Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Body Dysmorphic Disorders: Preoccupations with appearance or self-image causing significant distress or impairment in important areas of functioning.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Meals: A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Cognitive Dissonance: Motivational state produced by inconsistencies between simultaneously held cognitions or between a cognition and behavior; e.g., smoking enjoyment and believing smoking is harmful are dissonant.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Cooking and Eating UtensilsDiet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Breakfast: The first meal of the day.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Fiji: A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Suva. It was discovered by Abel Tasman in 1643 and was visited by Captain Cook in 1774. It was used by escaped convicts from Australia as early as 1804. It was annexed by Great Britain in 1874 but achieved independence in 1970. The name Fiji is of uncertain origin. In its present form it may represent that of Viti, the main island in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p396 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p186)RestaurantsHealth Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Schools: Educational institutions.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Social Control, Informal: Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pediatric Obesity: BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Lunch: The meal taken at midday.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Personal Satisfaction: The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Defense Mechanisms: Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.Pleasure: Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.Menu PlanningDietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.United StatesAttitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Food Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Somatotypes: Particular categories of body build, determined on the basis of certain physical characteristics. The three basic body types are ectomorph (thin physique), endomorph (rounded physique), and mesomorph (athletic physique).Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Ideal Body Weight: Expected weight of a healthy normal individual based on age, sex, and height. Thus, a malnourished person would weigh less than their ideal body weight.Social Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Obsessive Behavior: Persistent, unwanted idea or impulse which is considered normal when it does not markedly interfere with mental processes or emotional adjustment.Democratic People's Republic of Korea: A country located on the Korean Peninsula whose capital is Pyongyang. The country was established September 9, 1948.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Friends: Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.Female Athlete Triad Syndrome: A condition of competitive female athletes in which there are interrelated problems of EATING DISORDERS; AMENORRHEA; and OSTEOPOROSIS.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Diet, Vegetarian: Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Camping: Living outdoors as a recreational activity.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Twins, Dizygotic: Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Diet, Mediterranean: A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Twins, Monozygotic: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Dyssomnias: A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Identification (Psychology): A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Yawning: An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Suburban Health: The status of health in suburban populations.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).MinnesotaTaste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Aversive Therapy: A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.JapanCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Compulsive Personality Disorder: Disorder characterized by an emotionally constricted manner that is unduly conventional, serious, formal, and stingy, by preoccupation with trivial details, rules, order, organization, schedules, and lists, by stubborn insistence on having things one's own way without regard for the effects on others, by poor interpersonal relationships, and by indecisiveness due to fear of making mistakes.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Serious Eats: The Destination for Delicious | Serious Eats... and essential guides to eating and knowing all about the best food, wherever you are. ... Serious Eats is the destination for delicious food, with definitive recipes, trailblazing science, ... Welcome to Special Sauce, a James Beard-nominated podcast hosted by Serious Eats founder Ed Levine. Join us each week for ... Behind the Scenes at an All-You-Can-Eat Indian Restaurant. Elazar Sontag ...
Ethical Eating... * 1. Ethical Eating … taking a look into animal welfare in our food system ...
Eating Chicago.Tasting Table: Pair the Weihenstephaner Vitus, a complex and fruity wheat beer, with the butter-brushed pretzel and its accompanying obatzda, a crock of silky beer cheese: Read more. ...
Emotional EatingLearn more about emotional eating, and how to manage it, in this article for teens. ... We've all eaten a whole bag of chips out of boredom or while cramming for a big test. ... What Is Emotional Eating?. Emotional eating is when people use food as a way to deal with feelings instead of to satisfy hunger ... Write down what you ate, how much, and how you felt as you ate (e.g., bored, happy, worried, sad, mad) and whether you were ...
Eating Disorders... are so common in America that 1 or 2 out of every 100 students will struggle with one. Find out more. ... Eating Disorders. Resources. Please Note: By clicking a link to any resource listed on this page, you will be leaving this site ... ANAD is a national nonprofit organization for people with eating disorders and their families. In addition to its hotline ... The NEDA is a nonprofit association dedicated to the prevention and treatment of eating disorders. Contact them at: National ...
