Ectromelia virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.Ectromelia, Infectious: A viral infection of mice, causing edema and necrosis followed by limb loss.Poxviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.Orthopoxvirus: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Poxviridae: A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Ectromelia: Gross hypo- or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. The concept includes amelia, hemimelia, phocomelia, and sirenomelia.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Vaccinia: The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.

*  Expression of murine soluble CD30 attenuates mousepox d | Open-i
Ectromelia virus/genetics*/immunology*/pathogenicity. *Ectromelia, Infectious/immunology*. *Mutation*. *Recombination, Genetic* ... Background: Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is the causative agent of mousepox, a lethal disease of mice with similarities to human ... Background: Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is the causative agent of mousepox, a lethal disease of mice with similarities to human ... A method for the generation of ectromelia virus (ECTV) recombinants: in vivo analysis of ECTV vCD30 deletion mutants. ...
  https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2664468_pone.0005175.g006&req=4
*  Age-dependent susceptibility to a viral disease due to decreased natural killer cell numbers and trafficking
Studies in mousepox, infectious ectromelia of mice; the effect of the age of the host upon the response to infection. Aust. J. ... Mouse-pox; infectious ectromelia of mice; a review. J. Immunol. 63:341-373 [PubMed] ... Ectromelia virus: the causative agent of mousepox. J. Gen. Virol. 86:2645-2659 10.1099/vir.0.81090-0 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] ... Ectromelia virus. GzB. granzyme B. ND-LN. non-D-LN. OPV. Orthopoxvirus. VACV. vaccinia virus. ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2964566/?lang=en-ca
*  Role of Absolute Humidity in the Inactivation of Influenza Viruses on Stainless Steel Surfaces at Elevated Temperatures
I. Experimental technique and preliminary observations on influenza and infectious ectromelia. J. Hyg. (London). 43:1-10. [PMC ... The effect of environmental parameters on the survival of airborne infectious agents. J. R. Soc. Interface 6(Suppl. 6):S737- ... Effective and easily implemented public health interventions are needed to prevent the spread of infectious diseases such as ... Virtually any exposed surface can become contaminated with infectious viruses and can be a potential source of secondary virus ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2893471/
*  List of MeSH codes (C22) - Wikipedia
... ectromelia, infectious MeSH C22.795.600 --- monkeypox MeSH C22.795.650 --- murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH ... infectious canine MeSH C22.467.435.812 --- rift valley fever MeSH C22.488.088 --- african horse sickness MeSH C22.488.304 --- ... infectious bovine rhinotracheitis MeSH C22.196.497 --- lumpy skin disease MeSH C22.196.540 --- malignant catarrh MeSH C22.196. ... infectious canine MeSH C22.268.485 --- hip dysplasia, canine MeSH C22.331.693 --- swine erysipelas MeSH C22.362.224 --- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(C22)
*  List of MeSH codes (C02) - Wikipedia
... ectromelia, infectious MeSH C02.256.743.366 --- fowlpox MeSH C02.256.743.494 --- lumpy skin disease MeSH C02.256.743.611 --- ... infectious canine MeSH C02.256.430.400 --- hepatitis b MeSH C02.256.430.400.100 --- hepatitis b, chronic MeSH C02.256.466.087 ... infectious mononucleosis MeSH C02.256.466.313.500 --- leukoplakia, hairy MeSH C02.256.466.382 --- herpes simplex MeSH C02.256. ... infectious bovine rhinotracheitis MeSH C02.256.466.606 --- malignant catarrh MeSH C02.256.466.650 --- marek disease MeSH ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(C02)
*  Virology
It was called infectious ectromelia because of the frequent occurrence of amputation of a foot in animals that had recovered ...
  https://www.centrallakesclinic.biz/virology/
*  Fondation Recherches 3R / 3R Info Bulletins / Animal-free screening of biological materials for their contamination by rodent...
However, some infectious agents (e.g. ectromelia virus) may cause disease or even death. These cannot be ruled out in advance ... TCID50=50% Tissue Culture Infectious Dose. +=HA-units=Haemaglutinin units. " =ID50=Infectious Dose (50% of mice). o=PFU=Plaque ... to infectious virus particles whereas IMPAT detects the presence of nucleic acids from infectious but also from non-infectious ... The newly developed Infectious Microbe PCR Amplification Test (IMPAT) was able to identify viral DNA directly in vitro. In ...
  http://www.forschung3r.ch/fr/publications/bu20.html
