Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Education, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Distance Perception: The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Education, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.United StatesTeaching: The educational process of instructing.Education, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Schools: Educational institutions.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Vocational Education: Education for specific trades or occupations.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Mainstreaming (Education): Most frequently refers to the integration of a physically or mentally disabled child into the regular class of normal peers and provision of the appropriately determined educational program.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate: A four-year program in nursing education in a college or university leading to a B.S.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.CaliforniaFaculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.BrazilPatient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.IndiaPoverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Staff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Great BritainCommunity-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Area Health Education Centers: Education centers authorized by the Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act, 1971, for the training of health personnel in areas where health needs are the greatest. May be used for centers other than those established by the United States act.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.North CarolinaDental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Credentialing: The recognition of professional or technical competence through registration, certification, licensure, admission to association membership, the award of a diploma or degree, etc.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Cognitive Reserve: Capacity that enables an individual to cope with and/or recover from the impact of a neural injury or a psychotic episode.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.
School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Online patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.Atlantic University: Atlantic University is private, distance education institution of higher and continuing education in Virginia Beach, Virginia. It is associated with Edgar Cayce's Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Perspective distortion (photography): Perspective correction}}Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Special education in the United Kingdom: 'Special Educational Needs' is an umbrella term for an aspect of UK school education focusing on students primarily with learning difficulties and/or disability. In school documents, it is abbreviated to 'SEN' / 'SEND' – these abbreviations are also used in Commonwealth countries such as Australia and Singapore.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Nihon UniversityBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Standard evaluation frameworkLet's Move!: Let's Move! seeks to combat the epidemic of childhood obesity and encourage a healthy lifestyle through "a comprehensive, collaborative, and community-oriented initiative that addresses all of the various factors that lead to childhood obesity [.Postgraduate training in general dentistry: ==Australia==QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Kiten (program)Dental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.Okurigana: are kana] suffixes following [[kanji stems in Japanese written words. They serve two purposes: to inflect adjectives and verbs, and to force a particular kanji to mean a specific idea and be read a certain way.List of medical schools in the United KingdomRelative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: The United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs was a select committee of the United States Senate between 1968 and 1977. It was sometimes referred to as the McGovern committee, after its only chairperson, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.International Deaf Education Association: The International Deaf Education Association (IDEA) is an organization focused on educating the deaf in Bohol, Philippines initiated by the United States Peace Corps, under the leadership of Dennis Drake. The organization is a non-profit establishment that provides education to the impoverished and neglected deaf and blind children in the Philippines.St. Vrain Valley School DistrictKamaladalamHacettepe University: ) Suburban ()Leiden International Medical Student ConferenceCircular flow of income: The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc. between economic agents.National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories: National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL).ExploreLearning: Explore Learning is a Charlottesville, Virginia-based company which operates a large library of interactive online simulations for mathematics and science education in grades 3–12. These simulations are called Gizmos.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Antenor Orrego Private UniversityTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGraphic facilitation: Graphic Facilitation is the use of large scale imagery to lead groups and individuals towards a goal. The method is used in various processes such as meetings, seminars, workshops and conferences.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Upsilon Phi Delta: Upsilon Phi Delta (ΥΦΔ) is the national academic honor society for students in healthcare administration in the United States. The organization was formed in 1965 to further the profession of health administration and the professional competence and dedication of its members.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Walking on a Dream (song)Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.Bio Base EuropeAfrican-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.San Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.General Medicine Faculty of RostGMU (Rostov State Medical University): Rostov State Medical University, Faculty of General Medicine - Located in Rostov city center with 20 departments, each departments has its own clinics with numbers of beds.Yo KobayashiRegression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.
(1/301) Training for quality management: report on a nationwide distance learning initiative for physicians in Spain.
Under the sponsorship of a pharmaceutical firm, a distance-learning course on Quality Management methods was developed at the University of Murcia (Spain) and offered nationwide to primary health care physicians working in the public system. A total of 7104 physicians (47.7% of the census) signed up (at least one in 92.2% of the health centres). The course content follows the author's model of quality improvement, monitoring and design trilogy, but focuses mainly on methods for a quality improvement cycle using a learning-by-doing and problem-solving approach. The unexpected success of this initiative has led us to reflect on the interest in learning about quality improvement methods shown by physicians, the usefulness of the distance-learning approach, and also to continue the project with new initiatives such as: a summary poster, software containing all the necessary tools and data analysis for quality improvement, and a manual. (+info)
(2/301) Implementation and evaluation of a virtual learning center for distributed education.
A number of tools are required to support a distributed education program. This paper will relate experiences in the development and implementation of a web-based Virtual Learning Center. Initial evaluation offers direction for further development, necessary university support, and faculty and student preparation. (+info)
(3/301) Education of health professionals using a proposed telehealth system.
