Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Zosteraceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.FiresPlankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Pacific OceanExtinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Atlantic OceanArctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Euphausiacea: An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Mediterranean SeaPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Rhizophoraceae: A plant family of the order Rhizophorales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, that includes mangrove trees.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Avicennia: A plant genus of the family Acanthaceae. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES. Black mangroves (common name for the genus) are distinguished from other mangroves by their spike-like aerial roots called pneumatophores that project from the soil or water surrounding the plants.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ecological Parameter Monitoring: Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Alismatidae: A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Hydrobiology: The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.North SeaKelp: Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Bahamas: A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).WyomingPhotosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Gadiformes: An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.BrazilGastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.BelizeTidal Waves: Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Pinus sylvestris: A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Trichosanthes: A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE that is a source of TRICHOSANTHIN (a ribosomal inhibitory protein).Solidago: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Moraceae: The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.MontanaVolcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Landslides: Downslope movements of soil and and/or rock resulting from natural phenomena or man made actions. These can be secondary effects of severe storms, VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS and EARTHQUAKES.CaliforniaWater Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.

*  Climate Forest Ecosystems Essay - 8122 Words

ISSN 0119-1144 Climate Change and Forest Ecosystems in the Philippines: ... The Amazon rain forest ecosystem is an example of a forest ecosystem. This ecosystem is home to a wide variety of plant and ... Forest Ecosystem Essay ...FOREST ECOSYSTEM Submitted by: Submitted to: Forest Ecosystem Table of Contents (Outline) I. ... Beech Forest Ecosystems Essay ...BEECH FOREST ECOSYSTEMS INTRODUCTION This essay will look at beech forest ecosystems, ...

*  The Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM)

... is a process-based ecosystem model that describes carbon, nitrogen and water dynamics of ... Support Ecosystems Center science through the MBL's Annual Fund. All donors automatically become members of the MBL Associates. ... The Ecosystems Center. 7 MBL Street. Woods Hole, MA 02543-1015. 508-289-7496 ... nitrogen and water fluxes and pool sizes of terrestrial ecosystems. The TEM normally operates on a monthly time step and at a ...

*  AQA Biology Unit 2 revision cards - Revision Cards in A Level and IB Biology

Community - all the different species in an ecosystem.. Ecosystem - has a particular set of enviromental conditions and ... Biodiversity - variety of living things in an ecosystem/ the world. Generally human activity is reducing bidiveristy. ...

*  Landscape Ecology and Modeling Laboratory

... ecosystem functioning, and land change science. Our research has involved a variety of ecosystems from North America to China. ... Research areas at LEML include: Landscape Ecology, Urban Ecology, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning, and Sustainability ... Our current research projects focus on: effects of landscape pattern on population/ecosystem processes, urbanization and its ...

*  PPT - Species Interactions and Community Ecology PowerPoint Presentation - ID:1426944

Ecosystems - Species Diversity & Environmental Interactions -After this unit you should be able to : explain the process of ... based on california standard 6. "stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing ...

*  What is an Ecosystem?

Ecosystems can be as large as a forest or as small as a puddle. They are complex, dynamic systems always in flux, yet always ... What is an ecosystem and how does it differ from a biome? ... Parts of an Ecosystem. All ecosystems are made of biotic and ... All About Ecosystems. In this series of articles, you will learn all about ecosystems-what they are, what types exist, and how ... Ecosystem versus Biome. An ecosystem is a dynamic entity made of a biological community and the physical and chemical factors ...

*  ecosystem services - The Pump Handle

ecosystem services. Tag archives for ecosystem services. Paying for Preservation. Posted by Liz Borkowski on September 27, 2010 ...

*  BNL | Terrestrial Ecosystem Science & Technology (TEST)

Within terrestrial ecosystem science, spectroscopic remote sensing methods offer the capacity to advance the fields of ... In regards to terrestrial ecosystems, the capacity to monitor plant traits with spectroscopic data is based on the physical ... Our research aims to improve understanding of the mechanisms that underlie whole plant and ecosystem responses to global change ... In addition, computational and terrestrial ecosystem modeling architectures are becoming increasingly complex requiring new ...

*  The Owner Built Home and Homestead: Building an Organic Ecosystem - Homesteading and Livestock - MOTHER EARTH NEWS

The Owner Built Home and Homestead author Ken Kerns talks about building an organic ecosystem instead of the traditional house- ... The Owner Built Home and Homestead: Building an Organic Ecosystem. Ken Kern, author of The Owner-Built Home and The Owner-Built ... So in this chapter we will be thinking in terms of building an organic ecosystem rather than house-barn-shop-garden. The animal ... The Owner Built Home and Homestead: Building an Organic Ecosystem The Owner Built Home and Homestead author Ken Kerns talks ...

