Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate: A four-year program in nursing education in a college or university leading to a B.S.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Education, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.College Admission Test: Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.United StatesFaculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Schools, Nursing: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.HumanitiesEducation, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.Natural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Great BritainLaboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Licensure, Medical: The granting of a license to practice medicine.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Psychology, Educational: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Education, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Nursing Education Research: Investigations into the problems of integrating research findings into nursing curricula, developing problem solving skills, finding approaches to clinical teaching, determining the level of practice by graduates from different basic preparations, etc.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Professional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Vocational Guidance: Systematic efforts to assist individuals in selecting an occupation or suitable employment on the basis of aptitude, education, etc.Role Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Aptitude Tests: Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.BrazilProblem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Nursing Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers applied to the field of nursing.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Student Dropouts: Individuals who leave school, secondary or college, prior to completion of specified curriculum requirements.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Plagiarism: Passing off as one's own the work of another without credit.Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Geriatric Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of older people.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Schools: Educational institutions.Education, Predental: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to dental school.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Internship, Nonmedical: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.Musculoskeletal System: The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.IndiaProfessional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Allied Health Occupations: Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.Osteopathic Physicians: Licensed physicians trained in OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE. An osteopathic physician, also known as D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathy), is able to perform surgery and prescribe medications.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Physical Therapy Specialty: The auxiliary health profession which makes use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction of anatomic or physiological origin.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Aptitude: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Vocational Education: Education for specific trades or occupations.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.International Educational Exchange: The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.

Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Antenor Orrego Private UniversityCigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Alexander Walker (physiologist): Alexander Walker (1779—1852) was a Scottish physiologist, aesthetician, encyclopaedist, translator, novelist, and journalist.Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology: The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology is a Polish scientific research organization and a part of Polish Academy of Sciences headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. Founded in 1918, it is a leading institution in the country in the field of neurobiology, molecular biology and biochemistry.Leiden International Medical Student ConferenceList of medical schools in the United KingdomOnline patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.Graphic facilitation: Graphic Facilitation is the use of large scale imagery to lead groups and individuals towards a goal. The method is used in various processes such as meetings, seminars, workshops and conferences.Nihon UniversityThe Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.Pre-health sciences: Pre-health sciences refers to the undergraduate courses to prepare American college students for admission in medical, dentistry, pharmacy, optometry, veterinary, and physical therapy schools, and for training as a physician assistant. In the United States, colleges have moved away from the impractical designation of students as "Pre-med" majors, as only a small percentage of applicants actually achieve admission into medical schools.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Atlantic University: Atlantic University is private, distance education institution of higher and continuing education in Virginia Beach, Virginia. It is associated with Edgar Cayce's Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.Professional student: The term Professional student has two uses in the university setting:Prosection: A prosection is the dissection of a cadaver (human or animal) or part of a cadaver by an experienced anatomist in order to demonstrate for students anatomic structure."Prosection.KamaladalamDental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.Becky JamesKiten (program)Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.ExploreLearning: Explore Learning is a Charlottesville, Virginia-based company which operates a large library of interactive online simulations for mathematics and science education in grades 3–12. These simulations are called Gizmos.Standard evaluation frameworkAndrew Dickson WhiteUndergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test: The Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT, ) is a test administered by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) in Australia and New Zealand to assist in the selection of domestic students into certain health science courses including most Medical (MBBS or MBChB or MD) and Dentistry (BDSc or BDS) courses, as well as other health science courses such as physiotherapy and optometry. The UMAT is used for domestic applicant selection into undergraduate courses only; applicants for graduate courses must sit the GAMSAT and international applicants must sit the ISAT instead.Walter Reed Army Institute of ResearchList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,General Medicine Faculty of RostGMU (Rostov State Medical University): Rostov State Medical University, Faculty of General Medicine - Located in Rostov city center with 20 departments, each departments has its own clinics with numbers of beds.RNAi Global Initiative: The RNAi Global InitiativeRNAi Global Initiative website: www.rnaiglobal.Q Division Studios: Q Division Studios is a recording studio located in Somerville, Massachusetts, United States, at the heart of the Boston area's music scene. Founded in 1986, Q Division was originally located at 443 Albany Street in Boston, but moved to its current two-studio facility in 2000.Postgraduate training in general dentistry: ==Australia==Special education in the United Kingdom: 'Special Educational Needs' is an umbrella term for an aspect of UK school education focusing on students primarily with learning difficulties and/or disability. In school documents, it is abbreviated to 'SEN' / 'SEND' – these abbreviations are also used in Commonwealth countries such as Australia and Singapore.VII Photo Agency: VII is an international photo agency wholly owned and governed by its membership.Index of physics articles (J): The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.Last Days of Humanity: Last Days of Humanity is a Dutch goregrind band, which was active from 1989 until 2006, and reformed in 2010. Their music is known for its nonstop sound and relentless blast beats, with regards to drummer Marc Palmen.RWTH Aachen Faculty of Mathematics, Computer science, and Natural sciences: thumbnail|200px|Institute for physical chemistryIndian Journal of Community Medicine: The Indian Journal of Community Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine. The journal publishes articles on family health care, epidemiology, biostatistics, public health administration, health care delivery, national health problems, medical anthropology, and social medicine.European Association for Clinical Pharmacology and TherapeuticsThe Oxford Textbook of Medicine: The Oxford Textbook of Medicine Warrell DA, Cox TM, Firth JD. (2010).Upsilon Phi Delta: Upsilon Phi Delta (ΥΦΔ) is the national academic honor society for students in healthcare administration in the United States. The organization was formed in 1965 to further the profession of health administration and the professional competence and dedication of its members.American Osteopathic Board of Neurology and Psychiatry: United StatesKunming Institute of Zoology: Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ) (中国科学院昆明动物研究所), one of the 20 biological institutes under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), is one of China's first class zoological research institutes, located in Kunming, Yunnan province. The Institute has access to the unique and diversified animal resources of the Eastern Himalayas as well as a wide variety of the species from across Southeast Asia, the southern parts of Yunnan province being part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Electron Microscopy Center: The Electron Microscopy Center is a scientific user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The EMC works to solve materials problems using their unique capabilities for electron beam characterization.Let's Move!: Let's Move! seeks to combat the epidemic of childhood obesity and encourage a healthy lifestyle through "a comprehensive, collaborative, and community-oriented initiative that addresses all of the various factors that lead to childhood obesity [.USMLE Step 2 Clinical Knowledge: The USMLE-Step 2-CK ("Clinical Knowledge") is the nine-hour-long multiple-choice portion of the second part of the United States Medical Licensure Examination.Step 2 CK Content Description Online, from United States Medical Licensing Examination, accessed 22 December, 2009 It assesses clinical knowledge through a traditional, multiple-choice examination.Michael K. Denk: Michael K. Denk (or Karl Michael Denk) is a Professor of chemistry at the University of Guelph, Ontario.Life writing: Life writing is the recording of selves, memories, and experiences, whether one's own or another's. This applies to many genres and practices, under which can be found autobiography, biography, memoir, diaries, letters, testimonies, personal essays and, more recently, digital forms such as blogs and email.Confidence weighting: Confidence weighting (CW) is concerned with measuring two variables: (1) what a respondent believes is a correct answer to a question and (2) what degree of certainty the respondent has toward the correctness of this belief.MBF BioscienceImmaculate perception: The expression immaculate perception has been used in various senses by various philosophers.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.The Art of Negative Thinking: The Art of Negative Thinking (Norwegian: Kunsten å tenke negativt) is a 2006 Norwegian black comedy film directed and written by Bård Breien. The storyline revolves around a man (played by Fridtjov Såheim) who is adjusting to life in a wheelchair, and the socializing group he is made to join.

(1/1578) Audit in general practice: students and practitioners learning together.

OBJECTIVES: To describe and evaluate the use of medical audit in general practice as an educational activity shared by undergraduate medical students and general practitioners. DESIGN: A descriptive study, evaluated by a questionnaire survey of all participating practices and by results of completed student projects on general practice audit topics during three weeks in the first year of completed projects (1990-1). SETTING: One university department of general practice, collaborating with 18 general practices in contract with Liverpool Family Health Services Authority. PARTICIPANTS: 150 medical students, working in groups of two to six, and the general practitioners with whom they worked in 18 practices. MAIN MEASURES: The nature of topics proposed by practices and chosen by the students; methods of audit used by students; reported effects of the audits on the practices; general practitioners' opinions of the projects' usefulness to the practice. RESULTS: The range of topics was wide, and both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Fifteen of the 18 questionnaires sent out were completed. Six practices reported that the final project had changed substantially after joint planning with the students. Two thirds (10) attached high value to the audits and were making changes in the delivery of care as a result. CONCLUSIONS: Medical audit "project work" by medical undergraduates is an effective tool for motivating students to learn and can lead to change in the clinical setting in which it occurs. IMPLICATIONS: By meeting the learning needs of both undergraduates and established practitioners audit project work has wider application within medical education.  (+info)

(2/1578) Comparing ambulatory preceptors' and students' perceptions of educational planning.

