Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Pharmacy: The practice of compounding and dispensing medicinal preparations.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Community Pharmacy Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Education, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Pharmacy Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Pharmaceutical Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided by qualified PHARMACISTS. In addition to the preparation and distribution of medical products, they may include consultative services provided to agencies and institutions which do not have a qualified pharmacist.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Pharmacists' Aides: Persons who perform certain functions under the supervision of the pharmacist.Pharmacy Administration: The business and managerial aspects of pharmacy in its broadest sense.Licensure, Pharmacy: The granting of a license to practice pharmacy.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Education, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Clinical Pharmacy Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical pharmacy services.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Ethics, Pharmacy: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the pharmacist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the pharmacist in health care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)United StatesTeaching: The educational process of instructing.Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Pharmacy Residencies: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in the practice of compounding and dispensing medicinal preparations.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Internship, Nonmedical: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee: An advisory group composed primarily of staff physicians and the pharmacist which serves as the communication link between the medical staff and the pharmacy department.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.Education, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Insurance Claim Review: Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Drug Utilization Review: Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Electronic Prescribing: The use of COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS to store and transmit medical PRESCRIPTIONS.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.Fees, Pharmaceutical: Amounts charged to the patient or third-party payer for medication. It includes the pharmacist's professional fee and cost of ingredients, containers, etc.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Pharmaceutical Services, Online: Pharmacy services accessed via electronic means.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.CaliforniaInternship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Patient Care: The services rendered by members of the health profession and non-professionals under their supervision.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Cultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Schools: Educational institutions.Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Vocational Education: Education for specific trades or occupations.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Prescription Fees: The charge levied on the consumer for drugs or therapy prescribed under written order of a physician or other health professional.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Drug Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Medication Systems, Hospital: Overall systems, traditional or automated, to provide medication to patients in hospitals. Elements of the system are: handling the physician's order, transcription of the order by nurse and/or pharmacist, filling the medication order, transfer to the nursing unit, and administration to the patient.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Medicare Part D: A stand-alone drug plan offered by insurers and other private companies to beneficiaries that receive their Medicare Part A and/or B benefits through the Original Medicare Plan. It includes Medicare Private Fee-for-Service Plans that do not offer prescription drug coverage and Medicare Cost Plans offering Medicare prescription drug coverage. The plan was enacted as the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 with coverage beginning January 1, 2006.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Mainstreaming (Education): Most frequently refers to the integration of a physically or mentally disabled child into the regular class of normal peers and provision of the appropriately determined educational program.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate: A four-year program in nursing education in a college or university leading to a B.S.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.New York CityPatient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.WisconsinStaff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)IndianaPrimary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
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MinuteClinic expands presence in San Antonio - Drug Store News... now operates 45 clinics inside select CVS/pharmacy stores in Austin, Dallas/Fort Worth and San Antonio markets. In addition to ... MinuteClinic announced on Thursday the debut of two walk-in medical clinics inside CVS/pharmacy stores located in San Antonio. ... Continuing Pharmacy Education DSN DrugStoreNews * Latest News opener. * Retail * Suppliers * Government * Products ... Drug Store News looks ahead to the drug store experience of tomorrow in health, beauty and pharmacy; sits down with a number of ...
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Content about Lancaster - Drug Store News... continued growth; showcases the growing role of pharmacy technology; and more! Read more... ... Natco to sell retail pharmacy? Indian generic drug maker may end its five-year stint as a retail pharmacy operator, according ... Hershey said it plans to continue expanding in the area of product innovation with Ice Breakers Cool Blasts Chews, which are ... A California truck driver has won an annual driving-skills contest sponsored by Rite Aid, the retail pharmacy chain said ...
Content about Connecting Northwest - Drug Store NewsContinuing Pharmacy Education DSN DrugStoreNews * Latest News opener. * Retail * Suppliers * Government * Products ... Drug Store News looks ahead to the drug store experience of tomorrow in health, beauty and pharmacy; sits down with a number of ...
HBB rolls out Lazy Cakes - Drug Store NewsContinuing Pharmacy Education DSN DrugStoreNews * Latest News opener. * Retail * Suppliers * Government * Products ... Drug Store News looks ahead to the drug store experience of tomorrow in health, beauty and pharmacy; sits down with a number of ...