*  GEOG 111 : Forest Ecosystems - UCLA - Course Hero

Forest Ecosystems at UCLA. Find GEOG111 study guides, notes, and practice tests from UCLA. ... Forest Ecosystem Mid-Term Review! Families: BEST 2 or 3 Characteristics to ID in field (focus on leaves first) Cupressaceae ... Forest Ecosystems Questions & Answers Showing 1 to 7 of 7. View all ... TUESDAY, 5/3/2016 - Oak Woodlands and Native Forest Ecosystems Oak Woodlands Riparian Forest Most endangered forest type in CA ...

*  Animals in the Prairie Ecosystem | eHow

The animals that live in the prairie ecosystem are those who have adapted to survive in the open grasslands typical of the ... Animals in the Prairie Ecosystem. A prairie is a plant community dominated by grasses, shrubs and a limited number of nonwoody ... Prairie dogs affect the prairie ecosystem because their habit of digging burrows contributes to soil enhancement and filtration ... The animals that live in the prairie ecosystem are those who have adapted to survive in the open grasslands typical of the ...

*  What are the biotic factors of a marine biome? |

All of the ocean's plants, animals and more primitive organisms are biotic factors for the marine biome. The marine biome is the largest biome on Earth, and it covers approximately 75 percent...

*  Investigación de largo plazo en el Parque Nacional Bosque Fray Jorge: Veinte años estudiando el rol de los factores bióticos y...

HOLMGREN M & M SCHEFFER (2001) El Niño as a window of opportunity for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Ecosystems 4 ... ecosystem persistence and tree regeneration. Ecosystems 9: 598-608. [ Links ]. DESANTE DF, P PYLE, N MICHAEL & D O'GRADY (2003 ... WOODMANSEE RG (1988) Ecosystem processes and global change. In: Rosswall T, RG Woodmansee & PG Risser (eds) Scales and global ... POLIS GA, SD HURD, CT JACKSON & F SÁNCHEZ-PIÑERO (1997) El Niño effects on the dynamics and control of an island ecosystem in ...

*  Chagas disease prevention through improved housing using an ecosystem approach to health

Keywords : Chagas Disease; Triatominae; Insect Vectors; Ecosystem; Public Health. · abstract in Spanish · text in English · ... ROJAS-DE-ARIAS, Antonieta. Chagas disease prevention through improved housing using an ecosystem approach to health. Cad. Saúde ...

*  Wiley: Novel Ecosystems: Intervening in the New Ecological World Order - Richard J. Hobbs, Eric S. Higgs, Carol Hall

38 Novel urban ecosystems and ecosystem services, 310. MICHAEL P. PERRING, PETE MANNING, RICHARD J. HOBBS, ARIEL E. LUGO, ... 10 Novel ecosystems and climate change, 88. BRIAN M. STARZOMSKI. 11 Plant invasions as builders and shapers of novel ecosystems ... 26 Plant materials for novel ecosystems, 212. THOMAS A. JONES. 27 Case study: Management of novel ecosystems in the Seychelles ... 42 What do we know about, and what do we do about, novel ecosystems?, 353. RICHARD J. HOBBS, ERIC S. HIGGS AND CAROL M. HALL ...

*  Security Ecosystem

Learn more about the changing security ecosystem at CME Group, including details about password and encryption guidelines and ... A CME Globex Notice on June 30 reminded you about the new client systems security ecosystem requirements. The new requirements ... including the security of CME Group and adjacent ecosystems. ...

*  What Goes Around Comes Around!

Refer to the ecosystem throughout the lesson. If done right the ecosystem will last a up to a year or more. The single key is ... How does your ecosystem resemble a natural ecosystem? How does it differ? * How did your observations compare with what you ... Make a drawing that illustrates how nitrogen cycled in your ecosystem. *How would you modify the ecosystem if you were to ... Direct the students to answer the following questions about their ecosystems:* What happened to the organisms in your ecosystem ...

*  community composition

Salvage Logging, Ecosystem Processes, and Biodiversity Conservation. CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2006. D.B. LINDENMAYER. ... Stability of ecosystem properties in response to above-ground functional group richness and composition. OIKOS, Issue 1 2000. ... Novel ecosystems resulting from landscape transformation create dilemmas for modern conservation practice. CONSERVATION LETTERS ... Abstract Introduction: Novel ecosystems occur when new combinations of species appear within a particular biome due to human ...

*  USGS National Research Program: NRP Scientists

Ecosystem services in many cases are already stretched and degrading, and it is currently unknown how most ecosystems will ... The ecosystem of a tide-affected estuary consists of an extremely complicated balance of natural processes and human induced ... How will ecosystem functions and services shift in response to changes in climate, management, or physical configuration? ... Wetland Ecosystem Ecology and Biogeochemistry. show details View Publications. Biogeochemistry; Ecology; Nutrients; Rivers and ...

*  Plant-Animal Communication - Hardcover - H. Martin Schaefer; Graeme D. Ruxton - Oxford University Press

Communication is an essential factor underpinning the interactions between species and the structure of their communities. Plant-animal interactions are particularly diverse due to the complex nature of their mutualistic and antagonistic relationships.