*  Infectious parotitis | definition of infectious parotitis by Medical dictionary
What is infectious parotitis? Meaning of infectious parotitis medical term. What does infectious parotitis mean? ... Looking for online definition of infectious parotitis in the Medical Dictionary? infectious parotitis explanation free. ... infectious colitis. *infectious crystalline keratopathy. *infectious disease. *infectious diseases. *infectious ectromelia ... infectious parotitis. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to infectious parotitis: epidemic parotitis ...
  https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/infectious+parotitis
*  Rodent Diseases Summary Report | CureHunter
Infectious Ectromelia: 46. Related Diseases. 1. Retinal Degeneration 2. Reperfusion Injury 3. Pulmonary Fibrosis (Hamman Rich ...
  http://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD012376-Rodent-Diseases.do
*  Ectropium | definition of Ectropium by Medical dictionary
ectromelia. *ectromelia. *Ectromelia virus. *Ectromelia virus. *Ectromelia Virus Virulence Factor p28. *Ectromelia, infectious ...
  https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Ectropium
*  Method for identifying and validating dominant T helper cell epitopes using an HLA-DM-assisted class II binding assay - The...
... such as an ectromelia antigen, a canarypox virus antigen or a fowlpoxvirus antigen; an infectious bursal disease virus antigen ... This is particularly useful for antigens of microorganisms or viruses responsible for emerging infectious diseases. ... gene of infectious bronchitis virus, HSV gD), U.S. Pat. No. 5,338,683 discloses recombinant vaccinia virus, avipox virus, DNA ... antigen of the SARS virus or of infectious bronchitis virus; a herpesvirus glycoprotein, such as from herpes simplex virus (HSV ...
  http://www.freepatentsonline.com/8916340.html
*  ecaudate, ecarteur, ecardines, EC, Online Medical Terminology Catalog
Ectromelia Ectromelia virus Ectromelia, infectious Ectromelic Ectropion Ectropion uveae Ectropium Ectropody Ectrosyndactyly ...
  http://med-word.com/?l=EC
*  US Patent # 9,566,348. Methods and compositions for the treatment of cancer and infectious disease using alpha(2)...
Ectromelia), the genus Leporipoxvirus (Myxoma, Fibroma), the genus Avipoxvirus (Fowlpox, other avian poxvirus), the genus ... infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, feline rhinotracheitis virus, infectious ... Target Infectious Diseases Infectious diseases that can be treated or prevented by the methods of the present invention are ... 5.3.2. Methods for Treatment and Prevention of Infectious Diseases For treatment and prevention of infectious disease, .alpha. ...
  http://patents.com/us-9566348.html
*  Patente US5441943 - Uses of aloe products - Google Patentes
Infectious agents such as infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a retrovirus that induces mortality and/or morbidity ... ectromelia of mice virus rabbitpox virus Orf virus avipox virus sheep-pox virus goatpox virus lumpy skin disease (Neethling) ... In a sense, acetylated mannan derivative enhances the recognition of a tumor or of an infectious agent, such as a virus or ... One holds that an unknown infectious agent, such as a slowly growing bacterium or virus, triggers the immune system and sets up ...
  http://www.google.es/patents/US5441943
*  Infectious drug resistance | Article about infectious drug resistance by The Free Dictionary
Find out information about infectious drug resistance. A type of drug resistance that is transmissible from one bacterium to ... another by infectivelike agents referred to as resistance factors Explanation of infectious drug resistance ... infectious ectromelia virus. *infectious ectromelia virus. *infectious eczematoid dermatitis. *infectious eczematous dermatitis ... infectious drug resistance. infectious drug resistance. [in′fek·shəs ′drəg ri‚zis·təns] (microbiology) A type of drug ...
  https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/infectious+drug+resistance
*  Infection control | definition of infection control by Medical dictionary
infectious colitis. *infectious crystalline keratopathy. *infectious disease. *infectious diseases. *infectious ectromelia ... Patients who have a known infectious disease are isolated to decrease the risk of transmitting the infectious agent to another ... invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, as in an infectious disease. The infectious process is similar ... Thirdly, many patients are admitted to hospitals because of infectious disease. These infectious agents can then be transferred ...
  https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/infection+control
*  Brevet US8552165 - Immunostimulatory oligonucleotides - Google Brevets
... infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, feline rhinotracheitis virus, infectious ... Ectromelia), the genus Leporipoxvirus (Myxoma, Fibroma), the genus Avipoxvirus (Fowlpox, other avian poxvirus), the genus ... For an infectious disease, such treatment also encompasses a reduction in the amount of infectious agent present in the subject ... For example, if the disorder is an infectious disease, the antigen is preferably derived from the infectious organism (e.g., ...
  http://www.google.fr/patents/US8552165
*  Brevet WO1999051259A2 - Methods and products for stimulating the immune system using ... - Google Brevets
... infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, feline rhinotracheitis virus, infectious ... Ectromelia), the genus Leporipoxvirus (Myxoma, Fibroma), the genus Avipoxvirus (Fowlpox, other avian poxvirus), the genus ... The methods of the invention are also useful for treating infectious diseases. An infectious disease, as used herein, is a ... infectious bacteria, and infectious fungi. Such antigens include the intact microorganism as well as natural isolates and ...
  http://www.google.fr/patents/WO1999051259A2?cl=en
*  Cbaj - Immune Response - Barnard Health Care
Infectious agents. Susceptible to: Theiler's virus (Rodriguez et al,. 1990), measles virus (Neighbour et al, 1978), Ectro-melia ...
  https://www.barnardhealth.us/immune-response/cbaj.html
*  Daved H. Fremont - Wikipedia
Fremont is also a principal investigator in the Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Disease and his laboratory has ... "Structural determinants of chemokine binding by an Ectromelia virus-encoded decoy receptor.", Journal of Virology, 2006 ... "Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases - Investigators". Csgid.org. Retrieved 2013-09-28. "The Wilson Laboratory ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daved_H._Fremont
*  Chordopoxvirinae - Wikipedia
... is also infectious. They vary in their shape depending upon the species but are generally shaped like a brick or as an oval ... Camelpox virus Cowpox virus Ectromelia virus Monkeypox virus Raccoonpox virus Skunkpox virus Taterapox virus Vaccinia virus ... and existing in occlusion bodies after cell death and remaining infectious until finding another host. Humans, vertebrates, and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chordopoxvirinae
*  Life-Threatening Adenovirus Infections in the Setting of the Immunocompromised Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Patients
Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2004;38(1):45-52. [PubMed]. 12. Chakrabarti S, Mautner V, Osman H, et al. Adenovirus infections ... and ectromelia viruses), and papillomaviruses (HPV). Advantages include potent activity against all dsDNA viruses, good oral ... 1Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases-NIAID, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike MSC 1684, Bethesda, MD ... utilization would be more likely to occur earlier in the infectious time course, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2904444/
*  Optimized production of the Diels-Alderase antibody 1E9 as a chimeric Fab
PCR fragments containing the fusion protein genes 129L of the ectromelia virus (EV) and A30L of the variola virus (VARV) were ... Journal of Infectious Diseases;9/15/2001, Vol. 184 Issue 6, p738 Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli ( ... Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Cross-React with Fusion Proteins Encoded by 129L of the Ectromelia Virus and A30L of the ...
  http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/10586788/optimized-production-diels-alderase-antibody-1e9-as-chimeric-fab
*  NK Cell Response to Vaccinia Virus Is Regulated by Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells | The Journal of Immunology
A recent report showed that lack of Ly49H+ NK cells may afford additional protection against ectromelia viral infection (40). ... there are a few utilizing infectious models. In a model of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection, M-MDSCs were ... Induction of natural killer cell responses by ectromelia virus controls infection. J. Virol. 81: 4070-4079. ...
  http://www.jimmunol.org/content/189/4/1843.long
*  TRAP-14 AS A THERAPEUTIC AGENT - Patent application
0016]Prions are infectious agents which do not have a nucleic acid genome. It seems that a protein alone is the infectious ... Ectromelia, Ectropion, Eczema-thrombocytopenia-immunodeficiency syndrome, Edinburgh malformation syndrome, Edward syndrome, ... Infectious Disease [0010]The immune system in higher vertebrates represents the first line of defense against various antigens ... A prion is proposed to be a novel infectious particle that differs from viruses and viroids. It is composed solely of one ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100210559