Healthy EatingHere's how to improve nutrition and encourage smart eating habits. ... The best way for you to encourage healthy eating is to eat well yourself. Kids will follow the lead of the adults they see ... This may mean eating dinner a little later to accommodate a teen who's at sports practice. It also can mean setting aside time ... Sure, eating well can be hard - family schedules are hectic and grab-and-go convenience food is readily available. But our tips ...
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warsaw likes eatingLan Pham: Delicious breakfast plates, but all-you-can-eat weekend breakfasts are rocking ♥ ...
Eating During PregnancyTo eat well during pregnancy, your extra calories should come from nutritious foods that contribute to your baby's growth and ... Eating well during pregnancy is more than simply increasing how much you eat. You must also consider what you eat. ... How to Know You're Eating Well. The key is to eat foods from the different food groups in approximately the recommended ... The craving and eating of non-food items is known as pica. Consuming things that aren't food can be dangerous to both you and ...
Binge Eating DisorderBinge eating is a type of eating disorder. This article for teens explains what it is, how to recognize it, and how to get help ... Binge Eating Disorder. Resources. Please Note: By clicking a link to any resource listed on this page, you will be leaving this ... The NEDA is a nonprofit association dedicated to the prevention and treatment of eating disorders. Contact them at: National ... ANAD is a national nonprofit organization for people with eating disorders and their families. In addition to its hotline ...
Eating for SportsLearn how to eat for sports by reading this article for kids. ... Eating nutritious foods and the right drinks can help you ... But it's still a good idea to eat well on that day. If you're going to eat a meal, have it 2 to 4 hours before practice or game ... Skipping meals, eliminating certain food groups, or going on fasts (not eating at all or eating very little) can be harmful to ... When you can, try to eat dinners at home. Research shows kids eat healthier when they regularly share meals with their families ...
Healthy Eating for EquestriansJoin Whole Foods Market and Kimball Robeson for a healthy eating class directed at equestrians! This event is free to all. ...
6 - food, eatingThat is why we should try to eat mainly healthy food and it it regularly. It means to eat more times a day less food not to ... FOOD AND EATING Eating and drinking are some of the most important things that influence our health. ... and eating in the CZ and in the UK ... and eating in the CZ and in the UK. FOOD AND EATING. Eating and ... That is why we should try to eat mainly healthy food and eat it regularly. It means to eat more times a day less food not to ...
Et - EnglishEt * 1. Agrupamento de Escolas de Moimenta da Beira ,br /,Educação Tecnológica ,br /,GRAFITTI,br /,Trabalho elaborado por:,br ...
Eating Together - CBC Player... eat lunch together at the same time. Joel believes it creates a happier environment and improves work function. ... At software company Fog Creek, all the employees, including CEO and co-founder Joel Spolsky, eat lunch together at the same ...
Eating Disorders - healthfinder.govhealthfinder.gov is sponsored by the National Health Information Center 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201 Page last updated: Sunday, October 22, 2017 ...
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bear eating my mouth - YouTubeMore info on The Kind Life: http://www.thekindlife.com/post/home-video-breakfast-with-baby-bear
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Diet - Emotional EatingComing to terms with my emotional eating was winning half the battle. And in hopes of conquering the rest, I gave away the ...
Just Keep Eating - WikipediaJust Keep Eating ("solo sigue comiendo", en inglés) es el único álbum larga duración de la banda de noise rock y post-hardcore ... Just Keep Eating, al igual que el catálogo entero de la banda, se encuentra en la compilación The Greatest Gift, ocupando las ... Just Keep Eating tiene dos pistas sin nombre: la pista #7 y la pista #13. Generalmente son nombradas como "Untitled 1" y " ... masterización Esta obra contiene una traducción derivada de Just Keep Eating de Wikipedia en inglés, concretamente de esta ...
Flesh Eating Mothers - WikipediaFlesh Eating Mothers (br: Festim do Inferno) é um filme americano de 1988 de terror e humor negro. Homem infiel à esposa ... Nathan «Flesh Eating Mothers (1988)». Internet Movie Database. Consultado em 29 de novembro de 2013 ...
