Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.TurkeyIndiaNigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.

*  Online Business Administration Bachelor's Degree | UMUC

The discount for Federal employees and their spouses and eligible dependents will be applied to out-of-state tuition and ... you are giving your express written consent without obligation for UMUC to contact you regarding our educational programs and ... He earned a PhD from Morgan State University, a Master of Public Administration from the University of Baltimore, and a ... Learn more about qualifying for the in-state rate or military rate, or view full tuition rates. ...
umuc.edu/academic-programs/bachelors-degrees/business-administration-major.cfm

*  Does Parents' BMI and Educational Status Affect Children's Nutritional Status?

... but educational and economic status also have implications on the children health status (particularly obesity), as has been ... and the plausible influences which the educational status of parents might exert on the weight-gain status of children. The ... The study highlighted that children's obesity was directly related to parents' educational level and inversely related to BMI. ... Socio-Economic Status (SES) of the family is also an important indicator of children's obesity.. The final conclusions drawn ...
medindia.net/news/healthwatch/Does-Parents-BMI-and-Educational-Status-Affect-Childrens-Nutritional-Status-88746-1.htm

*  Influence of Educational Status on Executive Function and Fu... : Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology

This study investigated whether educational status influenced how people with Parkinson d ... Educational status affected executive function, but PD status did not. Among individuals with PD, educational status influenced ... participants with low educational status performed worse on the TMT Part B than did those with high educational status. Within ... Home , March 2013 - Volume 26 - Issue 1 , Influence of Educational Status on Executive Function and Fu... ...
journals.lww.com/cogbehavneurol/Abstract/2013/03000/Influence_of_Educational_Status_on_Executive.3.aspx

*  Focus on Lebanon Topic Brief: Economic & Educational Status - Institute for Women's Policy Research

Projected Year the Wage Gap Will Close by State Julie Anderson, M.A., Jessica Milli, Ph.D., Melanie Kruvelis ... International Women's Status and Rights, Workforce Development & Job Training The Business Case for Women's Employment in ... Civic & Political Engagement, International Women's Status and Rights Gender, Urbanization, and Democratic Governance Institute ... The Status of Women in Georgia, 2015: Highlights Institute for Women's Policy Research ...
https://iwpr.org/publications/focus-on-lebanon-topic-brief-economic-educational-status/

*  Portland State Graduate School of Education: Educational Leadership & Policy | Events

Heather Burns, Educational Leadership and Policy faculty, authored "Self-care as a Way of Being: Fostering Inner Work in a ... He founded the organization with Secretary of State John Kerry, Teresa Heinz Kerry, and Bruce Droste, and served as president ... Where: Portland State University, Native American Student and Community Center (710 SW Jackson St.) ... What state, federal, and international government policies would be necessary to support this shift in society and in higher ...
https://pdx.edu/elp/event/tony-cortese-lead-us-healthy-just-and-sustainable-path-now?delta=0

*  UNESCO at the Commission on the Status of Women | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNESCO at the Commission on the Status of Women. UN Photo/Paulo Filgueiras -. Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO, speaks ... UNESCO is taking part in the 58th session of the Commission on the Status of Women which aims to take stock of progress and ... Commission on the Status of Women highlights need for women in the media ... UNESCO » Media Services » UNESCO at the Commission on the Status of Women ...
unesco.org/new/en/media-services/in-focus-articles/unesco-at-the-commission-on-the-status-of-women/

*  The Hermitage Museum & Gardens Internship Application Survey

3. Educational Status High School (grade) Undergraduate (level) Graduate (MA/PhD) Area of concentration ... Educational Programs/Exhibitions Educational Programs/Exhibitions 1 Educational Programs/Exhibitions 2 Educational Programs/ ...
https://surveymonkey.com/r/XPBFTCR

*  Status report on educational attainment of people of color in two Ohio cities, Cincinnati and Toledo :: State Lib Oh Digital...

State Lib Oh Digital Collection Status report on educational attainment of people of color in two Ohio cities, Cincinnati and ... A status report on educational attainment of people of color in two Ohio cities, Cincinnati and Toledo ... Status report on educational attainment of people of color in two Ohio cities, Cincinnati and Toledo ... Status report on educational attainment of people of color in two Ohio cities, Cincinnati and Toledo. ...
ohiomemory.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p267401ccp2/id/1499/rec/9

*  Immersive Language Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Current Status and Possible Trends: Educational IS&T...