(1/85) Granzymes are the essential downstream effector molecules for the control of primary virus infections by cytolytic leukocytes.

Analysis of perforin-deficient mice has identified the cytolytic pathway and perforin as the preeminent effector molecule in T cell-mediated control of virus infections. In this paper, we show that mice lacking both granzyme A (gzmA) and granzyme B (gzmB), which are, beside perforin, key constituents of cytolytic vesicles, are as incapable as are perforin-deficient mice of controlling primary infections by the natural mouse pathogen ectromelia, a poxvirus. Death of gzmAxgzmB double knockout mice occurred in a dose-dependent manner, despite the expression of functionally active perforin and the absence of an intrinsic defect to generate splenic cytolytic T cells. These results establish that both gzmA and gzmB are indispensable effector molecules acting in concert with perforin in granule exocytosis-mediated host defense against natural viral pathogens.  (+info)

(2/85) Expression of mouse interleukin-4 by a recombinant ectromelia virus suppresses cytolytic lymphocyte responses and overcomes genetic resistance to mousepox.

Genetic resistance to clinical mousepox (ectromelia virus) varies among inbred laboratory mice and is characterized by an effective natural killer (NK) response and the early onset of a strong CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in resistant mice. We have investigated the influence of virus-expressed mouse interleukin-4 (IL-4) on the cell-mediated response during infection. It was observed that expression of IL-4 by a thymidine kinase-positive ectromelia virus suppressed cytolytic responses of NK and CTL and the expression of gamma interferon by the latter. Genetically resistant mice infected with the IL-4-expressing virus developed symptoms of acute mousepox accompanied by high mortality, similar to the disease seen when genetically sensitive mice are infected with the virulent Moscow strain. Strikingly, infection of recently immunized genetically resistant mice with the virus expressing IL-4 also resulted in significant mortality due to fulminant mousepox. These data therefore suggest that virus-encoded IL-4 not only suppresses primary antiviral cell-mediated immune responses but also can inhibit the expression of immune memory responses.  (+info)

(3/85) Enhanced resistance in STAT6-deficient mice to infection with ectromelia virus.

We inoculated BALB/c mice deficient in STAT6 (STAT6(-/-)) and their wild-type (wt) littermates (STAT6(+/+)) with the natural mouse pathogen, ectromelia virus (EV). STAT6(-/-) mice exhibited increased resistance to generalized infection with EV when compared with STAT6(+/+) mice. In the spleens and lymph nodes of STAT6(-/-) mice, T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines were induced at earlier time points and at higher levels postinfection when compared with those in STAT6(+/+) mice. Elevated levels of NO were evident in plasma and splenocyte cultures of EV-infected STAT6(-/-) mice in comparison with STAT6(+/+) mice. The induction of high levels of Th1 cytokines in the mutant mice correlated with a strong natural killer cell response. We demonstrate in genetically susceptible BALB/c mice that the STAT6 locus is critical for progression of EV infection. Furthermore, in the absence of this transcription factor, the immune system defaults toward a protective Th1-like response, conferring pronounced resistance to EV infection and disease progression.  (+info)

(4/85) Serial backcross analysis of genetic resistance to mousepox, using marker loci for Rmp-2 and Rmp-3.