*  Modelling habitat fragmentation synergy | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

Our pristine reference ecosystems are the emergent ecosystems we see in simulations where no plant biomass was extracted ( ... Overall, our novel use of a general ecosystem model to study the effects of different aspects of land-use change on ecosystem ... a) Ecosystem responses. We demonstrate profound effects on simulated ecosystems of land-use extent, intensity, fragmentation, ... 2014 Emergent global patterns of ecosystem structure and function from a mechanistic general ecosystem model. PLoS Biol. 12, ...

*  Mesozoic ecosystem change | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

1994 Grazing limitation and nutrient limitation in marine ecosystems: steady state solutions of an ecosystem model with ... A simplified ecosystem model with allometric constraints on traits.. In equation (4.4), we define the governing equation for ... A bottom-up perspective on ecosystem change in Mesozoic oceans Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... 1999 Origins of mangrove ecosystems and the mangrove biodiversity anomaly. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 8, 95-115. (doi:10.1046/j.1466 ...

*  EcoSim: An ecosystem simulation - Ecosim

It includes several domains such as: artificial life, ecosystem simulation, ecosystem modeling, theoretical biology, predator- ... Ecosystem models aim to characterize the major dynamics of ecosystems, in order to synthesize the understanding of such systems ... Because natural ecosystems are very complex (in terms of number of species and of ecological interactions) ecosystem models ... EcoSim: An ecosystem simulation As a guest editor, I would like invite you to submit a manuscript for consideration and ...

*  Ecosystem Changes

... Jan 10, 2013 by admin Ecosystem Changes. We are speaking to many disparate audiences with one site at ...

EcosystemAlliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Meramec Conservation AreaMicrobial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Bodega Marine Reserve: Bodega Marine Reserve is a nature reserve and marine reserve on the coast of northern California, located in the vicinity of the Bodega Marine Laboratory on Bodega Head. It is a unit of the University of California Natural Reserve System, that is administered by the University of California, Davis.Carbon fixation: Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation refers to the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms. The most prominent example is photosynthesis, although chemosynthesis is another form of carbon fixation that can take place in the absence of sunlight.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Rogerstown Estuary: Rogerstown Estuary (Irish: Inbhear Bhaile Roiséir) is an estuary in Ireland. It is situated just north of the Donabate-Portrane peninsula, and also south of Rush, on Ireland's east coast about north of Dublin.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996: The Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 is an amendment to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, a law governing the management of marine fisheries in the United States. Another major amendment to this legislation was later made under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006.Human impact on the nitrogen cycleClimate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.California coastal salt marsh: California's coastal salt marsh is a wetland plant community that occurs sporadically along the Pacific Coast from Humboldt Bay to San Diego. This salt marsh type is found in bays, harbors, inlets, and other protected areas subject to tidal flooding.Acoustical oceanography: Acoustical oceanography is the use of underwater sound to study the sea, its boundaries and its contents.Eutrophication: Eutrophication (Greek: eutrophia—healthy, adequate nutrition, development; ) or more precisely hypertrophication, is the ecosystem's response to the addition of artificial or natural nutrients, mainly phosphates, through detergents, fertilizers, or sewage, to an aquatic system.Schindler, David and Vallentyne, John R.Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.Carbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightAppropriation (By Any Other Name): June 13, 2005Baltic sculpin: The Baltic sculpinBaltic sculpin (Cottus microstomus) at EOL (Cottus microstomus) is a species of sculpin, a European freshwater fish in the Cottidae family. It is widespread in the Dniester drainage (Black Sea basin), Odra and Vistula drainages (southern Baltic basin), most likely extending further east to Gulf of Finland.PhytoplanktonBrachiopodPaddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.African coral reefs: African coral reefs are coral reefs mainly found along the south and east coasts of Africa. The east coast corals extend from the Red Sea to Madagascar in the south, and are an important resource for the fishersmen of Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar.Salt lake: Salt Lake (Disambiguation)}}Nitrogen deficiencyWater Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.Nankai Trough gas hydrate site: Nankai Methane Hydrate Site (or Japanese Methane Hydrate R&D Program at Nankai, Nankai Trough Methane Hydrate Site) is located in the Nankai Trough, Japan.Labyrinthula: Labyrinthula is a genus of heterokont, comprising ten species.The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".IPCC Second Assessment Report: The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. It was superseded by the Third Assessment Report (TAR) in 2001.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.History of the New York State College of Forestry: The New York State College of Forestry, the first professional school of forestry in North America, opened its doors at Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York, in the autumn of 1898.http://foresthistory.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Hydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentChemical defense: Chemical defense is the use of chemical compounds by plants and animals to deter herbivory and predation. Chemical defenses can also be used in competitive interactions to prevent overgrowth or maintain spatial dominance.Gemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.National Fire Academy: The National Fire Academy (NFA)National Fire Academy Mission Accessed: 6/12/2012 is one of two schools in the United States operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at the National Emergency Training Center (NETC) in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Operated and governed by the United States Fire Administration (USFA) as part of the U.Continuous Plankton Recorder: The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey is one of the longest running marine biological monitoring programmes in the world. Started in 1931 by Sir Alister Hardy, the CPR has provided marine scientists with their only measure of plankton communities on a pan-oceanic scale.Ecosystem of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) is the largest contiguous ecosystem on earth. In oceanography, a subtropical gyre is a ring-like system of ocean currents rotating clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere caused by the Coriolis Effect.Cambrian–Ordovician extinction eventStratosphere: The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down.In Memory of Celtic Frost: In Memory of... Celtic Frost is a Celtic Frost tribute album released in 1996.Circumpolar Health Bibliographic DatabaseRevegetation: Revegetation is the process of replanting and rebuilding the soil of disturbed land. This may be a natural process produced by plant colonization and succession, or an artificial (manmade) wilderness engineering, accelerated process designed to repair damage to a landscape due to wildfire, mining, flood, or other cause.Dasyochloa: Dasyochloa is a monotypic genus containing the single species Dasyochloa pulchellaGrass Manual Treatment (formerly Erioneuron pulchellum),Mojave Desert Wildflowers, Pam Mackay, 2nd Ed. 2013, p.Artigas BaseList of glaciers in the Antarctic: A-H: This is a list of glaciers in the Antarctic with a name starting with the letters A–H. This list does not include ice sheets, ice caps or ice fields, such as the Antarctic ice sheet, but includes glacial features that are defined by their flow, rather than general bodies of ice.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Lists of invasive species: These are lists of invasive species by country or region. A species is regarded as invasive if it has been introduced by human action to a location, area, or region where it did not previously occur naturally (i.Chaenocephalus aceratus: Chaenocephalus aceratus, the blackfin icefish, is a species of crocodile icefish known from around Bouvet Island and the northern Antarctic Peninsula where it occurs at depths of . This species grows to a length of TL.White band disease: White band disease is a coral disease that affects acroporid corals and is distinguishable by the white band of dead coral tissue that it forms. The disease completely destroys the coral tissue of Caribbean acroporid corals, specifically elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (A.List of drainage basins by area: The list of drainage basins by area identifies basins (also known as watersheds or catchments), sorted by area, which drain to oceans, mediterranean seas, rivers, lakes and other water bodies. All basins larger than are included as well as selected smaller basins.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Global Energy and Water Cycle ExperimentTalitrus saltatorVon Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Closed ecological systemMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Carbon dioxide removal: Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) methods refers to a number of technologies which reduce the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Among such technologies are bio-energy with carbon capture and storage, biochar, direct air capture, ocean fertilization and enhanced weathering.Kandelia obovata: Kandelia obovata (Traditional Chinese: 水筆仔、秋茄樹) is a species of plant in the Rhizophoraceae family, i.e.Organic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter. (e.Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.In situ chemical oxidation: In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a form of advanced oxidation processes and advanced oxidation technology, is an environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels. ISCO is accomplished by injecting or otherwise introducing strong chemical oxidizers directly into the contaminated medium (soil or groundwater) to destroy chemical contaminants in place.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsPolarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.AvicenniaNatural Park of El FondoSeaweed farming: Seaweed farming is the practice of cultivating and harvesting seaweed. In its simplest form, it consists of the management of naturally found batches.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Structural encroachment: A structural encroachment is a concept in American real property law, in which a piece of real property hangs from one property over the property line of another landowner's premises. The actual structure that encroaches might be a tree, bush, bay window, stairway, steps, stoop, garage, leaning fence, part of a building, or other fixture.Chelicerata: Late Ordovician (but see text) – RecentOxymonad: The Oxymonads are a group of flagellated protozoa found exclusively in the intestines of termites and other wood-eating insects. Along with the similar parabasalid flagellates, they harbor the symbiotic bacteria that are responsible for breaking down cellulose.Caninia (genus)Water quality law: Water quality laws govern the release of pollutants into water resources, including surface water, ground water, and stored drinking water. Some water quality laws, such as drinking water regulations, may be designed solely with reference to human health.Social determinants of obesity: While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. It is accepted that calorie consumption in excess of calorie expenditure leads to obesity, however what has caused shifts in these two factors on a global scale is much debated.Lung microbiome: The lung microbiota (or pulmonary microbial community) is a complex variety of microbes found in the lower respiratory tract particularly on the mucus layer and the epithelial surfaces (the lung microbiome refer to their genomes). These microbes include bacteria, yeasts, viruses and bacteriophages.

(1/10106) Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles.

The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides.  (+info)

(2/10106) Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints.

Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach.  (+info)

(3/10106) Effects of salinity and temperature on long-term survival of the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E).

Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E) is a primary eel pathogen. In this study, we performed long-term survival experiments to investigate whether the aquatic ecosystem can be a reservoir for this bacterium. We have used microcosms containing water of different salinities (ranging from 0.3 to 3.8%) maintained at three temperatures (12, 25, and 30 degrees C). Temperature and salinity significantly affected long-term survival: (i) the optimal salinity for survival was 1.5%; (ii) lower salinities reduced survival, although they were nonlethal; and (ii) the optimal temperature for survival was dependent on the salinity (25 degrees C for microcosms at 0.3 and 0.5% and 12 degrees C for microcosms at 1.5 to 3.8%). In the absence of salts, culturability dropped to zero in a few days, without evidence of cellular lysis. Under optimal conditions of salinity and temperature, the bacterium was able to survive in the free-living form for at least 3 years. The presence of a capsule on the bacterial cell seemed to confer an advantage, since the long-term survival rate of opaque variants was significantly higher than that of translucent ones. Long-term-starved cells maintained their infectivity for eels (as determined by both intraperitoneal and immersion challenges) and mice. Examination under the microscope showed that (i) the capsule was maintained, (ii) the cell size decreased, (iii) the rod shape changed to coccuslike along the time of starvation, and (iv) membrane vesicles and extracellular material were occasionally produced. In conclusion, V. vulnificus biotype 2 follows a survival strategy similar to that of biotype 1 of this species in response to starvation conditions in water. Moreover, the aquatic ecosystem is one of its reservoirs.  (+info)

(4/10106) Immunochemical detection and isolation of DNA from metabolically active bacteria.

Most techniques used to assay the growth of microbes in natural communities provide no information on the relationship between microbial productivity and community structure. To identify actively growing bacteria, we adapted a technique from immunocytochemistry to detect and selectively isolate DNA from bacteria incorporating bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog. In addition, we developed an immunocytochemical protocol to visualize BrdU-labeled microbial cells. Cultured bacteria and natural populations of aquatic bacterioplankton were pulse-labeled with exogenously supplied BrdU. Incorporation of BrdU into microbial DNA was demonstrated in DNA dot blots probed with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and either peroxidase- or Texas red-conjugated secondary antibodies. BrdU-containing DNA was physically separated from unlabeled DNA by using antibody-coated paramagnetic beads, and the identities of bacteria contributing to both purified, BrdU-containing fractions and unfractionated, starting-material DNAs were determined by length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) analysis. BrdU-containing DNA purified from a mixture of DNAs from labeled and unlabeled cultures showed >90-fold enrichment for the labeled bacterial taxon. The LH-PCR profile for BrdU-containing DNA from a labeled, natural microbial community differed from the profile for the community as a whole, demonstrating that BrdU was incorporated by a taxonomic subset of the community. Immunocytochemical detection of cells with BrdU-labeled DNA was accomplished by in situ probing with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and Texas red-labeled secondary antibodies. Using this suite of techniques, microbial cells incorporating BrdU into their newly synthesized DNA can be quantified and the identities of these actively growing cells can be compared to the composition of the microbial community as a whole. Since not all strains tested could incorporate BrdU, these methods may be most useful when used to gain an understanding of the activities of specific species in the context of their microbial community.  (+info)

(5/10106) Morphological and compositional changes in a planktonic bacterial community in response to enhanced protozoan grazing.

We analyzed changes in bacterioplankton morphology and composition during enhanced protozoan grazing by image analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization with group-specific rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Enclosure experiments were conducted in a small, fishless freshwater pond which was dominated by the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The removal of metazooplankton enhanced protozoan grazing pressure and triggered a microbial succession from fast-growing small bacteria to larger grazing-resistant morphotypes. These were mainly different types of filamentous bacteria which correlated in biomass with the population development of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF). Small bacterial rods and cocci, which showed increased proportion after removal of Daphnia and doubling times of 6 to 11 h, belonged nearly exclusively to the beta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. The majority of this newly produced bacterial biomass was rapidly consumed by HNF. In contrast, the proportion of bacteria belonging to the gamma and alpha subdivisions of the Proteobacteria increased throughout the experiment. The alpha subdivision consisted mainly of rods that were 3 to 6 microm in length, which probably exceeded the size range of bacteria edible by protozoa. Initially, these organisms accounted for less than 1% of total bacteria, but after 72 h they became the predominant group of the bacterial assemblage. Other types of grazing-resistant, filamentous bacteria were also found within the beta subdivision of Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. We conclude that the predation regimen is a major structuring force for the bacterial community composition in this system. Protozoan grazing resulted in shifts of the morphological as well as the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblage. Grazing-resistant filamentous bacteria can develop within different phylogenetic groups of bacteria, and formerly underepresented taxa might become a dominant group when protozoan predation is the major selective pressure.  (+info)

(6/10106) Combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization and microautoradiography-a new tool for structure-function analyses in microbial ecology.

A new microscopic method for simultaneously determining in situ the identities, activities, and specific substrate uptake profiles of individual bacterial cells within complex microbial communities was developed by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and microautoradiography. This method was evaluated by using defined artificial mixtures of Escherichia coli and Herpetosiphon aurantiacus under aerobic incubation conditions with added [3H]glucose. Subsequently, we were able to demonstrate the potential of this method by visualizing the uptake of organic and inorganic radiolabeled substrates ([14C]acetate, [14C]butyrate, [14C]bicarbonate, and 33Pi) in probe-defined populations from complex activated sludge microbial communities by using aerobic incubation conditions and anaerobic incubation conditions (with and without nitrate). For both defined cell mixtures and activated sludge, the method proved to be useful for simultaneous identification and analysis of the uptake of labeled substrates under the different experimental conditions used. Optimal results were obtained when fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides were applied prior to the microautoradiographic developing procedure. For single-cell resolution of FISH and microautoradiographic signals within activated sludge flocs, cryosectioned sample material was examined with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The combination of in situ rRNA hybridization techniques, cryosectioning, microautoradiography, and confocal laser scanning microscopy provides a unique opportunity for obtaining cultivation-independent insights into the structure and function of bacterial communities.  (+info)

(7/10106) Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central Arizona.