Content about DavidÃ¢Â€Â™s Pharmacy - Drug Store News... continued growth; showcases the growing role of pharmacy technology; and more! Read more... ... Thrifty White Pharmacy is improving patient outcomes through new diabetes pilot Amber Pharmacy president recipient of NASP 2017 ... Continuing Pharmacy Education DSN DrugStoreNews * Latest News opener. * Retail * Suppliers * Government * Products ...
NACDS promotes pharmacy's contribution as NCQA mulls health quality standards - Drug Store News... healthcare think-tank and advocacy group to adopt health quality standards that include a broader role for retail pharmacy ... Continuing Pharmacy Education DSN DrugStoreNews * Latest News opener. * Retail * Suppliers * Government * Products ... The chain pharmacy group also urged that NCQA recognize medication therapy management as a core element of an ACO, given its ... NACDS promotes pharmacy's contribution as NCQA mulls health quality standards. November 22, 2010. , By Jim Frederick ...
Kroger installs Avery Weigh-Tronix Eyecon pharmacy automation machines - Drug Store NewsKroger is installing Avery Weigh-Tronix's tabletop pharmacy automation systems in its stores, Avery said. ... continued growth; showcases the growing role of pharmacy technology; and more! Read more... ... Thrifty White Pharmacy is improving patient outcomes through new diabetes pilot Amber Pharmacy president recipient of NASP 2017 ... Kroger is installing Avery Weigh-Tronix's tabletop pharmacy automation systems in its stores, Avery said.. The Eyecon is an ...
Content about Pharmaceutical companies - Drug Store News... continued growth; showcases the growing role of pharmacy technology; and more! Read more... ... Clinical trial for Merck KGaA's cancer vaccine continues A division of German drug maker Merck KGaA has resumed its clinical ... Continuing Pharmacy Education DSN DrugStoreNews * Latest News opener. * Retail * Suppliers * Government * Products ...
Content about Carrs Safeway Alaska Division - Drug Store News... continued growth; showcases the growing role of pharmacy technology; and more! Read more... ... Safeway on Tuesday announced that all Safeway pharmacies in the United States now have a... ... but the grocer's loyalty card program is expected to continue driving that sales momentum into next year as the company rolls ... Continuing Pharmacy Education DSN DrugStoreNews * Latest News opener. * Retail * Suppliers * Government * Products ...
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CHPA president to retire, organization seeks new leader - Drug Store NewsContinuing Pharmacy Education DSN DrugStoreNews * Latest News opener. * Retail * Suppliers * Government * Products ... While this will be a big change for me, my passion will continue to keep me engaged in public health issues." ... Health Mart showcases independent pharmacy solutions at NCPA convention Crossmark inks preferred service provider agreement ...
Novo Nordisk app designed to help hemophilia patients, families - Drug Store News... continued growth; showcases the growing role of pharmacy technology; and more! Read more... ... Thrifty White Pharmacy is improving patient outcomes through new diabetes pilot Amber Pharmacy president recipient of NASP 2017 ... Continuing Pharmacy Education DSN DrugStoreNews * Latest News opener. * Retail * Suppliers * Government * Products ...
OcuSoft's Zytaze now available at chain drug stores - Drug Store NewsContinuing Pharmacy Education DSN DrugStoreNews * Latest News opener. * Retail * Suppliers * Government * Products ...
Drug for rare, fatal genetic disorder receives FDA approval - Drug Store NewsContinuing Pharmacy Education DSN DrugStoreNews * Latest News opener. * Retail * Suppliers * Government * Products ...
