Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Education, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Education, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.United StatesEducation, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Vocational Education: Education for specific trades or occupations.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Schools: Educational institutions.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Mainstreaming (Education): Most frequently refers to the integration of a physically or mentally disabled child into the regular class of normal peers and provision of the appropriately determined educational program.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate: A four-year program in nursing education in a college or university leading to a B.S.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.CaliforniaDental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Staff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.IndiaOccupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Area Health Education Centers: Education centers authorized by the Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act, 1971, for the training of health personnel in areas where health needs are the greatest. May be used for centers other than those established by the United States act.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.BrazilSchools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Credentialing: The recognition of professional or technical competence through registration, certification, licensure, admission to association membership, the award of a diploma or degree, etc.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Cognitive Reserve: Capacity that enables an individual to cope with and/or recover from the impact of a neural injury or a psychotic episode.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Great BritainMass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.North CarolinaFamily Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Library Science: Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.

*  Zhiping Li, M.D.
Li had his initial medical education at Shanghai Jiaotong University (formally Shanghai Second Medical University) in China... ... He is also the Assistant Director of International Medical Education and responsible for all international medical education ... Li had his initial medical education at Shanghai Jiaotong University (formally Shanghai Second Medical University) in China. ... Education. Degrees. * MD, Shanghai Second Medical University (1988) Residencies. *Shanghai 9th People's Hospital / Plastic ...
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*  မန္မာႏိုင္ငံဆရာ၀န္အသင္း (ရန္ကုန္တုိင္းေဒသႀကီး) စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ေဆးပညာသင္ၾကားေရး (Continuing Medical Education) ဖိတ္ၾကားျခင္း | ...
မန္မာႏိုင္ငံဆရာ၀န္အသင္း (ရန္ကုန္တုိင္းေဒသႀကီး) စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ေဆးပညာသင္ၾကားေရး (Continuing Medical Education) ဖိတ္ၾကားျခင္း. ... မန္မာႏိုင္ငံဆရာ၀န္အသင္း (ရန္ကုန္တုိင္းေဒသႀကီး) စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ေဆးပညာသင္ၾကားေရး (Continuing Medical Education) ဖိတ္ၾကားျခင္း ... မန္မာႏုိင္ငံဆရာ၀န္အသင္း (ရန္ကုန္တိုင္းေသႀကီး)၏ စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ ေဆးပညာသင္ၾကားေရး (Continuing Medical Education) အစီအစဥ္ကို ေအာက္ပါ ... မန္မာႏုိင္ငံဆရာ၀န္အသင္း (ရန္ကုန္တိုင္းေသႀကီး)၏ ...
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*  BIOL 6533: Sex- and Gender-based Medicine: An Overview | Office of Medical Education
The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University. Box G-A1, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA. Phone: 401-863-3330. Maps ...
  https://www.brown.edu/academics/medical/education/biol-6533-sex-and-gender-based-medicine-overview
*  MCW: Benchmark OSCE
... and to comply with the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) Accreditation Requirements. The examination also sought to ...
  http://www.mcw.edu/Medical-School/Current-Students/Benchmark-OSCE.htm
*  Dr. Vikram - ViYoutube.com
We used to upload Medical and Surgical Videos, enhancing the medical education upward, educa... ... Mimosa Pudica Medical Importance. 8,254 views • 2 years ago * 1:40 Elbow Cyst Excision. 481,062 views • 3 years ago ...
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*  Audio-Digest Releases 17 New Specialty-Specific Continuing Medical Education Programs
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*  Hesston College medical training
As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly. ... Get info about Hesston College medical training. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. ... Aside from a good salary, many medical education programs include excellent employment benefits, as well as payment plans. ... medical insurance billing, health information technicians, diagnostic medical sonographers, and medical insurance billing. ...
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*  Continuing Medical Education - Page 2 | Medical education
Continuing Medical Education September 22, 2016 Continuing medical eduction (CME) is a must in today's medical fields. From ... Medical Education Conferences June 1, 2016 November 6-7, 2014 Swissotel Hotel - Chicago The AAMC Medical Education Meeting is a ... Online Continuing Medical Education August 15, 2016 Primary Care Series The online continuing medical education (CME) series is ... Continuing Medical Education requirements by State April 22, 2016 Medical CME requirements vary by state Continuing medical ...
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*  MH PGD CET 2014 New Personal Counseling Schedule Out
Director of Medical Education and Research (DMER) has published a notification for announcement of new revised schedule of ... Director of Medical Education and Research (DMER) has published a notification for announcement of new revised schedule of ... of Physiology, Grant Medical College, Mumbai.. AS mentioned in schedule "The candidates should bring all the original documents ... DNB Event Exam General Surgery Gynecology India Interview Jobs Judgement Legal Maharashtra MBBS MCQ Medical Negligence Medical ...
  https://desimedicos.com/mh-pgd-cet-2014-new-personal-counseling-schedule/
*  UCSF Dept of Medicine | Faculty Profiles
Daniel C. Tosteson Award for Leadership in Medical Education, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, ... Education and Training. Location Degree or Training Specialty Date Harvard Medical School Post doctoral Fellowship Medical ... Evaluating instruction in medical education. J Med Educ. 1983 Nov; 58(11):844-9. Irby DM. Peer review of teaching in medicine. ... From 1997-2011, he served as vice dean for education and director of the Office of Medical Education in the UCSF School of ...
  https://dgim.ucsf.edu/faculty/?key=20388336&name=IRBY%2CDAVID+M
*  PHA Online University
... is a program of the PHA Medical Education Fund. The technical development of this website was made ... possible through unrestricted medical education grants from Actelion Pharmaceuticals US, Inc.; Gilead Sciences, Inc.; and ...
  http://www.phaonlineuniv.org
*  en.uswr.ac.ir - Dr.Bakhshi Enayatollah
The Ministry of Health and Medical Education each year).. 2- Appreciation as a top researcher by USWR in 2013, 2015 and 2016. ... Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. The Effect of Social Skills Training on Perceived Competence of Female Adolescents with ... Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. Application of recurrent events model in determining the risk factors of recurrence of ... BMC medical research methodology. A comparison of two methods for estimating odds ratios: results from the National Health ...
  http://en.uswr.ac.ir/index.jsp?siteid=2&siteid=2&fkeyid=&siteid=2&pageid=3124