Dogs Eating Dogs - WikipediaDogs Eating Dogs è il secondo EP del gruppo musicale statunitense Blink-182, pubblicato indipendentemente il 18 dicembre 2012. ... When I Was Young - 3:28 Dogs Eating Dogs - 3:30 Disaster - 3:42 Boxing Day - 3:59 Pretty Little Girl (feat. Yelawolf) - 4:21 ( ... EN) Dogs Eating Dogs, su Discogs, Zink Media.. ...
Eating Disorder Inventory: The Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is a self-report questionnaire used to assess the presence of eating disorders, (a) Anorexia Nervosa both restricting and binge-eating/purging type; (b) Bulimia Nervosa; and (c) Eating disorder not otherwise specified including Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The original questionnaire consisted of 64 questions, divided into eight subscales.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.List of people with bulimia nervosa: This is a list of notable people who suffered from bulimia nervosa. Often simply known as bulimia, this is an eating disorder which is characterized by consuming a large amount of food in a short amount of time, followed by an attempt to rid oneself of the calories consumed, usually by vomiting, laxative, diuretics or excessive exercise.Figure rating scale: The Figure Rating Scale (FRS) also known as the Stunkard Scale is a psychometric measurement developed in 1983 as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women and men.Grogan, S.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Hunger (motivational state): Hunger is a sensationClassification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Sensory-specific satiety: Sensory-specific satiety is a sensory hedonic phenomenon that refers to the declining satisfaction generated by the consumption of a certain type of food, and the consequent renewal in appetite resulting from the exposure to a new flavor or food.Raynor H, Epstein L.Vegetable juiceMuscle dysmorphia: Muscle dysmorphia (also known as "megarexia", "bigorexia", or "reverse anorexia nervosa") is a disorder that is characterized by a fear of being too small, and perceiving oneself as small and weak even when one is actually large and muscular.Pope, H.Overweight PoochFruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Specific appetite: Specific appetite, also known as specific hunger, is a drive to eat foods with specific flavors or other characteristics.Self-affirmation: Self-affirmation theory is a psychological theory that focuses on how individuals adapt to information or experiences that are threatening to their self-concept. Claude Steele originally popularized self-affirmation theory in the late 1980s,Steele, C.Dieter Weichert: Dieter Weichert (born 1948) is a German mechanical engineer specialising in solid mechanics and polymer rheology. Since 1995 he is the Director of the Institute for General Mechanics of RWTH Aachen.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Management of obesity: The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower calorie diet a permanent part of an individual's lifestyle.Criticism of fast foodCookware and bakeware: Pan}}Health food storeReligion in Fiji: Aboriginal Fijian religion could be classified in modern terms as forms of animism or shamanism, traditions utilizing various systems of divination which strongly affected every aspect of life. Fiji was Christianized in the 19th century.Chapter One (restaurant): Michelin GuideLifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.MasticationHealthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.SchizophreniaSchool meal programs in the United States: School meal programs in the United States provide school meals freely, or at a subsidized price, to the children of low income families. These free or reduced meals have the potential to increase household food security, which can improve children's health and expand their educational opportunities.St. Vrain Valley School DistrictHigh-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.David Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.Emotion and memory: Emotion can have a powerful response on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.Tales from the Dark Side Greatest Hits and Choice Collectables 1974–1997: Tales from the Dark Side Greatest Hits and Classic Collectables 1974-1997 is a compilation album by rock music group, Dragon, released in 1998. Disc one has the same track listing as Snake Eyes on the Paradise Greatest Hits 1976–1989, which was issued in the same year.Emergency (UK television programme): Emergency was a twentieth century UK television programme presented by Sue Robbie where a panel of experts gave advice on emergency situations. The programme was produced by David Crossman, and was an Action Time production for This Morning and Granada Television.Save Me (Wake Up Call)List of foodborne illness outbreaks: This is a list of foodborne illness outbreaks. A foodborne illness may be from an infectious disease, heavy metals, chemical contamination, or from natural toxins, such as those found in poisonous mushrooms.Sports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.Positivity offset: Positivity offset is a psychological term referring to two phenomena: People tend to interpret neutral situations as mildly positive, and most people rate their lives as good, most of the time. The positivity offset stands in notable asymmetry to the negativity bias.Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.Gentle frying: Gentle frying or low-temperature frying is an oil- or fat-based cooking method used for relatively fragile or starchy foods.fissler.Animal fatPleasure Syndrome: 14 October 2011Menu FoodsWhite meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.Taste: Taste, gustatory perception, or gustationAdjectival form: [is the sensory impression of food] or other substances on the tongue and is one of the [[sense|five traditional senses.The Otwell Twins: The Otwell Twins are an American singing duo made up of identical twin brothers Roger and David, born August 2, 1956, in Tulia, Texas. They are best known as members of The Lawrence Welk Show from 1977-1982.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score: Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in 1993 as "the preferred 'best'" method to determine protein quality.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is derived from both the cognitive and behavioral schools of psychology and focuses on the alteration of thoughts and actions with the goal of treating various disorders. The cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders emphasizes the minimization of negative thoughts about body image and the act of eating, and attempts to alter negative and harmful behaviors that are involved in and perpetuate eating disorders.