For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody-positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus.  (+info)

(8/10106) Statistical sensitivity for detection of spatial and temporal patterns in rodent population densities.

A long-term monitoring program begun 1 year after the epidemic of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest tracked rodent density changes through time and among sites and related these changes to hantavirus infection rates in various small-mammal reservoir species and human disease outbreaks. We assessed the statistical sensitivity of the program's field design and tested for potential biases in population estimates due to unintended deaths of rodents. Analyzing data from two sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998, we found that for many species of Peromyscus, Reithrodontomys, Neotoma, Dipodomys, and Perognathus, the monitoring program detected species-specific spatial and temporal differences in rodent densities; trap-related deaths did not significantly affect long-term population estimates. The program also detected a short-term increase in rodent densities in the winter of 1997-98, demonstrating its usefulness in identifying conditions conducive to increased risk for human disease.  (+info)


  • Some consider the ecosystem to be the basic unit in ecology. (
  • Within terrestrial ecosystem science, spectroscopic remote sensing methods offer the capacity to advance the fields of agriculture, forestry, plant physiology and ecology by enabling the rapid, accurate, and non-destructive estimation of key plant photosynthetic, biochemical, and morphological traits, as well as detect stress and overall plant health over broad spatial regions and efficiently through time. (
  • This lesson introduces some of the principles of ecology, including the definition of an ecosystem as a community of living organisms interacting with its non-living environment. (


  • Differences in terrestrial ecosystems are influenced mainly by the dominant vegetation. (
  • The Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) is a process-based ecosystem model that describes carbon, nitrogen and water dynamics of plants and soils for terrestrial ecosystems of the globe. (
  • The TEM uses spatially referenced information on climate, elevation, soils and vegetation as well as soil- and vegetation-specific parameters to make estimates of important carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes and pool sizes of terrestrial ecosystems. (
  • Improvements in computer resources and the interests of an increasing number of researchers have allowed TEM to evolve over time to better examine the influence of ecosystem processes and human activities on terrestrial biogeochemistry and how changes in this biogeochemistry may feedback to influence atmospheric chemistry, climate, water quantity and quality, and social welfare. (
  • In regards to terrestrial ecosystems, the capacity to monitor plant traits with spectroscopic data is based on the physical principle that plant physiological properties, which are fundamentally tied to the biochemical composition (chemical bonds and energy state of constituents), structure and distribution of foliage within canopies, are reflected in the optical characteristics of leaves within a canopy that can be observed using remote-sensing instrumentation. (


  • Because natural ecosystems are very complex (in terms of number of species and of ecological interactions) ecosystem models typically simplify the systems they are representing to a limited number of components. (
  • The Ecosystem Science Cluster supports projects within two programs (see descriptions below): the Ecosystem Studies Program and the Long-Term Ecological Research Program (LTER). (
  • Spectroscopic methods, on the other hand, can yield rapid insights into ecological functioning at a range of scales, from the leaf to the landscape, and can provide repeat monitoring of ecosystems without the need for additional in-situ measurements. (
  • You should familiarize yourself with Communicating Ecosystem Services , made available through the Ecological Society of America and the Union of Concerned Scientists. (


  • Why is aquatic ecosystem health important to humans? (
  • Can we restore the health of an aquatic ecosystem ? (
  • After becoming an expert on water chemistry, aquarium mechanics, and the biology of various fish species, I assembled this glass-walled environment and watched its aquatic community flourish.I had maintained this miniature ecosystem, home to seven fish species, for nearly a year-but how well did I truly know it? (
  • An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water . (
  • Communities of organisms that are dependent on each other and on their environment live in aquatic ecosystems. (
  • The two main types of aquatic ecosystems are marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems . (


  • Mankind benefits from a multitude of resources and processes that are supplied by natural ecosystems. (
  • Collectively, these benefits are known as ecosystem services and include products like clean drinking water and processes. (
  • Proposals may focus on the cycling of non-nutrient elements, but those specifically ecotoxicological in orientation, or without an explicit link to ecosystem processes, will not be considered. (
  • Our research aims to improve understanding of the mechanisms that underlie whole plant and ecosystem responses to global change, and to improve representation of these processes in Earth System Models. (
  • The computational and analytical techniques we use in the TEST group are focused on quantifying model sensitivity, and measuring and scaling key whole plant and ecosystem processes. (
  • This lesson is about how ecosystems purify water and what kinds of things humans do that alter these processes. (