To compare ambulatory preceptors' and students' perceptions of the use of educational planning (setting goals, assessing needs, formulating objectives, choosing methods, and providing feedback and evaluation) in the office setting, we mailed a survey, which was returned by 127 longitudinal ambulatory preceptors and 168 first-year and second-year medical students. Faculty perceptions did not match student perceptions of what occurred in the longitudinal preceptor program teaching sessions in educational planning areas. Students perceived these activities were occurring with much less frequency than faculty perceived. Medical education needs to move beyond the usual faculty development workshop paradigm to a more comprehensive educational development model that includes training both faculty and students in core educational skills. This will enable the ambulatory setting to reach its full educational potential in training future physicians.  (+info)

(3/1578) Rural background and clinical rural rotations during medical training: effect on practice location.

BACKGROUND: Providing health care services in rural communities in Canada remains a challenge. What affects a family medicine resident's decision concerning practice location? Does the resident's background or exposure to rural practice during clinical rotations affect that decision? METHODS: Cross-sectional mail survey of 159 physicians who graduated from the Family Medicine Program at Queen's University, Kingston, Ont., between 1977 and 1991. The outcome variables of interest were the size of community in which the graduate chose to practise on completion of training (rural [population less than 10,000] v. nonrural [population 10,000 or more]) and the size of community of practice when the survey was conducted (1993). The predictor or independent variables were age, sex, number of years in practice, exposure to rural practice during undergraduate and residency training, and size of hometown. RESULTS: Physicians who were raised in rural communities were 2.3 times more likely than those from nonrural communities to choose to practise in a rural community immediately after graduation (95% confidence interval 1.43-3.69, p = 0.001). They were also 2.5 times more likely to still be in rural practice at the time of the survey (95% confidence interval 1.53-4.01, p = 0.001). There was no association between exposure to rural practice during undergraduate or residency training and choosing to practise in a rural community. INTERPRETATION: Physicians who have roots in rural Canada are more likely to practise in rural Canada than those without such a background.  (+info)

(4/1578) Educational and career outcomes of an internal medicine preceptorship for first-year medical students.

OBJECTIVE: Medical educators have attempted in recent years to provide quality clinical experiences for medical students early in their medical training. We questioned whether participating in a preceptorship in internal medicine (PIM) resulted in better performances on subsequent clinical rotations and increased interest in internal medicine. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-four students have participated in the PIM to date, with control groups consisting of students who applied for it but were not selected (n = 36), students participating in a preceptorship in family medicine (n = 168), and the remaining students (n = 330). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: University medical center and community practices. INTERVENTION: A 2-month, clinical preceptorship following the first year of medical school. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The following outcomes were assessed: scores in the introduction to clinical medicine course; grades in the medical ethics course; scores from the internal medicine clerkship; and choosing a career in internal medicine. In their second year, PIM students scored higher in both semesters of the introduction to clinical medicine course (87% and 86% vs 84% and 84%, p's <.01) and were more likely to receive honors in ethics (50% vs 29%, p <.01) than non-PIM students. During the internal medicine clerkship, PIM students' scores were significantly higher on an objective structured clinical examination (79% vs 76%, p =.05), ambulatory clinical evaluations (80% vs 76%, p <.01), and overall clerkship scores (78% vs 75%, p =.03) but not on inpatient clinical evaluations or on the National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination. Preceptorship students were more likely to receive honors grades in the medicine clerkship (33% vs 10%, p <.01), and they were more likely to match into internal medicine residencies than control students (54% vs 27%, p <.01). CONCLUSIONS: The PIM course is an intervention, early in students' careers, which appears to benefit them academically and increase their interest in internal medicine as a career.  (+info)

(5/1578) Teaching public health to medical students in the United Kingdom--are the General Medical Council's recommendations being implemented?