(1/8106) Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase from liver of Sparus aurata: nutritional regulation of enzyme expression.
A cDNA clone encoding full-length 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (6PF-2-K/Fru-2, 6-P2ase) was isolated and sequenced from a Sparus aurata liver cDNA library. The 2527 bp nucleotide sequence of the cDNA contains a 73 bp 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), an open reading frame that encodes a 469 amino acid protein and 1041 bp at the 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid sequence is the first inferred 6PF-2-K/Fru-2, 6-P2ase in fish. The kinase and bisphosphatase domains, where the residues described as crucial for the mechanism of reaction of the bifunctional enzyme are located, present a high degree of homology with other liver isoenzymes. However, within the first 30 amino acids at the N-terminal regulatory domain of the fish enzyme a low homology is found. Nutritional regulation of the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity, together with immunodetectable protein and mRNA levels of 6PF-2-K/Fru-2,6-P2ase, was observed after starvation and refeeding. In contrast to results previously described for rat liver, the decrease in immunodetectable protein and kinase activity caused by starvation was associated in the teleostean fish to a decrease in mRNA levels. (+info)
(2/8106) Fish oil feeding delays influenza virus clearance and impairs production of interferon-gamma and virus-specific immunoglobulin A in the lungs of mice.
Ingestion of fish oil can suppress the inflammatory response to injury and may impair host resistance to infection. To investigate the effect of a diet containing fish oil on immunity to viral infection, 148 BALB/c mice were fed diets containing 3 g/100 g of sunflower oil with either 17 g/100 g of fish oil or beef tallow for 14 d before intranasal challenge with live influenza virus. At d 1 and d 5 after infection, the mice fed fish oil had higher lung viral load and lower body weight (P < 0.05). In addition to the greater viral load and weight loss at d 5 after infection, the fish oil group consumed less food (P < 0.05) while the beef tallow group was clearing the virus, had regained their preinfection weights and was returning to their preinfection food consumption. The fish oil group had impaired production of lung interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and lung IgA-specific antibodies (all P < 0. 05) although lung IFN-alpha/beta and the relative proportions of bronchial lymph node CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes did not differ between groups after infection. The present study demonstrates a delay in virus clearance in mice fed fish oil associated with reduced IFN-gamma and antibody production and a greater weight loss and suppression of appetite following influenza virus infection. However, differences observed during the course of infection did not affect the ultimate outcome as both groups cleared the virus and returned to preinfection food consumption and body weight by d 7. (+info)
(3/8106) Sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance based on plasma aldosterone concentration.
The sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance was determined using a randomized block design of eight dietary sodium treatments (0.1, 0.4, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 or 2.0 g Na/kg in a casein-lactalbumin-based purified diet) administered for periods of 4 wk. A total of 35 adult specific-pathogen-free domestic shorthaired cats (26 males and 9 females, 1.5-3 y of age) was given an equilibration diet (2 g Na/kg) for 14 d before assignment (or reassignment) to the treatments. A total of 12 cats (8 males, 4 females) was randomly assigned to the lowest six levels of sodium, and four cats to the highest two sodium levels. Cats consuming the diet containing 0.1 g Na/kg had significantly elevated aldosterone concentration in plasma, and packed cell volume. In addition, these cats exhibited anorexia, body weight loss, reduced urinary specific gravity and sodium excretion, and had a negative sodium balance. However, adult cats did not develop polydypsia and polyuria reported in sodium-deficient kittens. Cats given the diet containing 0.66 g Na/kg did not have an increased packed cell volume, but aldosterone concentration in the plasma was significantly elevated. However, cats given diets containing >/=0.8 g Na/kg had plasma aldosterone concentrations =0.7 nmol/L (reference value for sodium-replete cats) and normal packed-cell volumes. A minimal sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance of 0.8 g Na/kg diet (energy density = 22 kJ/g diet) or 0.4 mmol Na. kg body weight-1. d-1 is proposed. (+info)
(4/8106) Lysine deficiency alters diet selection without depressing food intake in rats.
Under states of protein deficiency, the dietary limiting amino acid, rather than protein content, can act as the dietary stimulus to control diet selection. If fact, threonine-deficient rats will alter their diet selection patterns solely on the basis of very small changes (0.009 g/100 g) in the dietary threonine concentration. In these studies, we assessed whether lysine-deficient rats will also alter their diet selection patterns on the basis of small changes in dietary Lys concentration. In all experiments, growing rats were adapted to diets in which the protein fraction (purified amino acids or wheat gluten) was limiting in Lys. They were then given a choice between the adaptation diet (AD) diet and a slightly more deficient diet. Rats that were adapted to a Lys-deficient diet (0.25 g Lys/100 g) selected their AD over diets containing as little as 0.01% less Lys (P < 0.01) within 5 d. To determine how deficient rats must be before they alter their selection patterns, rats were adapted to diets containing various levels of Lys, i.e., 2 levels below the requirement for growth and 2 levels above the requirement for growth, but below the requirement for maximal nitrogen retention. Only rats adapted to diets containing Lys below their requirement for growth selected their AD over a diet containing 0.05% less Lys (P < 0.005). Finally, to determine whether rats will alter their selection to whole protein-based diets, rats were adapted to 25% wheat gluten diets supplemented with 0.03-0.21% Lys. Rats selected the AD over a diet containing as little as 0.09% less supplemental Lys by d 4 of the trial (P < 0.05). We conclude that rats are sensitive to changes as small as 0.01% in dietary Lys concentration, but that sensitivity requires prior adaptation to Lys-deficient diets. (+info)
(5/8106) Divergent effects of intracerebroventricular and peripheral leptin administration on feeding and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats.
Leptin inhibits feeding and decreases body weight. It may act partly by inhibiting hypothalamic neurons that express neuropeptide Y, a powerful inducer of feeding and obesity. These neuropeptide Y neurons express the Ob-Rb leptin receptor and are overactive in the fatty (fa/fa) Zucker rat. The fa mutation affects the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor, but its impact on leptin action and neuropeptide Y neuronal activity is not fully known. We compared the effects of three doses of leptin given intracerebroventricularly and three doses of leptin injected intraperitoneally on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y mRNA, in lean and fatty Zucker rats. In lean rats, 4-h food intake was reduced in a dose-related fashion (P<0.01) by all intracerebroventricular leptin doses and by intraperitoneal doses of 300 and 600 microg/kg. Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were reduced by 28% and 21% after the highest intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal doses respectively (P<0. 01 for both). In fatty rats, only the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose reduced food intake (by 22%; P<0. 01). Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were 100% higher in fatty rats than in lean animals, and were reduced by 18% (P<0.01) after the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose. Intraperitoneal injection had no effect on food intake and neuropeptide Y mRNA. The fa/fa Zucker rat is therefore less sensitive to leptin given intracerebroventricularly and particularly intraperitoneally, suggesting that the fa mutation interferes both with leptin's direct effects on neurons and its transport into the central nervous system. Obesity in the fa/fa Zucker rat may be partly due to the inability of leptin to inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y neurons. (+info)
(6/8106) Evaluation of the chronic toxicity and oncogenicity of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET).