At least three genes from C57BL/6 mice that mediate dominant resistance to lethal mousepox were isolated and transferred onto a susceptible DBA/2 background. Three [(C57BL/6 x DBA/2)F1 x DBA/2] male mice that survived infection were selected as founders on the basis of different complements of marker loci for two resistance genes, Rmp-2r (Hc1) and Rmp-3r (H-2Db). They were crossed with DBA/2 mice, male progeny were infected with ectromelia virus, and the cycle was repeated with surviving male progeny through seven backcross generations. Two founders carried a marker locus for Rmp-2r or Rmp-3r, and the third carried neither marker locus. Resistance pedigrees were analyzed for passage of marker loci. From the three founders, resistance was passaged through multiple generations, producing backcross lines with intermediate-male-resistance phenotypes (20% resistant). Females of backcross lines with intermediate male resistance had high resistance (> 50%). High-resistance backcross lines (40% male resistance) also developed from the founders that carried marker loci for Rmp-2r and Rmp-3r, and marker loci were passaged through all generations of high resistance but not intermediate-resistance lines. About one-third of all resistant mice in high-resistance lines sired by mice that carried marker loci for Rmp-2r and Rmp-3r did not carry the respective marker locus. In lines that carried Rmp-2r, this was apparently not the result of recombination between Rmp-2r and Hc1, because Rmp-2 was not in the predicted location on chromosome 2 and because mice that did not inherit Hc1 transmitted significantly less male resistance than Hc1-positive mice, although female resistance remained high. These results confirmed that C57BL/6 mice have redundant resistance mechanisms, two of which are controlled at least in part by Rmp-2r and Rmp-3r, and provided evidence for a fourth resistance gene, herein presumptively named Rmp-4, which protects females more than males and which may be epistatic to Rmp-2.  (+info)

(5/85) The genomic sequence of ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox.

Ectromelia virus is the causative agent of mousepox, an acute exanthematous disease of mouse colonies in Europe, Japan, China, and the U.S. The Moscow, Hampstead, and NIH79 strains are the most thoroughly studied with the Moscow strain being the most infectious and virulent for the mouse. In the late 1940s mousepox was proposed as a model for the study of the pathogenesis of smallpox and generalized vaccinia in humans. Studies in the last five decades from a succession of investigators have resulted in a detailed description of the virologic and pathologic disease course in genetically susceptible and resistant inbred and out-bred mice. We report the DNA sequence of the left-hand end, the predicted right-hand terminal repeat, and central regions of the genome of the Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (approximately 177,500 bp), which together with the previously sequenced right-hand end, yields a genome of 209,771 bp. We identified 175 potential genes specifying proteins of between 53 and 1924 amino acids, and 29 regions containing sequences related to genes predicted in other poxviruses, but unlikely to encode for functional proteins in ectromelia virus. The translated protein sequences were compared with the protein database for structure/function relationships, and these analyses were used to investigate poxvirus evolution and to attempt to explain at the cellular and molecular level the well-characterized features of the ectromelia virus natural life cycle.  (+info)

(6/85) Efficacy of oral active ether lipid analogs of cidofovir in a lethal mousepox model.