The Current Status and Possible Trends: 10.4018/978-1-61692-825-4.ch005: This chapter explores the role of collaborative ... "Immersive Language Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Current Status and Possible Trends." Virtual Immersive ... "Immersive Language Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Current Status and Possible Trends." In Virtual ... Immersive Language Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Current Status and Possible Trends. Ya-Chun Shih ( ...
https://igi-global.com/chapter/immersive-language-learning-collaborative-virtual/46773

*  Anti-HIV drugs: 25 compounds approved within 25...

Link found between HIV risk and individual and community level educational status. The study were more opt to engage in ... Makers of generic AIDS drugs will start churning out millions of pills for Africa containing a state-of-the-art medicine widely ... The FDA has granted orphan drug status to pegylated interferon lambda 1a (Lambda, Eiger Bio, Inc.) as a potential treatment for ... Exclusive: Africa to get state-of-art HIV drugs for $75 a year ...
scoop.it/t/virology-news/p/3356912870/2012/11/16/anti-hiv-drugs-25-compounds-approved-within-25-years-after-the-discovery-of-hiv

*  USB chair sounds off on biotechnology | Virolog...

Link found between HIV risk and individual and community level educational status. The study were more opt to engage in ... Makers of generic AIDS drugs will start churning out millions of pills for Africa containing a state-of-the-art medicine widely ... The FDA has granted orphan drug status to pegylated interferon lambda 1a (Lambda, Eiger Bio, Inc.) as a potential treatment for ... Exclusive: Africa to get state-of-art HIV drugs for $75 a year ...
scoop.it/t/virology-news/p/3279094780/2012/11/10/usb-chair-sounds-off-on-biotechnology

*  Global Report on the Status of Women in the News Media | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

Global Report on the Status of Women in the News Media. © IWMF ... Global Report on the Status of Women in the News Media ... and sought to offer the most complete picture to date of women's status globally in news media ownership, publishing, ...
unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/resources/publications-and-communication-materials/publications/full-list/global-report-on-the-status-of-women-in-the-news-media/

*  Faculty • Faculty • Penn Nursing

Relationship Found Between HIV Risk & Individual AND Community Level Educational Status African-American men who have sex with ... A new University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing (Penn Nursing) study has investigated how educational status relates to HIV ...
nursing.upenn.edu/faculty/

*  Unemployment rate by sex, age, migration status, citizenship and educational attainment level

... Visualisations. Timeline. ...
estatwrap.ontologycentral.com/page/lfso_14luner

*  "Socioeconomic status, energy cost, and nutrient content of supermarket food purchases" by Bradley M....

Adult; Commerce; Data Collection; Dietary Fats; Educational Status; Energy Intake; Female; Food; Food Analysis; Food Labeling; ... Socioeconomic status, energy cost, and nutrient content of supermarket food purchases. Preventive and Behavioral Medicine ... Bradley M. Appelhans, Brandy-Joe Milliron, Kathleen Woolf, Tricia J. Johnson, et al.. "Socioeconomic status, energy cost, and ...
https://works.bepress.com/sherry_pagoto/64/

*  "The association between income, education, and experiences of discrimination in older African American and European American...

African Americans; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Educational Status; *European Continental Ancestry Group ...
https://works.bepress.com/catarina_kiefe/197/

*  The status of evidence-supported educational practices | npj Science of Learning Community

The status of evidence-supported educational practices. We know what works, so why isn't that helping? ... Print.) and Why Knowledge Matters: Rescuing our Children from Failed Educational Theories (Hirsch, E.D. Cambridge, MA: Harvard ... an extensive government-sponsored project that aimed to directly test educational methods against one another for effectiveness ... are often held up by such evaluation systems as the school's/district's/state's preferred methods. ...
https://npjscilearncommunity.nature.com/channels/375-for-researchers/posts/18122-the-status-of-evidence-supported-educational-practices

*  Check status Check status » National Center For Educational Quality Enhancement

General Educational Instutitions * eng_უმაღლესი საგანმანათლებლო დაწესებულებების სტატუსების ცნობარი * eng_უმაღლესი ...
eqe.ge/eng/static/87/public-info/Check-status

*  Brief review: diurnal rhythms, obesity and educational achievement in South american cultures.

