Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ecological and Environmental Phenomena: Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.LizardsMetagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Pacific OceanBahamas: A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Atlantic OceanClimate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Lemur: A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Carnivory: The consumption of animal flesh.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Ethnology: The comparative and theoretical study of culture, often synonymous with cultural anthropology.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.EcuadorPaleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.WyomingRadiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).PanamaCluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Felidae: The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Sympatry: In evolutionary theory, overlapping geographic distribution of diverging species. In sympatric GENETIC SPECIATION, genetic diversion occurs without geographic separation.Elasmobranchii: A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.South AmericaHerbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Jackals: Medium-sized terrestrial carnivores, in the genus Canis, family CANIDAE. Three species are recognized, two found only in Africa and one found in Africa, Europe, and Asia.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Hydrobiology: The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)BrazilDNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Microbiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Prochlorococcus: A genus of marine planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order PROCHLOROPHYTES. They lack PHYCOBILISOMES and contain divinyl CHLOROPHYLL, a and b.Hares: The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)BelizeTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Gadiformes: An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Kelp: Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.Bryozoa: A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Ocular Physiological Processes: Biological action and events that support the functions of the EYE and VISION, OCULAR.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Swallows: The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.MuseumsHuman Activities: Activities performed by humans.Coprophagia: Eating of excrement by animal species.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Iguanas: Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Impatiens: A plant genus of subsucculent annual or perennial plants in the family BALSAMINACEAE, order Geraniales.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.North AmericaDesulfurococcales: An order of CRENARCHAEOTA comprised of irregular coccoid to disc-shaped, hyperthermophiles, and found in submarine hydrothermal systems and solfataric hot springs.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Tertiary Healthcare: Care of a highly technical and specialized nature, provided in a medical center, usually one affiliated with a university, for patients with unusually severe, complex, or uncommon health problems.Lynx: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising felines with long legs, ear tufts, and a short tail.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Mediterranean SeaForaminifera: An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Central America
Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.EcosystemAlliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Clean Water State Revolving Fund: The Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) is a self-perpetuating loan assistance authority for water quality improvement projects in the United States. The fund is administered by the Environmental Protection Agency and state agencies.Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Meramec Conservation AreaThreshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentBodega Marine Reserve: Bodega Marine Reserve is a nature reserve and marine reserve on the coast of northern California, located in the vicinity of the Bodega Marine Laboratory on Bodega Head. It is a unit of the University of California Natural Reserve System, that is administered by the University of California, Davis.Ditch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightGijs Kuenen: Johannes Gijsbrecht Kuenen (born 9 December 1940, Heemstede) is a Dutch microbiologist who is professor emeritus at the Delft University of Technology and a visiting scientist at the University of Southern California. His research is influenced by, and a contribution to, the scientific tradition of the Delft School of Microbiology.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Tokay gecko: The tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) is a nocturnal arboreal gecko, ranging from northeast India, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, throughout Southeast Asia, Philippines to Indonesia and western New Guinea. Its native habitat is rainforest trees and cliffs, and it also frequently adapts to rural human habitations, roaming walls and ceilings at night in search of insect prey.Lung microbiome: The lung microbiota (or pulmonary microbial community) is a complex variety of microbes found in the lower respiratory tract particularly on the mucus layer and the epithelial surfaces (the lung microbiome refer to their genomes). These microbes include bacteria, yeasts, viruses and bacteriophages.Baltic sculpin: The Baltic sculpinBaltic sculpin (Cottus microstomus) at EOL (Cottus microstomus) is a species of sculpin, a European freshwater fish in the Cottidae family. It is widespread in the Dniester drainage (Black Sea basin), Odra and Vistula drainages (southern Baltic basin), most likely extending further east to Gulf of Finland.Nest (protein structural motif): The Nest is a type of protein structural motif. Peptide nests are small anion-binding molecular features of proteins and peptides.Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Genetic variation: right|thumbHorseshoe bat: Horseshoe bats make up the bat family Rhinolophidae. In addition to the single living genus, Rhinolophus, one extinct genus, Palaeonycteris, has been recognized.Restricted isometry property: In linear algebra, the restricted isometry property characterizes matrices which are nearly orthonormal, at least when operating on sparse vectors. The concept was introduced by Emmanuel Candès and Terence TaoE.List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Ecosystem of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) is the largest contiguous ecosystem on earth. In oceanography, a subtropical gyre is a ring-like system of ocean currents rotating clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere caused by the Coriolis Effect.Illegal drug trade in the Bahamas: The illegal drug trade in The Bahamas involves trans-shipment of cocaine and marijuana through The Bahamas to the United States.Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Gemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Colt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.Continuous Plankton Recorder: The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey is one of the longest running marine biological monitoring programmes in the world. Started in 1931 by Sir Alister Hardy, the CPR has provided marine scientists with their only measure of plankton communities on a pan-oceanic scale.