  • An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms in an area functioning together with all of the physical (abiotic) factors of the environment. (
  • Marine ecosystem , complex of living organisms in the ocean environment . (
  • The availability of light affects which organisms can inhabit a certain area of a marine ecosystem . (
  • In the area of ecosystem simulation, individual-based modeling provides a bottom-up approach allowing for the consideration of the traits and behavior of individual organisms. (
  • By modeling organisms with varying characteristics (such as age, mating preferences and role in the ecosystem), the properties of the system that the individuals represent can begin to emerge from their interactions. (
  • Classes of organisms found in marine ecosystems include brown algae , dinoflagellates , corals , cephalopods , echinoderms , and sharks . (


  • There are many different ecosystems: the Everglades, coral reefs and ponds, bat caves, grasslands and deserts. (
  • Give your student a great Earth Science study tool, complete with a list of fun facts and a word search, all about the grasslands ecosystem. (
  • The animals that live in the prairie ecosystem are those who have adapted to survive in the open grasslands typical of the prairie. (


  • Ecosystem models aim to characterize the major dynamics of ecosystems, in order to synthesize the understanding of such systems, and to allow predictions of their behavior. (


  • Ecosystem degradation and weak ecosystem governance do therefore not only compromise the ability of developing country populations to farm, access and use food effectively, but it also adversely impacts food security policies. (
  • This is the crux of the matter, ecosystem degradation and weak ecosystem governance can undermine the effectiveness and impacts of food security policies, while inappropriate policies can damage ecosystems and their ability to support food systems ", said Chris Buss, Coordinator IUCN Forest Conservation Programme . (


  • Our challenge is to understand the full range of social, economic and environmental benefits provided by UK forests and how these ecosystem services relate to other land uses and sectors. (
  • Furthermore, maintaining these mangrove forests has prevented the coasts from being used for large-scale shrimp farms, with all the consequent problems, while supporting small-scale livelihoods reliant on shrimps, crabs and molluscs, which thrive in healthy mangrove ecosystems. (


  • Environmental problems concerning marine ecosystems include unsustainable exploitation of marine resources (for example overfishing of certain species), marine pollution , climate change , and building on coastal areas. (
  • Freshwater ecosystems contain 41% of the world's known fish species. (


  • They are distinguished from freshwater ecosystems by the presence of dissolved compounds , especially salts , in the water. (
  • Freshwater ecosystems cover 0.78% of the Earth's surface and inhabit 0.009% of its total water. (


  • If we want to prevent the impact disasters have on people, we have to manage and restore our ecosystems properly. (
  • The take-home message is that the key to maintaining water purification services is to protect and restore the ecosystems that provide these services. (


  • Proposals that incorporate quantitative or conceptual modeling efforts promoting integration and synthesis, or advancing ecosystem science through either the pursuit of new theoretical paradigms or novel modeling efforts, are encouraged. (


  • ECHO Lake Aquarium and Science Center visitors watch Rubenstein School graduate student Peter Euclide conduct research at the Rubenstein Ecosystem Science Laboratory. (
  • This is the issue that Dr. Jason Stockwell , Director of the Rubenstein Ecosystem Science Laboratory , and ECHO Lake Aquarium and Science Center at the Leahy Center for Lake Champlain had in mind when they created the joint science-education fellowship. (


  • Furthermore, the various TEM subgroups have developed input data sets, collaborated with other groups in the development of other ecosystem models, and participated in model intercomparisons to examine how differences in model assumptions may influence simulated ecosystem responses to natural and human disturbances. (
  • The analytical focus of the TEST biochemistry lab is understanding the interactions of photosynthesis and respiration with carbon and nitrogen metabolism that underlie many of the commonly observed long term responses of plants and ecosystems to global change. (


  • Ecosystem goods and services make critical contributions to food security by supporting the availability, access, and use of foods, both farmed and wild, and by strengthening the stability of food systems ", said Cyrie Sendashonga, IUCN Global Policy Director during her keynote speech at the conference. (
  • An IUCN paper entitled 'Food Security Policies: making the ecosystem connections', was presented during the conference and is available for downloading in English , French , and Spanish . (


  • Ecosystem Services: Economic analyses of the ways in which natural ecosystems contribute to regional and global economies. (
  • The mix of ecosystem services depends upon many choices to do with the location and management of trees, and research is needed to better inform these decisions and value the benefits. (
  • To use the example of natural water purification to show students that healthy ecosystems provide services to people that are essential to life as we know it. (
  • Ecosystem services are valuable for many reasons, including economic benefits, protection of human health and safety, and support of recreational or aesthetic enjoyment. (
  • Students should know that when ecosystems are not healthy, some or all of the services they provide to people may be lost. (
  • Humanity came into being after most ecosystem services had been in operation for hundreds of millions of years. (
  • Historically, however, the vital role of natural ecosystem services has not been given much attention. (
  • Ecosystem services are essential to life as we know it. (
  • In this interdisciplinary lesson, students explore the concept of ecosystem services by investigating natural water purification in their home watershed. (
  • Thorough writings on ecosystem services, however, are just beginning to emerge. (