Educational Status*. Humans. Obesity / epidemiology*, psychology*. Sleep / physiology. Sleep Deprivation / psychology. Sleep, ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Brief-Review-Diurnal-Rhythms-Obesity/19922341.html

*  Age at death, season, and day of death as indicators of the effect of the back to sleep program on sudden infant death syndrome...

Educational Status. Health Education. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Logistic Models. Odds Ratio. Periodicity*. Program ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Age-at-death-season-day/15066876.html

*  Insurance and education determine survival in infantile coarctation of the aorta.

Educational Status. Female. Humans. Income / statistics & numerical data*. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Insurance Coverage / ... The goal of this study was to determine whether patient race, gender, income, and insurance status had effects on outcome of ... Outcome measures require knowledge of the entire population and of insurance status to inform policy.. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Insurance-education-determine-survival-in/11057056.html

*  Predictors of stunting, wasting and underweight among Tanzanian children born to HIV-infected women.

Educational Status. Female. Growth Disorders / etiology*. HIV Infections / complications*, epidemiology, transmission. Humans. ... The mother's vital status and the child's HIV status, exclusive breastfeeding, anemia, and morbidity history varied over the ... In conclusion, maternal education and nutritional status, as well as child HIV status, sex, and birth weight were significant, ... Strategies to promote female education, improve maternal nutritional status, increase socioeconomic status, reduce low birth ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Predictors-stunting-wasting-underweight-among/23031850.html

*  Prevalence and Associated Factors of Stunting Among Schoolchildren, in Debre Markos Town and Gozamen Woreda, East Gojjam Zone,...

Mother's educational status. Illiterate. 338. 48.4. Primary. 207 29.6. Secondary. 81 11.6. ... UNCF (1999) The State of the World's Children. UNICEF, New York.. *Mukudi E (2003) Nutrition status, education participation, ... This may be due to preference towards daughters and this may occur as a result of low socio-economic status or may also be due ... The authors express their gratitude thanks to the East Gojjam zone educational bureau as well as Debre Markos town and Gozamen ...
https://omicsonline.org/open-access/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-stunting-among-schoolchildren-in-debre-markos-town-and-gozamen-woreda-east-gojjam-zone-amhara-regional-state-ethiopia-2155-9600.S8-007.php?aid=25865

*  Course Content - #41030: Burnout in Physicians - NetCE

In general, educational status seems to have an effect, with higher levels of burnout among workers with higher levels of ... Family status also seems to play an important role in burnout; rates of burnout are higher among single workers and workers ... The use of tools to assess well-being or psychologic status in conjunction with the full MBI can help professionals gain a ... Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary care ...
netce.com/coursecontent.php?courseid=1380

*  Program Study - Measurement & Quantitative Methods - Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology & Special Education -...

Comprehensive examinations should be completed before the end of a student's 4th year. The comprehensive exams are administered over three half days: the first two days of exams focusing on the student's major (e.g., Quantitative Methods), and the final day on the student's minor (e.g., Measurement). The duration of the exam is three hours each day (e.g., 9 AM to 12 PM). Students will answer four questions for their major (two in the first and two in the second day) and four questions for their minor (third day). The comprehensive exams include topics that students have covered during their coursework in MQM. Students should use a computer (laptop) and type their responses clearly during the exam (using word for example). Access to the Internet or computer files other than the file containing the student's response is not permitted Students who do not pass a particular section of the exam are permitted to retake that part during the next testing period. Students must pass the comprehensive exams ...
education.msu.edu/cepse-rwd/mqm/handbook/program-study.asp

Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Addis Ababa Fistula HospitalClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Kocaeli University: The University of Kocaeli (KOU) is a state university in Kocaeli, Turkey. It was founded as the Academy of Engineering and Architecture of Kocaeli in 1976.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityNigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Soo Ik Lee: Soo Ik Lee, MD (died 1995) was a Korean-born American neurologist and a subspecialist in clinical neurophysiology based at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia.