Genovese Drug Stores: Genovese Drug Stores was a pharmacy chain located in the New York City-Long Island area of the United States, including northern New Jersey, along with Fairfield County, Connecticut and Hartford County, Connecticut. It was acquired by Eckerd in 1998.Nuclear pharmacy: Nuclear Pharmacy involves a lot of preparation of radioactive materials that will be used to diagnose and treat specific diseases. It was the first pharmacy specialty established in 1978 by the Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties.Generic Pharmaceutical Price Decay: Generic Pharmaceutical Price Decay is what happens (in the UK) once the originator brand has lost its patent exclusivity (patent expiry) and generic versions of the originator brand have been launched.Applied Economics, 2004, 36, 731–73, The price premium of generic to brand-names and pharmaceutical price index, Ying KonNHH Dept.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Online patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Dentistry in the United States: The practice of dentistry in the United States is overseen by several agencies including the American Dental Association, the Commission on Dental Accreditation and the regional boards. Ultimate licensure is the responsibility of individual states.KamaladalamMedication Administration Record: A Medication Administration Record or MAR (eMAR for electronic versions) is the report that serves as a legal record of the drugs administered to a patient at a facility by a health care professional. The MAR is a part of a patient's permanent record on their medical chart.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Atlantic University: Atlantic University is private, distance education institution of higher and continuing education in Virginia Beach, Virginia. It is associated with Edgar Cayce's Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.John Smoke JohnsonList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Oncology benefit managementBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Pharmacy residency: Pharmacy Residency is education a pharmacist can pursue beyond the degree required for licensing as a pharmacist (in the United States of America: PharmD).Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Graphic facilitation: Graphic Facilitation is the use of large scale imagery to lead groups and individuals towards a goal. The method is used in various processes such as meetings, seminars, workshops and conferences.Nihon UniversityPimpleStandard evaluation frameworkSpecial education in the United Kingdom: 'Special Educational Needs' is an umbrella term for an aspect of UK school education focusing on students primarily with learning difficulties and/or disability. In school documents, it is abbreviated to 'SEN' / 'SEND' – these abbreviations are also used in Commonwealth countries such as Australia and Singapore.National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories: National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL).International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies: International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS) was established on March 2, 1985 in Washington, D.C.Upsilon Phi Delta: Upsilon Phi Delta (ΥΦΔ) is the national academic honor society for students in healthcare administration in the United States. The organization was formed in 1965 to further the profession of health administration and the professional competence and dedication of its members.SyringeKiten (program)ExploreLearning: Explore Learning is a Charlottesville, Virginia-based company which operates a large library of interactive online simulations for mathematics and science education in grades 3–12. These simulations are called Gizmos.Copayment: A copayment or copay is a fixed payment for a covered service, paid when an individual receives service. In the United States, copayment is a payment defined in an insurance policy and paid by an insured person each time a medical service is accessed.Iranian National Formulary: The Iranian National Formulary (INF) has more than 2,300 molecules registered at the Iran's Ministry of Health, including various strengths and dosage forms. The standards regarding pharmaceutical products in Iran are determined and modified by the Pharmacopeia Council.USPS Post Office Box Lobby Recycling programAustralian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.Antenor Orrego Private UniversityImmaculate perception: The expression immaculate perception has been used in various senses by various philosophers.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Let's Move!: Let's Move! seeks to combat the epidemic of childhood obesity and encourage a healthy lifestyle through "a comprehensive, collaborative, and community-oriented initiative that addresses all of the various factors that lead to childhood obesity [.List of Drug Enforcement Administration operations: The following is a list of major operations undertaken by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, in reverse chronological order.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Postgraduate training in general dentistry: ==Australia==Pharmaceutical Research Institute (PRI)- AlbanyLeiden International Medical Student ConferenceSpylocked: SpyLocked, also known as SpywareLocked, is rogue software that seeks to trick the user into purchasing its full rogue version. SpyLocked issues false security messages alleging that the user's computer is infected with malicious spyware.Dental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Becky JamesUnited States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: The United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs was a select committee of the United States Senate between 1968 and 1977. It was sometimes referred to as the McGovern committee, after its only chairperson, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.
(1/75) Competency, board certification, credentialing, and specialization: who benefits?