*  Skeptical Scalpel: An MD's thoughts on medical education
Labels: Anatomy, Medical education, Medical school, Medical Students, surgeons, surgical residency training ... in medical education are MD wanna-be's very ready to wreak themselves on, and insinuate themselves into, the medical education ... And medical education, according to the Flexner report is now 100 years out of date. Get rid of our PhD colleagues in medical ... This is the kind of thinking that leads me to believe my medical education is becoming more like a trades school education, ...
  http://skepticalscalpel.blogspot.de/2013/12/an-mds-thoughts-on-medical-education.html
*  Burbank California CNA degree
Completion of an accredited healthcare program or other medical training can qualify you to start working in a hospital ... Aside from a good salary, many medical education programs include excellent health benefits, as well as tuition payment plans. ... All states require a practicing chiropractor to take continuing education classes to maintain his or her chiropractic license. ... Online Classes. Certificates. Test Prep. Anatomy. CNA Training. LVN-LPN. RN Program. APRNs. Dental Asst. Imaging. ...
  http://www.cna-degree.com/Burbank-California-CNA-degree.php
*  Comments invited on NAVMEC draft report
posted December 19, 2010 The much-anticipated draft report of the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium has ... The much-anticipated draft report of the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium has been completed, and it is ... Roadmap for Veterinary Medical Education in the 21st Century: Responsive, Collaborative, Flexible.' ... NAVMEC is an effort led by the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges that focuses on creating a workforce of ...
  https://www.avma.org/News/JAVMANews/Pages/110101h.aspx?PF=1
*  Clinical Electives Abroad > Medical Education at Yale | Yale School of...
Yale students participating in elective clinical rotations through the Office of International Medical Student Education MUST: ... Education Patient Care Research Yale School of Medicine 333 Cedar Street New Haven CT 06510 ... These fellowships cover medical pre-trip evaluations and immunizations, air travel and some living expenses; however these ...
  https://medicine.yale.edu/education/gho/yalestudents/abroad/
*  Medical education - Wikipedia
Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner; either the initial training to become a ... Entry-level medical education programs are tertiary-level courses undertaken at a medical school. Depending on jurisdiction and ... Education theory itself is becoming an integral part of postgraduate medical training. Formal qualifications in education are ... One 2010 survey of U.S. medical school deans of education regarding health policy education initiatives found that of the 160 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_education
*  Online Medical Education
4 Vital Signs Presentation slides will be available at www.slideshare.net/enspirelearning/online-medical-education … ... Online Medical Education * 1. Resuscitate Your Online Medical Education: 4 Vital Signs Presentation slides will be available at ... So then the question is, can we find similar vital signs for continuing medical education? What can we measure and ensure s in ... Overview ,ul,,ul,,li,Four/five vital signs for continuing medical education: ,/li,,/ul,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,li,1. ? ,/li,,/ul,,/ul,,ul ...
  https://www.slideshare.net/enspirelearning/online-medical-education
*  Medical education agency - Wikipedia
Medical education agencies are divided into two categories: Medical education agencies that develop Continuing medical ... Medical education agencies that develop Non-CME, also referred to as Promotional education, programs specialize in developing ... Hospitals, Universities, Pharmaceutical and Medical device manufacturers may employ medical education agencies to develop ... Hospitals, Universities, Pharmaceutical and Medical device manufacturers may employ medical education agencies to develop ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_education_agency
*  Medical education manager - Wikipedia
A medical education manager generally has a medical degree and a medical specialty, and is a staff physician. Their job is to ... It also may be called Medical Education Specialist, Healthcare Communications Specialist, or Continuing Medical Education ... A medical education manager is someone who is appointed by a committee of deaneries and trusts in a department of a medical ... "Medical education manager" may also refer to a position in some pharmaceutical companies (e.g. Johnson & Johnson in British ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_education_manager
*  Medtech (medical education) - Wikipedia
English as a Second Language Health Information Technology Medical Assistant Medical Billing & Coding Specialist Medical Lab ... Medtech is a for-profit medical career education facility founded in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 2004. Consecutive campuses were ... In February, 2014, Medtech announced the acquisition of National Medical Education & Training Center (NMETC). Medtech College ... Medtech has diploma and Associate degree programs in the fields of Medical, Medical Office, School of Nursing, and English as a ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medtech_(medical_education)
*  Medical Education Number - Wikipedia
Medical Education Number (ME Number) is an 11-digit number assigned to every physician member of the AMA in the United States ... The first 5 digits represent the Medical School Code. Digits 6 and 7 represent the 2 digit expected graduation year. The final ... physicians who are not members of the AMA may find out their ME number by calling the American Medical Association. It is used ... by the American Medical Association for identification and recording of basic physician information and CME credits. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_Education_Number
*  Continuing medical education - Wikipedia
From essentially the beginning of institutionalized medical instruction (medical instruction affiliated with medical colleges ... Continuing medical education (CME) refers to a specific form of continuing education (CE) that helps those in the medical field ... Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. Retrieved 14 February 2012. "Continuing Medical Education". CME ... "Continuing Medical Education for Licensure Reregistration" (PDF). State Medical Licensure Requirements and Statistics. American ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuing_medical_education
*  My Medical Education - Wikipedia
My Medical Education is a search engine for continuing medical education and an interactive community for doctors, medical ... My Medical Education is the largest database and source for information for those interested in continuing medical education ... www.my-medical-education.com now offers everything around continuing medical education together with the core elements: the ... Under www.medical-congresses.com medical events could be searched for and found, selectable by various criteria such as ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/My_Medical_Education
*  Graduate medical education - Wikipedia
Graduate Medical Education (American Medical Association) What is Osteopathic Graduate Medical Education. ... Graduate Medical Education (GME) refers to any type of formal medical education, usually hospital-sponsored or hospital-based ... training, pursued after receipt of the M.D. or D.O. degree in the United States This education includes internship, residency, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graduate_medical_education

