limitations of the biomedical paradigm is seen in the strong associations of socioeconomic status and health (3) . (annals.org)

outcome

  • Main outcome measures Vitamin D status was determined through measurement of sera 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Body mass index (BMI) was classified according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. (bmj.com)

Population

  • DESIGN: Population survey measuring SSH, detailed educational and occupational histories, and blood pressure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The health status of educated minorities is far closer to that of the educated white population than to that of poor minorities. (annals.org)
  • By health disparities I mean significant differences in health status among population groups defined by specific characteristics. (ahajournals.org)

health status

  • Conversely, poor white populations and poor minorities have similar but lower health status. (annals.org)

major

  • The pattern is particularly apparent if educational background, a major component of class definition, is considered. (umanitoba.ca)

social

  • Other psychosocial features are poor social and educational status, previous sexual or physical abuse. (clinicaltrials.gov)

poor

  • Risk factors of chronicity of low back pain include high levels of psychological distress prior to or during the episode, premorbid association with work status or employment dissatisfaction, unemployment, poor self-rated health and low levels of physical activity. (clinicaltrials.gov)

similar

  • revealed a strong tendency for people to seek partners with similar educational attainments, especially at the extreme ends of the hierarchy. (umanitoba.ca)

independent

  • 2 Studies have shown that, although breast milk is not a good source of iron, the concentration of iron in breast milk is independent of maternal iron status. (bmj.com)