Pharmacists are concerned with the rapid changes in the healthcare system and what the requirements will be for a pharmacist in the near future. The emergence of board certification, credentialing, and other certification programs for pharmacists are causing significant concern among pharmacists. Pharmacists must assess certification programs and decide on the value of certification to their careers and to the patients they serve. Employers of pharmacists and those paying for healthcare and pharmacy services must also evaluate the value of pharmacists certification. Perhaps the most direct and significant benefit of pharmacist certification lies in the ability of the pharmacist to provide better and more comprehensive care to patients or selected groups of patients (eg, diabetic patients). Better and more comprehensive care provided by a pharmacist benefits the patient, other healthcare professionals, the healthcare system generally, and payers of healthcare and pharmacy services. Demonstrated competence of the pharmacist to provide pharmaceutical care is essential to achieving this benefit. Board certification of pharmacists in current board-recognized specialty areas of nutrition support pharmacy, pharmacotherapy, psychiatric pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, and oncology pharmacy totaled 2075 board certified pharmacists in the United States as of January 1997. (+info)
(2/75) Exploring self-care and wellness: a model for pharmacist compensation by managed care organizations.
Self-care and wellness are rapidly becoming mainstays of practice for many pharmacists. Consumer confidence and trust in pharmacists provides continuing opportunities for pharmacists to create products and services to satisfy consumer demands related to disease prevention and healthcare delivery. We outline two pharmacy wellness programs designed to meet consumer needs, and offer them as models for pharmacists. Issues related to the program and extent of involvement by pharmacists are raised, including the role of the pharmacists in behavior modification efforts; selecting areas of focus (e.g., smoking cessation); working with physicians for referrals; enlightening community business leaders and managed care organizations to the economic benefits of the program; and developing strategies for fair purchase of services to achieve program goals and provide adequate compensation in return. (+info)
(3/75) Patient consultation in a managed care setting: guiding pharmacy into the future.
Managed care organizations are excellent environments for pharmaceutical care programs to demonstrate their impact on patient care outcomes and to decrease costs. Patient consultation is the cornerstone in implementing pharmaceutical care because it increases patient contact with the pharmacists while improving patient compliance with drug therapy (adherence). Implementation of a patient consultation program that verifies patients' understanding of their disease and therapy gives the pharmacist information necessary to monitor drug therapy. Use of strategic planning to overcome barriers, followed by the development of local standards of practice, will refocus the practice philosophy to one of improving patient outcomes. Pharmacy managers must demonstrate and document the value that patient consultation brings to the patient and the healthcare system. Then, they must integrate their counseling effort with other health education efforts of the managed care system. Pharmacists will gain the support of other disciplines by reinforcing their efforts. Together they can work to decrease the problems that are inherent with drug therapy. These goals can be accomplished with minimal expense and have the potential to produce significant savings in healthcare costs. (+info)
(4/75) Generic drug product equivalence: current status.
This activity is designed for healthcare professionals involved in the selection of multisource drug products. GOAL: To understand the basis for approval of generic drug products by the Food and Drug Administration. OBJECTIVES: 1. Identify the criteria employed by the Food and Drug Administration to approve generic drug products. 2. Discuss controversial issues that have been raised relative to generic drug products. 3. Identify narrow therapeutic index drugs. 4. Describe the different types of bioequivalence studies that are required by the Food and Drug Administration. 5. Discuss the responsibilities underlying the selection of multisource drug products by healthcare professionals. (+info)
(5/75) Determining whether managed care formularies meet the needs of pediatric patients.
This activity is designed for healthcare providers making formulary decisions for managed care organizations. GOAL: To help clinicians determine whether managed care formularies meet the needs of pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: 1. List general considerations for establishing a pediatric drug formulary. 2. Understand the importance of growth and development when selecting drug therapy for pediatric patients. 3. Discuss potential difficulties with administering medications during school hours. 4. Identify specific medications within the drug classes of antibiotics, asthma medications, endocrine, and gastrointestinal agents that should be available on a pediatric drug formulary. (+info)
(6/75) Development and evaluation of a pharmacist-directed pharmacotherapy center.
This article is designed for ambulatory pharmacy specialists, pharmacy administrators, and managed care pharmacy and/or medical directors interested in developing systems for improved drug therapy outcomes. GOAL: To describe an alternative method for the effective delivery of pharmaceutical care. OBJECTIVES: 1. Identify the barriers to delivery of pharmaceutical care in current systems. 2. Describe the steps to take to implement a referral-based pharmaceutical care service. 3. Describe the financial and patient satisfaction outcomes of a referral-based pharmacy. 4. Describe the services that can be offered by a referral-based pharmacy. (+info)
(7/75) Methods of evaluation in outcomes research.