School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Online patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Atlantic University: Atlantic University is private, distance education institution of higher and continuing education in Virginia Beach, Virginia. It is associated with Edgar Cayce's Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Special education in the United Kingdom: 'Special Educational Needs' is an umbrella term for an aspect of UK school education focusing on students primarily with learning difficulties and/or disability. In school documents, it is abbreviated to 'SEN' / 'SEND' – these abbreviations are also used in Commonwealth countries such as Australia and Singapore.Nihon UniversityBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Standard evaluation frameworkLet's Move!: Let's Move! seeks to combat the epidemic of childhood obesity and encourage a healthy lifestyle through "a comprehensive, collaborative, and community-oriented initiative that addresses all of the various factors that lead to childhood obesity [.Postgraduate training in general dentistry: ==Australia==Dental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.Kiten (program)QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.List of medical schools in the United KingdomUnited States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: The United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs was a select committee of the United States Senate between 1968 and 1977. It was sometimes referred to as the McGovern committee, after its only chairperson, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.International Deaf Education Association: The International Deaf Education Association (IDEA) is an organization focused on educating the deaf in Bohol, Philippines initiated by the United States Peace Corps, under the leadership of Dennis Drake. The organization is a non-profit establishment that provides education to the impoverished and neglected deaf and blind children in the Philippines.Hacettepe University: ) Suburban ()KamaladalamSt. Vrain Valley School DistrictLeiden International Medical Student ConferenceCircular flow of income: The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc. between economic agents.National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories: National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL).Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Graphic facilitation: Graphic Facilitation is the use of large scale imagery to lead groups and individuals towards a goal. The method is used in various processes such as meetings, seminars, workshops and conferences.Antenor Orrego Private UniversityCigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.ExploreLearning: Explore Learning is a Charlottesville, Virginia-based company which operates a large library of interactive online simulations for mathematics and science education in grades 3–12. These simulations are called Gizmos.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Upsilon Phi Delta: Upsilon Phi Delta (ΥΦΔ) is the national academic honor society for students in healthcare administration in the United States. The organization was formed in 1965 to further the profession of health administration and the professional competence and dedication of its members.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.General Medicine Faculty of RostGMU (Rostov State Medical University): Rostov State Medical University, Faculty of General Medicine - Located in Rostov city center with 20 departments, each departments has its own clinics with numbers of beds.Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.Pre-health sciences: Pre-health sciences refers to the undergraduate courses to prepare American college students for admission in medical, dentistry, pharmacy, optometry, veterinary, and physical therapy schools, and for training as a physician assistant. In the United States, colleges have moved away from the impractical designation of students as "Pre-med" majors, as only a small percentage of applicants actually achieve admission into medical schools.The Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.Yo KobayashiMothers TalkSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Bio Base EuropeSan Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.Utah College of Dental HygieneVirtual trainingProfessional student: The term Professional student has two uses in the university setting:

(1/1860) Do students' attitudes toward women change during medical school?

BACKGROUND: Medical school has historically reinforced traditional views of women. This cohort study follows implementation of a revitalized curriculum and examines students' attitudes toward women on entry into an Ontario medical school, and 3 years later. METHODS: Of the 75 students entering first year at Queen's University medical school 70 completed the initial survey in September 1994 and 54 were resurveyed in May 1997. First-year students at 2 other Ontario medical schools were also surveyed in 1994, and these 166 respondents formed a comparison group. Changes in responses to statements about sex-role stereotypes, willingness to control decision-making of female patients, and conceptualization of women as "other" or "abnormal" because they are women were examined. Responses from the comparison group were used to indicate whether the Queen's group was representative. RESULTS: Attitudinal differences between the primary group and the comparison group were not significant. After 3 years of medical education students were somewhat less accepting of sex-role stereotypes and less controlling in the doctor-patient encounter. They continued, however, to equate adults with men and to see women as "not adult" or "other." Female students began and remained somewhat more open-minded in all areas studied. INTERPRETATION: A predicted trend toward conservatism was not seen as students became older, more aware and closer to completion of medical training, although they continued to equate adults with male and to see women as "other." Findings may validate new curricular approaches and increased attention to gender issues in the academic environment.  (+info)

(2/1860) Do case studies mislead about the nature of reality?

This paper attempts a partial, critical look at the construction and use of case studies in ethics education. It argues that the authors and users of case studies are often insufficiently aware of the literary nature of these artefacts: this may lead to some confusion between fiction and reality. Issues of the nature of the genre, the fictional, story-constructing aspect of case studies, the nature of authorship, and the purposes and uses of case studies as "texts" are outlined and discussed. The paper concludes with some critical questions that can be applied to the construction and use of case studies in the light of the foregoing analysis.  (+info)

(3/1860) Do studies of the nature of cases mislead about the reality of cases? A response to Pattison et al.

This article questions whether many are misled by current case studies. Three broad types of style of case study are described. A stark style, based on medical case studies, a fictionalised style in reaction, and a personal statement made in discussion groups by an original protagonist. Only the second type fits Pattison's category. Language remains an important issue, but to be examined as the case is lived in discussion rather than as a potentially reductionist study of the case as text.  (+info)

(4/1860) The role of curriculum in influencing students to select generalist training: a 21-year longitudinal study.