(1/7234) Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea.

BACKGROUND: Childhood diarrhoea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nicaragua. Amongst the risk factors for its transmission are 'poor' hygiene practices. We investigated the effect of a large number of hygiene practices on diarrhoeal disease in children aged <2 years and validated the technique of direct observation of hygiene behaviour. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was carried out in a rural zone of Nicaragua. From the database of a previously conducted case-control study on water and sanitation 172 families were recruited, half of which had experienced a higher than expected rate of diarrhoea in their children and the other half a lower rate. Hygiene behaviour was observed over two mornings and diarrhoea incidence was recorded with a calendar, filled out by the mother, and collected every week for 5 months. RESULTS: Of 46 'good' practices studied, 39 were associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea, five were unrelated and only for two a higher risk was observed. Washing of hands, domestic cleanliness (kitchen, living room, yard) and the use of a diaper/underclothes by the child had the strongest protective effect. Schooling (>3 years of primary school) and better economic position (possession of a radio) had a positive influence on general hygiene behaviour, education having a slightly stronger effect when a radio was present. Individual hygiene behaviour appeared to be highly variable in contrast with the consistent behaviour of the community as a whole. Feasible and appropriate indicators of hygiene behaviour were found to be domestic cleanliness and the use of a diaper or underclothes by the child. CONCLUSION: A consistent relationship between almost all hygiene practices and diarrhoea was detected, more schooling producing better hygiene behaviour. The high variability of hygiene behaviour at the individual level requires repeated observations (at least two) before and after the hygiene education in the event one wants to measure the impact of the campaign on the individual.  (+info)

(2/7234) Cancer mortality by educational level in the city of Barcelona.

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between educational level and mortality from cancer in the city of Barcelona. The data were derived from a record linkage between the Barcelona Mortality Registry and the Municipal Census. The relative risks (RR) of death and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to level of education were derived from Poisson regression models. For all malignancies, men in the lowest educational level had a RR of death of 1.21 (95% CI 1.13-1.29) compared with men with a university degree, whereas for women a significant decreasing in risk was observed (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.74-0.90). Among men, significant negative trends of increasing risk according to level of education were present for cancer of the mouth and pharynx (RR 1.70 for lowest vs. highest level of education), oesophagus (RR 2.14), stomach (RR 1.99), larynx (RR 2.56) and lung (RR 1.35). Among women, cervical cancer was negatively related to education (RR 2.62), whereas a positive trend was present for cancers of the colon (RR 0.76), pancreas (RR 0.59), lung (RR 0.55) and breast (RR 0.65). The present study confirms for the first time, at an individual level, the existence of socioeconomic differences in mortality for several cancer sites in Barcelona, Spain. There is a need to implement health programmes and public health policies to reduce these inequities.  (+info)

(3/7234) Moderate physical activity in relation to mammographic patterns.

High-risk mammographic patterns may be used as a surrogate end point for breast cancer in etiologic research as well as in prevention studies. Physical activity may be one of the few modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We examined the relationship between physical activity and mammographic patterns among 2720 Norwegian women, ages 40-56 years, who participated in both the Second and Third Tromso studies. Epidemiologic data were obtained through questionnaires. Two questions from the Second Tromso study and five questions from the Third elicited information on physical activity. The mammograms were categorized into five groups based on anatomical-mammographic correlations. For analysis, patterns I through III were combined into a low-risk group and patterns IV and V into a high-risk group. Odds ratios that were adjusted for age, education, menopausal status, body mass index, parity, age at menarche, oral contraceptive use, and alcohol intake, with 95% confidence intervals, were estimated using logistic regression. Women who reported moderate physical activity, i.e., more than 2 h/week, were 20% less likely (odds ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.1) to have high-risk mammographic patterns compared with those who reported being inactive. This relationship remains consistent when stratified by menopausal status, parity, and tertiles of body mass index. However, all of the associations between various measures of physical activity and high-risk patterns found in this study are weak with confidence intervals that include 1.0. Thus, chance is a reasonable explanation for the weak associations found. The relationship between physical activity and high-risk patterns should be examined further as a means to explore the biologic mechanisms relating physical activity to breast cancer risk.  (+info)

(4/7234) Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic.

Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogenous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival.  (+info)

(5/7234) Are sex and educational level independent predictors of dementia and Alzheimer's disease? Incidence data from the PAQUID project.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the age specific risk of Alzheimer's disease according to sex, and to explore the role of education in a cohort of elderly community residents aged 65 years and older. METHODS: A community based cohort of elderly people was studied longitudinally for 5 years for the development of dementia. Dementia diagnoses were made according to the DSM III R criteria and Alzheimer's disease was assessed using the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Among the 3675 non-demented subjects initially included in the cohort, 2881 participated in the follow up. Hazard ratios of dementia were estimated using a Cox model with delayed entry in which the time scale is the age of the subjects. RESULTS: During the 5 year follow up, 190 incident cases of dementia, including 140 cases of Alzheimer's disease were identified. The incidence rates of Alzheimer's disease were 0.8/100 person-years in men and 1.4/100 person-years in women. However, the incidence was higher in men than in women before the age of 80 and higher in women than in men after this age. A significant interaction between sex and age was found. The hazard ratio of Alzheimer's disease in women compared with men was estimated to be 0.8 at 75 years and 1.7 at 85 years. The risks of dementia and Alzheimer's disease were associated with a lower educational attainment (hazard ratio=1.8, p<0.001). The increased risk of Alzheimer's disease in women was not changed after adjustment for education. CONCLUSION: Women have a higher risk of developing dementia after the age of 80 than men. Low educational attainment is associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease. However, the increased risk in women is not explained by a lower educational level.  (+info)

(6/7234) Serum and red blood cell folate concentrations, race, and education: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relations between race or ethnicity, educational attainment, and serum and red blood cell folate concentrations. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relation between educational attainment and serum and red blood cell folate concentrations in 8457 white, African American, and Mexican American men and women aged > or = 17 y. DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from Phase 1 of the third National health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1991). RESULTS: White men had significantly higher adjusted serum and red blood cell folate concentrations (16.9 and 502.6 nmol/L, respectively) than did African American men (15.6 and 423.3 nmol/L, respectively) or Mexican American men (16.0 and 457.0 nmol/L, respectively); white women had significantly higher concentrations (18.4 and 515.9 nmol/L, respectively) than did African American women (16.3 and 415.4 nmol/L, respectively) or Mexican American women (15.9 and 455.7 nmol/L, respectively). For the entire sample, rank correlation coefficients between educational attainment and serum and red blood cell folate were 0.11 and 0.12, respectively, and were larger in white participants than in other participants. No significant linear trends between adjusted serum or red blood cell folate and educational attainment were found. Among participants with > 12 y of education, the mean adjusted concentrations of serum folate were 15% and 18% lower and those of red blood cell were 18% and 22% lower in African American men and women than in white men and women, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: African Americans and Mexican Americans could benefit most from public health programs to boost folate intakes by encouraging increased intake of folate-rich foods and vitamin supplements.  (+info)

(7/7234) Alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, problem drinking, and socioeconomic status.

In general, a lower socioeconomic status (SES) is related to a lower health status, more health problems, and a shorter life expectancy. Although causal relations between SES and health are unclear, lifestyle factors play an intermediate role. The purpose of the present study was to obtain more insight into the relation between SES, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and problem drinking, through a general population survey among 8000 people in Rotterdam. Odds ratios were calculated using educational level as independent, and alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and problem drinking as dependent variables. Abstinence decreased significantly by increasing educational level for both sexes. For men, excessive drinking, and notably very excessive drinking, was more prevalent in the lowest educational group. For women, no significant relation between educational level and prevalence of excessive drinking was found. After controlling for differences in drinking behaviour, among men the prevalence of 'psychological dependence' and 'social problems' was higher in intermediate educational groups, whereas prevalence of 'drunkenness' was lower in intermediate educational groups. For women, a negative relation was found between educational level and 'psychological dependence'; prevalence of 'symptomatic drinking' was higher in the lowest educational group. Prevalence of problem drinking was not related to educational level in either sex. It is concluded that differences exist between educational levels with respect to abstinence, but only limited differences were found with respect to excessive drinking. Furthermore, there is evidence for higher prevalences of alcohol-related problems in lower educational levels, after controlling for differences in drinking behaviour, in both sexes.  (+info)

(8/7234) Potential explanations for the educational gradient in coronary heart disease: a population-based case-control study of Swedish women.