  • The global objective of our work is to develop such a powerful predator-prey ecosystem simulation, called EcoSim, and to try to gain some knowledge about natural ecosystems thanks to it. (
  • Natural ecosystems help reduce the damage from disasters while supporting livelihoods needed for post-disaster recovery. (
  • Effective policies also address the social aspects of the ecosystem connections to food security by strengthening, for example, land tenure, access rights to natural resources, local organizations, and gender equality. (


  • An ecosystem-aware approach to food security policy-making goes beyond the conventional focus, which is generally on productivity, trade and macro-economic issues. (
  • Food resilience is the capacity of ecosystems to support food production and the ability of people to produce, harvest or buy food in the face of environmental, economic and social shocks and stresses. (


  • However, the scope of ecosystem simulations has always been limited by the computational possibilities of their time. (


  • An ecosystem is a dynamic entity made of a biological community and the physical and chemical factors that make up its non-living or abiotic environment. (
  • All ecosystems are made of biotic and abiotic components. (


  • Here, ecosystem management has not only contributed to reducing the risk of typhoon disasters, but has also saved money and supported local livelihoods. (
  • Taking nature's ecosystems into consideration, along with our interaction with ecosystems, will help us have healthier and safer lives and livelihoods. (


  • Climate differences from place to place usually determine the types of ecosystems. (


  • Learn about the different ecosystems and biomes on our planet. (
  • Actual salinity varies among different marine ecosystems. (


  • These environmental factors perform specific functions or jobs in each ecosystem. (


  • Make A ... of energy for almost every ecosystem on Earth is the sun. (
  • All ecosystems are considered "open" systems because energy and matter are constantly being transferred in and out. (


  • Projects that are potentially transformative -- that is, those that may change the conceptual basis of ecosystem science and have broad implications for future research -- are given particular priority. (
  • Support Ecosystems Center science through the MBL's Annual Fund. (
  • We are doing this in two ways: first, by updating current exhibits and programs to include ongoing lake research at RSENR and elsewhere, and second, by developing a space for science translation just outside of the Rubenstein Ecosystem Science Laboratory within ECHO. (


  • One of the main interests of such ecosystem simulations is that they offer a global view of the evolution of the system, which is difficult to observe in nature. (


  • Proposals that, in whole or part, strive to develop new techniques can be supported when a compelling argument exists that there is the potential for a major advance in ecosystem research. (


  • This simplification allows for the development of computer-aided ecosystem simulations that are tractable. (



  • Yet, few attempts have been made to simulate a complete and complex ecosystem. (
  • Ecosystems are fascinating, complex systems made of communities of animals and non-living components. (


  • An ecosystem is generally defined as the union of the biological community and its habitat. (


  • In this series of articles, you will learn all about ecosystems-what they are, what types exist, and how they differ from one another. (


  • Alligators are also one of the main hazards of the swamp ecosystem, and large ones can be dangerous especially during the breeding season when they are most active and potentially most aggressive. (


  • There are many types of food chains within an ecosystem. (


  • In an ecosystem , each type of plant and animal has its own role to play. (
  • While Wi-Fi networks based on 802.11 and WiMAX based on 802.16 will play a part in the wireless ecosystem this post looks at the role that will be played by cellular networks from 2G to 4G. (


  • Swamp ecosystem can be a challenging place to survive, but they can also be very productive. (


  • Ecosystem-oriented proposals that focus on coastal marine or deep ocean or Laurentian Great Lakes habitats are reviewed by the Biological Oceanography Program in the Division of Ocean Sciences. (


  • Food security policy-makers in developing countries therefore have much to gain from integrating ecosystem management and good ecosystem governance into their policy measures, and collaborating with other sectoral policy-making initiatives to ensure they consistently support food security. (


  • We find that making the ecosystem connection is the vital link towards sustainable solutions. (


  • Marine ecosystems cover approximately 71% of the Earth's surface and contain approximately 97% of the planet's water. (


  • Since an ecosystem is a dynamic system, all factors will vary over space and time. (


  • Marine ecosystems can be divided into many zones depending upon water depth and shoreline features. (
  • Fishes caught in marine ecosystems are the biggest source of commercial foods obtained from wild populations. (


  • Swamps often have an abundance of fish and turtles as well as a variety of wading birds and waterfowl in southeastern the swamp ecosystem. (


  • What is the intent of the ecosystem requirement updates? (


  • In a recent report from BI Intelligence on , we explain the complexities and fractures of the ecosystem. (
  • To access BI Intelligence's full report on The Mobile Advertising Ecosystem, sign up for a free trial subscription here. (
  • This report evaluates 43 strategic alliances that have been formed over the last two years within the M2M ecosystem. (


  • There's a little-discussed piece of the video ecosystem that is becoming absolutely critical to how content on streaming sites like Netflix finds its way to people's TVs: Content Distribution Networks (CDNs). (
  • Strategic alliances are therefore a critical aspect of the M2M ecosystem. (