To determine if specific curricula or backgrounds influence selection of generalist careers, the curricular choices of graduates of Mount Sinai School of Medicine between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed based on admission category. Students were divided into three groups: Group 1, those who started their first year of training at the School of Medicine; Group 2, those accepted with advanced standing into their third year of training from the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a five-year program developed to select and produce students likely to enter primary care fields; and Group 3, those accepted with advanced standing into the third year who spent the first two years at a foreign medical school. All three groups took the identical last two years of clinical training at the School of Medicine. These were no significant differences with respect to initial choice of generalist training programs among all three groups, with 46% of the total cohort selecting generalist training. Of those students who chose generalist programs, 58% in Group 1, 51% in Group 2, and 41% in Group 3 remained in these fields rather than progressing to fellowship training. This difference was significant only with respect to Group 3. However, when an analysis was performed among those students providing only primary care as compared to only specialty care, there were no significant differences. Analysis by gender revealed women to be more likely to select generalist fields and remain in these fields without taking specialty training (P < .0001). Differentiating characteristics with respect to choosing generalist fields were not related to either Part I or Part II scores on National Board Examinations or selection to AOA. However, with respect to those specific specialties considered quite competitive (general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and ophthalmology), total test scores on Part I and Part II were significantly higher than those of all other students. The analysis indicated that, despite the diverse characteristics of students entering the third year at the School of Medicine, no one group produced a statistically greater proportion of generalists positions than any other, and academic performance while in medical school did not have a significant influence on whether a student entered a generalist field.  (+info)

(5/1860) Health sector reform in central and eastern Europe: the professional dimension.

The success or failure of health sector reform in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe depends, to a large extent, on their health care staff. Commentators have focused on the structures to be put in place, such as mechanisms of financing or changes in ownership of facilities, but less attention has been paid to the role and status of the different groups working in health care services. This paper draws on a study of trends in staffing and working conditions throughout the region. It identifies several key issues including the traditionally lower status and pay of health sector workers compared to the West, the credibility crisis of trade unions, and the under-developed roles of professional associations. In order to implement health sector reforms and to address the deteriorating health status of the population, the health sector workforce has to be restructured and training programmes reoriented towards primary care. Finally, the paper identifies emerging issues such as the erosion of 'workplace welfare' and its adverse effects upon a predominantly female health care workforce.  (+info)

(6/1860) Health human resource development in rural China.

China has made significant progress in increasing the quantity of health workers in rural areas. Attention is shifting to improving the quality of health workers. This article documents several features of health workers in rural China. Many have not received formal training to a level implied by their rank and title, and there is no clear relationship between the skills of health workers and the functions they perform. Many better-qualified personnel have left lower level health facilities for more attractive employment in higher level and urban facilities. A system of professional licensing is currently being considered that will link educational requirements to employment and promotion. This article outlines some of the issues that should be taken into consideration in formulating this system. In particular, licensing may have unequal impacts on rich and poorer areas. This article argues that other regulatory measures will be necessary if licensing is to be an effective mechanism for controlling the quality of health workers, and contribute to the provision of affordable health services in both rich and poor areas.  (+info)

(7/1860) The world economic crisis. Part 2. Health manpower out of balance.

As outlined in the first part of this article in the last issue of the journal, many countries are facing severe constraints on health expenditure at the same time as they are trying to work towards Health for All by the Year 2000. Health manpower needs to be planned to secure maximum benefits from the limited resources available. Many medical schools train more doctors than are needed because quotas on medical places are either non-existent or set too high. Medical training may be oriented to high-technology, curative care and produce doctors ill equipped to fulfil the role demanded of them in the primary health care approach. Educational courses for paramedics and nurses are often insufficient and inappropriate. Countries which have previously lost trained doctors to attractive posts abroad now face the prospect of a flood of doctors looking for work in their home countries, now that opportunities for work abroad are being reduced. Such countries will find it difficult to reverse the bias in policy towards medical professionals, despite the waste caused by unemployment and inappropriate training among doctors. With limited budgets, there is a need for countries to plan ahead. To do this they must find ways of estimating future effective demand. The future balance of staff can then be planned on the basis of resources available and the relative costs of deploying various categories of health staff.  (+info)

(8/1860) Student loan debt does not predict female physicians' choice of primary care specialty.

OBJECTIVE: There has never been a conclusive test of whether there is a relation between ultimately choosing to be a primary care physician and one's amount of student loan debt at medical school graduation. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: To test this question, we examined data from the Women Physicians' Health Study, a large, nationally representative, questionnaire-based study of 4,501 U.S. women physicians. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We found that the youngest physicians were more than five times as likely as the oldest to have had some student loan debt and far more likely to have had high debt levels (p <.0001). However, younger women physicians were also more likely to choose a primary care specialty (p <.002). There was no relation between being a primary care physician and amount of indebtedness (p =.77); this was true even when the results were adjusted for the physicians' decade of graduation and ethnicity (p =.79). CONCLUSIONS: Although there may be other reasons for reducing student loan debt, at least among U.S. women physicians, encouraging primary care as a specialty choice may not be a reason for doing so.  (+info)