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996: The Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 is an amendment to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, a law governing the management of marine fisheries in the United States. Another major amendment to this legislation was later made under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Daphnia lumholtzi: Daphnia lumholtzi is a small, invasive water flea that originates in the tropical and subtropical lakes of Africa, Asia, and Australia. As an invasive species, Daphnia lumholtzi disrupts aquatic habitats by spreading throughout the warmer waters of lakes and reservoirs.Cambrian–Ordovician extinction eventPhylogeography: Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of the patterns associated with a gene genealogy.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.In Memory of Celtic Frost: In Memory of... Celtic Frost is a Celtic Frost tribute album released in 1996.Climate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.Lists of invasive species: These are lists of invasive species by country or region. A species is regarded as invasive if it has been introduced by human action to a location, area, or region where it did not previously occur naturally (i.Lemur Conservation Foundation: The Lemur Conservation Foundation (LCF) is a small American non-profit organization that works closely with the Duke Lemur Center, LCF Scientific Advisory Council (including Dr. Ian Tattersall), the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Prosimian Taxon Advisory Group (TAG), and the Species Survival Plan (SSP) coordinators.PhytoplanktonCarnivorous plant: Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods. Carnivorous plants have adapted to grow in places with high light where the soil is thin or poor in nutrients, especially nitrogen, such as acidic bogs and rock outcroppings.Microbiota: A microbiota is "the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms that literally share our body space". Joshua Lederberg coined the term, emphasising the importance of microorganisms inhabiting the human body in health and disease.Planorbella trivolvis: Planorbella trivolvis is a species of freshwater air-breathing snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails, or planorbids, which all have sinistral or left-coiling shells.Shunri: Shunris () are a Bengali Hindu caste whose traditional occupation is the distillation and selling of country wine. The Shunris, except those having family name Saha are listed as Scheduled Castes by the Government of India and Government of West Bengal.Symbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.AmborellaPink skunk clownfish: Amphiprion perideraion also known as the pink skunk clownfish or pink anemonefish, is a species of anemonefish from the skunk complex that is widespread from northern Australia through the Malay Archipelago and Melanesia. Like all anemonefishes it forms a symbiotic mutualism with sea anemones and is unaffected by the stinging tentacles of the host anemone.Psorophora howardiiPyrites Island: Pyrites Island () is the largest of three small islands lying northeast of Gam Point and forming the east side of Esther Harbor, off the north coast of King George Island in the South Shetland Islands. In 1913–14, the rocky extremity of Gam Point and the adjoining islands to the northwest and southeast were named Esther, Pyritis (sic) or Pyritic Islands by Scottish geologist David Ferguson, who reported they were composed of pyrites and vein quartz.BrachiopodSmoking in Ecuador: Smoking in Ecuador is more common among men and younger people. More than half of Ecuadorian smokers desire to quit.Caninia (genus)Moonlight: [22-12-47-moonlight.jpg|thumb|A photograph taken by moonlight with an exposure time of fifty minutes.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Camponotus vagus: Camponotus vagus is a species of large, black, West Palaearctic carpenter ant with a wide range that includes much of Europe, a large area of Asia, and part of Africa.Norwegian Journal of EntomologyEncyclopedia of Life: Camponotus vagus (Scopoli, 1763)Salt lake: Salt Lake (Disambiguation)}}Coles PhillipsDomain (biology): In biological taxonomy, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, empire, or regio) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist. According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria, and Eukaryota.Skylark launch tower: A Skylark tower is a tower used for the launch of earlier versions of Skylark rockets. As Skylark rockets have no guidance system and accelerate slowly, they require a safe launch tower with a height of at least 24 metres with a guidance system.List of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Environment of Wyoming: Wyoming [the Continental Divide], and its abrupt topographic relief includes alternating basins and mountain ranges. Major mountain ranges include the [[Beartooth Mountains|Beartooth, Gros Ventre, Teton, Wind River, Bighorn, Sierra Madre, and Medicine Bow.RhodolithThe Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".
(1/2152) Climatic and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States.
To investigate climatic, spatial, temporal, and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in the Four Corners region, we collected exposure site data for HPS cases that occurred in 1993 to 1995. Cases clustered seasonally and temporally by biome type and geographic location, and exposure sites were most often found in pinyon-juniper woodlands, grasslands, and Great Basin desert scrub lands, at elevations of 1,800 m to 2,500 m. Environmental factors (e.g., the dramatic increase in precipitation associated with the 1992 to 1993 El Nino) may indirectly increase the risk for Sin Nombre virus exposure and therefore may be of value in designing disease prevention campaigns. (+info)
(2/2152) Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods.
Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease. (+info)
(3/2152) Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: a synthesis.
A series of intensive, longitudinal, mark-recapture studies of hantavirus infection dynamics in reservoir populations in the southwestern United States indicates consistent patterns as well as important differences among sites and host-virus associations. All studies found a higher prevalence of infection in older (particularly male) mice; one study associated wounds with seropositivity. These findings are consistent with horizontal transmission and transmission through fighting between adult male rodents. Despite very low rodent densities at some sites, low-level hantavirus infection continued, perhaps because of persistent infection in a few long-lived rodents or periodic reintroduction of virus from neighboring populations. Prevalence of hantavirus antibody showed seasonal and multiyear patterns that suggested a delayed density-dependent relationship between prevalence and population density. Clear differences in population dynamics and patterns of infection among sites, sampling periods, and host species underscore the importance of replication and continuity of long-term reservoir studies. Nevertheless, the measurable associations between environmental variables, reservoir population density, rates of virus transmission, and prevalence of infection in host populations may improve our capacity to model processes influencing infection and predict increased risk for hantavirus transmission to humans. (+info)
(4/2152) Suppression of giardiasis during the intestinal phase of trichinosis in the mouse.