This activity is designed for pharmacists, physicians, physician assistants, nurses, and other healthcare team members; payers for health services; and healthcare executives. GOAL: To provide basic information on the methods used and computer software available for evaluating invariant factorial structures, such as those found in health status measurement tools. OBJECTIVES: 1. Discuss why comparison of mean scores may not be appropriate when interpreting humanistic outcomes results. 2. Identify alternative methods for evaluating data from health status measurement tools, such as the SF-36. 3. Define validity, reliability, and structure. 4. Understand the value of structural equation modeling when using health status measurement tools, such as the SF-36. 5. Describe the statistical software used to perform structural equation modeling. (+info)
(8/75) Pharmacist compensation for ambulatory patient care services.
This activity is designed for pharmacists practicing in ambulatory, community, and managed care environments. GOAL: To discuss issues involved in the transition from product-based to patient-care-based reimbursement and compensation systems for pharmacists. OBJECTIVES: 1. Differentiate between reimbursement and compensation. 2. Describe the limitations of current third-party reimbursement and compensation systems. 3. Describe ways in which compensation for seemingly identical products and services can vary. 4. Discuss the use of Medicare's Resource-Based Value Scale and the relative value unit. 5. Define and differentiate between ICD-9-CM codes and E/M CPT codes. 6. List the three key components needed to determine an E/M CPT code for a new patient seen in the pharmacy. 7. Describe and provide examples of the SOAP method of documentation. 8. Understand why the referral process is an important step in the compensation process. 9. Discuss the importance of Form HCFA-1500 and other documentation in the compensation process. (+info)
- We have many exciting new programs for Fall 2017, and one that really stands out is our Pharmacy Technician Program. (hawaii.edu)
- This acclaimed program specializes in preparing students for the national Pharmacy Technician Certification Examination. (hawaii.edu)
- For initial licensure, must show proof of passing a board-approved national standardized Pharmacy Technician Certification exam. (aftercollege.com)
- The fundamental responsibility of a public education institution is to foster learning, innovation, and strong communities to any student willing to put in the work to learn and achieve. (charteroak.edu)
- National College offers evening classes for Pharmacy Technician in the academic term starting November 27 . (national-college.edu)
- National College and all of its campuses are accredited by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools (ACICS) , a national accrediting agency recognized by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation. (national-college.edu)
- In the past two years, ten American National University pharmacy technician graduates have successfully completed their externships at Walgreens. (national-college.edu)
- We have been most pleased with everyone who has completed their pharmacy technician diploma and degree programs at National," said Mr. Sizemore. (national-college.edu)
- Mr. Sizemore recommended American National University students continue to become better prepared for the workforce by being enthusiastic, energetic, and possessing a positive personality. (national-college.edu)
- We look forward to bringing more graduates on board and are recommending for our pharmacy managers to hire them. (national-college.edu)
- Currently licensed as a Pharmacy Technician by the Washington State Board of Pharmacy. (aftercollege.com)
- Today, PeaceHealth is the legacy of its founding Sisters and continues to serve communities when invited to do so with a spirit of collaboration and stewardship - the spirit of health. (aftercollege.com)
- Topics include medical terminology specific to the pharmacy, reading and interpreting prescriptions, and defining drugs by generic and brand names. (charteroak.edu)
- PHILADELPHIA Pharmacy care management company Acro Pharmaceutical Services has received specialty pharmacy accreditation from the Washington-based healthcare accrediting organization URAC, Acro has announced. (drugstorenews.com)
- Specialty pharmacy involves comprehensive pharmacological care for patients with chronic illnesses and complex disease states who receive therapy management tailored to their individual needs, often involving high-cost treatments such as biotech drugs. (drugstorenews.com)
- By applying for and receiving specialty pharmacy accreditation, Acro Pharmaceutical Services has demonstrated a commitment to quality health care," URAC president and CEO Alan Spielman said. (drugstorenews.com)
- Minimum of one year's experience in hospital pharmacy utilizing unit dose, IV admixtures, and pharmacy computer systems preferred. (aftercollege.com)