Cidofovir (CDV) is a highly effective inhibitor of orthopoxvirus replication and may be used intravenously to treat smallpox or complications arising from the smallpox vaccine under an investigational new drug application (IND). However, CDV is absorbed poorly following oral administration and is inactive orally. To improve the bioavailability of CDV, others synthesized alkoxyalkanol esters of CDV and observed >100-fold more activity than unmodified CDV against cowpox, vaccinia, and variola virus (VARV) replication. These ether lipid analogs of CDV have high oral bioavailability in mice. In this study, we compared the oral activity of CDV with the hexadecyloxypropyl (HDP)-, octadecyloxyethyl-, oleyloxypropyl-, and oleyloxyethyl-esters of CDV in a lethal, aerosol ectromelia virus (ECTV) challenge model in A/NCR mice. Octadecyloxyethyl-CDV appeared to be the most potent CDV analog as a dose regimen of 5 mg/kg started 4 h following challenge completely blocked virus replication in spleen and liver, and protected 100% of A/NCR mice, although oral, unmodified CDV was inactive. These results suggest that this family of compounds deserves further evaluation as poxvirus antiviral.  (+info)

(7/85) Protective effect of exogenous recombinant mouse interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha on ectromelia virus infection in susceptible BALB/c mice.

The resistance to mousepox is correlated with the production of type I cytokines: interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. We intend to describe the modulation of generalized ectromelia virus (EV) infection with exogenous administration of mrIFN-gamma and mrTNF-alpha separately and in combination using susceptible BALB/c mice. The treatment schemes presented resulted in the localization of the generalized EV infection and its development into non-fatal sloughing of the infected limb. This was accompanied by low virus titres in the treated mice due to control of systemic virus replication and virus clearance. The balance of type I versus type II cytokines was dominated by a type I response in the treated groups. The group treated with the combination of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha exhibited the best survival with Th1-dominant (IFN-gamma and IL-12) cytokine profiles, whereas the TNF-alpha-treated group of mice was less successful in clearance of virus and demonstrated the lowest survival rate. The successful cytokine treatment schemes in this orthopoxvirus model system may have important implications in the treatment of viral diseases in humans and, in particular, of variola virus infection.  (+info)

(8/85) Polarized type 1 cytokine response and cell-mediated immunity determine genetic resistance to mousepox.

Ectromelia virus (ECTV), a natural mouse pathogen and an orthopoxvirus, has been used to investigate the correlation between polarized type 1 or type 2 immune responses and resistance to disease in poxvirus infections by using well defined resistant and susceptible mouse strains. Our data show that distinct differences exist in the cytokine profiles expressed in resistant and susceptible mice infected with ECTV. Resistant C57BL/6 mice generate a type 1 cytokine response [IFN-gamma, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)], within the first few days of infection, which is associated with strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte response (CTL) and recovery from ECTV infection. Susceptible strains of mice (BALB/c and A/J) on the other hand generate a type 2 cytokine response (IL-4 but little or no IFN-gamma and IL-2), which is associated with a weak or an absent CTL response, resulting in uncontrolled virus replication and death. Although deletion of IL-4 function alone did not change the outcome of infection in susceptible mice, the loss of IFN-gamma function in resistant mice abrogated natural killer (NK) cell and CTL effector functions resulting in fulminant disease and 100% mortality. Therefore, a clear link exists between the early production of specific type 1 cytokines, in particular, IFN-gamma, the nature of the cellular immune response, and disease outcome in this virus model. This finding in the mousepox model raises the possibility that inappropriate cytokine responses may result in increased susceptibility to smallpox in humans.  (+info)



  • droplets
  • There is compelling evidence for transmission of influenza viruses from infected individuals to uninfected individuals by direct contact, via fomites (inanimate objects capable of carrying infectious organisms), and through large droplets expelled during forceful exhalation, such as during coughing and sneezing ( 2 - 4 , 19 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • treatment
  • The invention also relates to methods for making such complexes and compositions comprising alpha (2) macroglobulin complexes, isolated from the serum of a mammal, wherein such compositions are used in methods for the treatment and prevention of cancer and infectious disease. (patents.com)