The movement of health care from hospitals to the community has demanded a major shift in the way in which health care professionals are being taught. This paper describes the collaboration of the Schools of Nursing and Medicine in the use of telehealth technology for the education of health care professionals. The specific aims of the project were to use the technology for the verification of the students' assessment and physical examinations, for the conduct of multi-professional patient rounds, and provision of consultations to professionals at remote sites. Capitalizing on the Schools' previous experience for observing students via computer technology at remote sites, we employed PC-based workstations, specialized peripherals, and Internet connecting protocols to implement a telehealth project for professional clinical education. Initial student, faculty and staff reactions were generally positive. The formal evaluation plan focuses on students, faculty, and staff. Structured questionnaires are used and a comparison of learning by telehealth technology will be made with alternative (more conventional) methods in evaluating knowledge and quality of verification of physical examination findings, and satisfaction with the learning process. (+info)
(4/301) Student bodies: psycho-education communities on the web.
We have developed a Web-delivered, multimedia health educational program, Student Bodies, designed to improve body satisfaction, a probable risk factor for the development of eating disorders in young women. The program includes psycho-educational content and a newsgroup for communication, and is delivered in a structured framework of weekly readings, assignments and postings to the newsgroup. Intervention group participants improved their body image, and reduced other attitudes that predispose to eating disorders. (+info)
(5/301) Using multi media to enhance a flexible learning program: lessons learned.
Central Queensland University is a well-established distance education provider with an internationally recognized reputation in flexible learning. It has a well-developed infrastructure for the preparation of quality print and multimedia learning materials. A symposium and working conference linking twelve sites, including Auckland NZ via video conferencing, and supported by print based materials and web based conferencing was held during November 1998 with the assistance of Telstra's Conferlink. This paper provides the background, organisation, and evaluation results. Our conclusions are that appropriate use of a combination of print based materials, videoconferencing and a web based classroom works well for the provision of continuing education to health professionals. In addition this symposium was able to reach clinicians and demonstrate the value of informatics to support evidence based practice. (+info)
(6/301) Effects of traditional classroom and distance continuing education: a theory-driven evaluation of a vaccine-preventable diseases course.
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of a major federal immunization continuing education course, delivered in both traditional classroom and satellite broadcast versions, on public health professionals' knowledge, agreement, self-efficacy, and adherence in practice to recommendations. METHODS: The study used a comparative time series design to determine whether the course influenced participants' knowledge, agreement, self-efficacy, and adherence in practice to general and polio-specific recommendations as measured immediately and 3 months after the course. It also compared the effects of the classroom and satellite broadcast versions and used path analysis to show how the outcomes were related to one another. RESULTS: Both versions significantly improved knowledge, agreement, self-efficacy, and adherence. Knowledge and agreement were significant predictors of self-efficacy, which directly predicted adherence. Vaccine availability and supportive clinic policies were also important adherence predictors. CONCLUSIONS: A well-designed training update can change provider knowledge, agreement, self-efficacy, and adherence. Traditional classroom and distance training can have comparable effects. The findings support incorporation of distance learning in national public health training, if the distance learning is used wisely in relation to training needs, goals, and practice contexts. (+info)
(7/301) Does the site of postgraduate family medicine training predict performance on summative examinations? A comparison of urban and remote programs.
BACKGROUND: The location of postgraduate medical training is shifting from teaching hospitals in urban centres to community practice in rural and remote settings. We were interested in knowing whether learning, as measured by summative examinations, was comparable between graduates who trained in urban centres and those who trained in remote and rural settings. METHODS: Family medicine training programs in Ontario were selected as a model of postgraduate medical training. The results of the 2 summative examinations--the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination (MCCQE) Part II and the College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) certification examination--for graduates of the programs at Ontario's 5 medical schools were compared with the results for graduates of the programs in Sudbury and Thunder Bay from 1994 to 1997. The comparability of these 2 cohorts at entry into training was evaluated using the results of their MCCQE Part I, completed just before the family medicine training. RESULTS: Between 1994 and 1997, 1013 graduates of family medicine programs (922 at the medical schools and 91 at the remote sites) completed the CFPC certification examination; a subset of 663 completed both the MCCQE Part I and the MCCQE Part II. The MCCQE Part I results for graduates in the remote programs did not differ significantly from those for graduates entering the programs in the medical schools (mean score 531.3 [standard deviation (SD) 69.8] and 521.8 [SD 74.4] respectively, p = 0.33). The MCCQE Part II results did not differ significantly between the 2 groups either (mean score 555.1 [SD 71.7] and 545.0 [SD 76.4] respectively, p = 0.32). Similarly, there were no consistent, significant differences in the results of the CFPC certification examination between the 2 groups. INTERPRETATION: In this model of postgraduate medical training, learning was comparable between trainees in urban family medicine programs and those in rural, community-based programs. The reasons why this outcome might be unexpected and the limitations on the generalizability of these results are discussed. (+info)
(8/301) An analysis of technology usage for streaming digital video in support of a preclinical curriculum.
Usage of streaming digital video of lectures in preclinical courses was measured by analysis of the data in the log file maintained on the web server. We observed that students use the video when it is available. They do not use it to replace classroom attendance but rather for review before examinations or when a class has been missed. Usage of video has not increased significantly for any course within the 18 month duration of this project. (+info)