BACKGROUND: Despite frequent calls to improve undergraduate medical public health teaching, little is known about whether curricula have changed. We report a survey of undergraduate public health teaching in UK medical schools in 1996. The survey aimed to assess whether the General Medical Council's 1993 recommendations to strengthen undergraduate medical education in public health have been implemented. METHODS: We asked heads of academic departments of public health at all 26 UK medical schools to complete a questionnaire and provide supporting documentation for each undergraduate public health course or module. We compared results from the 1996 survey with those from a similar survey in 1992. RESULTS: Twenty-one out of 26 (81 per cent) medical schools responded. All responding medical schools included public health teaching within their curriculum. The median number of public health courses per medical school was unchanged since 1992. A wide variety of topics were taught. Core public health subjects were taught at most schools, though over a quarter of medical schools did not cover some core topics. Between 1992 and 1996 the proportion of time devoted to teaching by lectures decreased, whereas the following all increased: teaching by small group methods; the proportion of courses using methods of assessment encouraging active learning; and the contribution of public health courses to the final degree assessment. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that many of the General Medical Council's recommendations for improving the delivery of undergraduate education are being addressed by public health teaching in UK medical schools. However, addressing the gaps in undergraduate public health teaching revealed in this survey is a continuing challenge for academic public health departments. Medical schools should review the content of their undergraduate public health teaching to ensure that tomorrow's doctors are adequately equipped with public health knowledge and skills.  (+info)

(6/1578) Intercalated degrees, learning styles, and career preferences: prospective longitudinal study of UK medical students.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of taking an intercalated degree (BSc) on the study habits and learning styles of medical students and on their interest in a career in medical research. DESIGN: Longitudinal questionnaire study of medical students at application to medical school and in their final year. SETTING: All UK medical schools. PARTICIPANTS: 6901 medical school applicants for admission in 1991 were studied in the autumn of 1990. 3333 entered medical school in 1991 or 1992, and 2695 who were due to qualify in 1996 or 1997 were studied 3 months before the end of their clinical course. Response rates were 92% for applicants and 56% for final year students. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Study habits (surface, deep, and strategic learning style) and interest in different medical careers, including medical research. Identical questions were used at time of application and in final year. RESULTS: Students who had taken an intercalated degree had higher deep and strategic learning scores than at application to medical school. Those with highest degree classes had higher strategic and deep learning scores and lower surface learning scores. Students taking intercalated degrees showed greater interest in careers in medical research and laboratory medicine and less interest in general practice than their peers. The effects of the course on interest in medical research and learning styles were independent. The effect of the intercalated degree was greatest in schools where relatively few students took intercalated degrees. CONCLUSIONS: Intercalated degrees result in a greater interest in research careers and higher deep and strategic learning scores. However, the effects are much reduced in schools where most students intercalate a degree. Introduction of intercalated degrees for all medical students without sufficient resources may not therefore achieve its expected effects.  (+info)

(7/1578) Clinical experience during the paediatric undergraduate course.

Medical students at the Cambridge Clinical School are provided with a list of 42 core conditions they should encounter and 20 core skills they should perform during their attachment. By self-completion questionnaires we assessed their clinical experience and the amount of teaching they received, relating the results to marks gained in end-of-attachment assessments. 103 (93%) of 110 students in year one and 123 (96%) of 128 in year two completed the questionnaires. Of the 42 core conditions, 13 were seen by under 70% of the students in year one. In year two, exposure rate increased for 26 core conditions by a median of 7% (range 2-40) and decreased in 13 core conditions by a median value 4% (range 5-13) (P = 0.0005, chi 2). Only mandatory core skills were performed by over 90% of students. 5% of students did not perform any newborn examinations and under 60% observed neonatal resuscitation or a high-risk delivery. Students' core condition score was associated with their core skill score (r = 0.5), hospital grade (r = 0.3) and exposure to acute paediatrics (r = 0.3) (P < 0.005). There was no significant association between clinical experience and the objective examination score or the amount of teaching received. There was an inverse association between the number of students at a hospital and the number of core conditions with an exposure rate above 70% at that hospital (r = 0.7, P < 0.05). This study suggests that clinical experience may be better judged by the clinical supervisor than by assessment of theoretical knowledge.  (+info)

(8/1578) An interdisciplinary approach to a day-long palliative care course for undergraduate students.

Although it is desirable that students in the health sciences be educated together to prepare them for interdisciplinary practice, many educational programs remain discipline specific. An undergraduate course in palliative care, originally designed for medical students at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., was expanded in 1993 to include students from various health sciences programs in the region. The course introduces students to the components of palliative care and its interdisciplinary nature in a problem-based way and directs students to additional educational resources. The authors describe the planning, content and evaluation of the course material. The observed decline in attendance by medical students, which coincided with the introduction of the interdisciplinary format, warrants further investigation. Future directions of the course are discussed.  (+info)


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