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between educational attainment and coronary heart disease (CHD) and the factors that may explain this association. METHODS: This population-based case-control study included 292 women with CHD who were 65 years or younger and 292 age-matched controls. RESULTS: Compared with the adjusted odds ratio for CHD associated with college education, the age-adjusted odds ratio associated with mandatory education (< or = 9 years) was 1.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23, 2.84) and the odds ratio for high school education was 1.35 (95% CI = 0.81, 2.25) (P for trend < .01). The odds ratio for mandatory education was reduced by 82%, to 1.16 (95% CI = 0.69, 2.09), after adjustment for psychosocial stress, unhealthy lifestyle patterns, hemostatic factors, hypertension, and lipids. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the increased risk of CHD in women with low education appears to be linked to psychosocial stress and lifestyle factors. Hemostatic factors, lipids, and hypertension also contribute to a lesser extent. These factors may be considered in strategies geared to reducing socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular health.  (+info)



obesity


  • Under this program, a study was conducted in the Tuscany region to assess the implications of the risk factors for obesity in children, and the plausible influences which the educational status of parents might exert on the weight-gain status of children. (medindia.net)
  • The study highlighted that children's obesity was directly related to parents' educational level and inversely related to BMI. (medindia.net)
  • Socio-Economic Status (SES) of the family is also an important indicator of children's obesity. (medindia.net)
  • The transmission of genetic dispositions from parents to children is widely known, but educational and economic status also have implications on the children health status (particularly obesity), as has been brought to light by this study. (medindia.net)
  • Brief review: diurnal rhythms, obesity and educational achievement in South american cultures. (biomedsearch.com)

Trends


  • Immersive Language Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Current Status and Possible Trends. (igi-global.com)

organization


  • He founded the organization with Secretary of State John Kerry, Teresa Heinz Kerry, and Bruce Droste, and served as president from 1993- 2012. (pdx.edu)

Income


  • The goal of this study was to determine whether patient race, gender, income, and insurance status had effects on outcome of coarctation of the aorta that were distinct from the effect of case severity. (biomedsearch.com)

widely


  • Makers of generic AIDS drugs will start churning out millions of pills for Africa containing a state-of-the-art medicine widely used in rich countries, after securing a multi-million dollar guarantee that caps prices at just $75 per patient a year. (scoop.it)

level


  • Studies indicate that there is an inverse relationship between the educational level of parents and the children's body mass index (BMI). (medindia.net)
  • Self -administered questionnaires were used to gather parents' height, weight and educational level information. (medindia.net)

study


  • Objective: This study investigated whether educational status influenced how people with Parkinson disease (PD) performed on Parts A, B, and DELTA of the Trail Making Test (TMT) and on the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). (lww.com)
  • A new University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing (Penn Nursing) study has investigated how educational status relates to HIV risk in this population. (upenn.edu)

Date


  • The research project was carried out over a two-year period, and sought to offer the most complete picture to date of women's status globally in news media ownership, publishing, governance, reporting, editing, photojournalism, broadcast production and other media jobs. (unesco.org)

group


  • We divided each group of participants by educational status: low (4 to 10 years of education) or high (≥11 years). (lww.com)

education


  • What state, federal, and international government policies would be necessary to support this shift in society and in higher education? (pdx.edu)

Policy


  • Outcome measures require knowledge of the entire population and of insurance status to inform policy. (biomedsearch.com)

people


  • Conclusions: Whether or not they had PD, less-educated people performed worse than more-educated people on the TMT Part B. Educational status affected executive function, but PD status did not. (lww.com)

Women


  • UNESCO is taking part in the 58th session of the Commission on the Status of Women which aims to take stock of progress and remaining challenges in the lives of world's women and girls. (unesco.org)

Background


  • Background: Recent studies have shown that educational status may influence cognitive and motor test performance. (lww.com)

content


  • Socioeconomic status, energy cost, and nutrient content of supermarket food purchases" Vol. 42 Iss. (bepress.com)