The interaction of the intestinal phases of Giardia muris and Trichinella spiralis was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Intraoesophageal inoculation of G. muris cysts seven days before, or seven days after, similar inoculation of T. spiralis larvae resulted in significant reduction in the numbers of Giardia trophozoites in small bowel and Giardia cysts in stools. This effect was not observed when G. muris cysts were administered after resolution of the intestinal phase of trichinosis. Giardiasis had no effect on trichinosis as assessed by numbers of adult worms in small bowel and larvae in skeletal muscles. Studies of small bowel morphology showed that the intestinal phase of trichinosis was associated with increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, a significant increase in Paneth cells in crypts, and a marked reduction in the villus:crypt ratio of jejunum. These observations suggest that the intestinal phase of trichinosis induced environmental changes in small bowel, perhaps related to inflammation, which resulted in suppression of proliferation of Giardia trophozoites. (+info)
(5/2152) Protective effect of breastfeeding: an ecologic study of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis and breastfeeding in a Swedish population.
BACKGROUND: In Orebro County, Sweden, a 2.5-fold increase in the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae (HI) meningitis was found between 1970 and 1980. In a case-control study of possible risk factors for invasive HI infection conducted in the same area, 1987-1992, breastfeeding was found to be a strong protective factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to study the relation between incidence rates of HI meningitis between 1956-1992 and breastfeeding rates in the population an ecologic study was performed. RESULTS: A strong (negative) correlation between breastfeeding and incidence of HI infection 5 to 10 years later (rho(xy) (s) approximately -0.6) was seen, whereas no relation seems to exist for the time lag 15 years and beyond. The correlation for contemporary data was intermediate. There were similar results for the breastfeeding proportions at 2, 4 as well as 6 months of age. DISCUSSION: Our ecologic data are consistent with results from our case-control study. The time-lag for the delayed effect on the population level could be estimated although sparse data make the estimates vulnerable to sampling fluctuations. Limitations with ecologic studies are discussed. CONCLUSION: There seems to be an association between high breastfeeding rate in the population and a reduced incidence of HI meningitis 5 to 10 years later. These results do have implications on strategies for breastfeeding promotion, especially in countries where Hib vaccination is too costly and not yet implemented. (+info)
(6/2152) Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables.
The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed. (+info)
(7/2152) A theoretical and empirical investigation of the invasion dynamics of colicinogeny.
A mathematical model describing the dynamics of a colicinogenic and a colicin-sensitive population propagated under serial transfer culture conditions was formulated. In addition, a series of in vitro invasion experiments using six representatives of the E colicin group was undertaken, together with the estimation of the growth rates and colicinogenic characteristics of the strains. Growth rates among the strains varied by up to 44%. There were 14-fold differences among strains in their lysis rates and there were up to 10-fold differences in the amount of colicin produced per lysed cell. The in vitro serial transfer invasion experiments revealed that regardless of initial frequency all colicinogenic strains succeeded in displacing the sensitive cell populations. The amount of time required for the colicin-sensitive cell population to be displaced declined as the initial frequency of the colicinogenic population increased and strains producing higher titres of colicin tended to displace the sensitive strain more rapidly. Overall, the observed dynamics of the invasion of colicinogenic strains was adequately described by the theoretical model. However, despite there being substantial differences among the strains in their growth rates and colicinogenic characteristics there were relatively few differences, observed or predicted, in the invasion dynamics of the six colicinogenic strains. These results suggest that the characteristics of different colicinogenic strains cannot be used to explain the extensive variation in the relative abundance of different colicins in natural populations of bacteria. (+info)
(8/2152) Selected phenolic compounds in cultivated plants: ecologic functions, health implications, and modulation by pesticides.
Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Plant tissues may contain up to several grams per kilogram. External stimuli such as microbial infections, ultraviolet radiation, and chemical stressors induce their synthesis. The phenolic compounds resveratrol, flavonoids, and furanocoumarins have many ecologic functions and affect human health. Ecologic functions include defense against microbial pathogens and herbivorous animals. Phenolic compounds may have both beneficial and toxic effects on human health. Effects on low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets are beneficial because they reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Mutagenic, cancerogenic, and phototoxic effects are risk factors of human health. The synthesis of phenolic compounds in plants can be modulated by the application of herbicides and, to a lesser extent, insecticides and fungicides. The effects on ecosystem functioning and human health are complex and cannot be predicted with great certainty. The consequences of the combined natural and pesticide-induced modulating effects for ecologic functions and human health should be further evaluated. (+info)