Chronic toxicity and/or oncogenicity studies were conducted in rats, mice, and dogs with the insect repellent DEET. DEET was mixed in the diet and administered to CD rats for two years at concentrations that corresponded to dosage levels of 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg/day for males and 30, 100, or 400 mg/kg/day for females; to CD-1 mice for 18 months at dosage levels of 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day; and to dogs for one year, via gelatin capsules, at dosage levels of 30, 100, or 400 mg/kg/day. In the rodent studies, each group consisted of 60 animals of each sex, and two concurrent independent control groups, each containing 60 animals/sex were included in each study. Each group in the dog study consisted of four male and four female dogs and one control group was included in the study. Treatment-related effects were observed at the highest dose level in all three studies. For rats, the effects included decreases in body weight and food consumption and an increase in serum cholesterol in females only. In mice, the effects observed were decreases in body weight and food consumption in both sexes. The effects observed in dogs included increased incidences of emesis and ptyalism, and levels of transient reduction in hemoglobin and hematocrit, increased alkaline phosphatase (males only), decreased cholesterol, and increased potassium. One male dog in the high-dose group also exhibited ataxia, tremors, abnormal head movements, and/or convulsions on several occasions during the study. The highest no-observed-effect levels (NO-ELs) for rats, mice and dogs were determined to be 100, 500, and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively. No specific target organ toxicity or oncogenicity was observed in any of the studies. (+info)
(7/8106) Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis.
High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake. (+info)
(8/8106) Long term orexigenic effect of a novel melanocortin 4 receptor selective antagonist.
1. We designed and synthesized several novel cyclic MSH analogues and tested their affinities for cells expressing the MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5 receptors. 2. One of the substances HS028 (cyclic [AcCys11, dichloro-D-phenylalanine14, Cys18, Asp-NH2(22)]-beta-MSH11-22) showed high affinity (Ki of 0.95nM) and high (80 fold) MC4 receptor selectivity over the MC3 receptor. HS028 thus shows both higher affinity and higher selectivity for the MC4 receptor compared to the earlier first described MC4 receptor selective substance HS014. 3. HS028 antagonised a alpha-MSH induced increase in cyclic AMP production in transfected cells expressing the MC3 and MC4 receptors, whereas it seemed to be a partial agonist for the MC1 and MC5 receptors. 4. Chronic intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of HS028 by osmotic minipumps significantly increased both food intake and body weight in a dose dependent manner without tachyphylaxis for a period of 7 days. 5. This is the first report demonstrating that an MC4 receptor antagonist can increase food intake and body weight during chronic administration providing further evidence that the MC4 receptor is an important mediator of long term weight homeostasis. (+info)
- Binge eating disorder is a relatively recently recognized disorder and is thought by some to be the most common of the eating disorders. (medicinenet.com)
- Unlike other eating disorders -- such as bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa -- a substantial number of men suffer from binge eating disorder, but it is still more common in women. (medicinenet.com)
- Many people are unaware of male eating disorders , especially when it involves BED, and would not be able to pinpoint the symptoms especially among men," said Dr. Pryor. (wiredprnews.com)
- Established in 2001, Eating Disorder Center of Denver (EDCD) is one of the nation's foremost centers for the diagnosis and treatment of the full range of eating disorders. (wiredprnews.com)
- EDCD is committed to empowering individuals 18 years of age and older suffering with anorexia, bulimia, binge eating and related disorders to help them achieve and sustain recovery. (wiredprnews.com)
- Adolescents who develop bulimia are more likely to come from families with a history of eating disorders, physical illness, and other mental health problems, like mood disorders or substance abuse. (rochester.edu)
- While these eating disorders can be life-threatening and deserve all of the attention they are given, they do not account for the majority of people suffering from eating disorders in this country. (thedietchannel.com)
- Symptoms in young men are being ignored b ecause of a perception that eating disorders are a "women's illness. (guardianlv.com)
- Men are under-diagnosed and under-treated for eating disorders, despite making up about 25 percent of cases, a recent United Kingdom study suggests. (guardianlv.com)
- University of Oxford and University of Glasgow researchers interviewed 39 people aged 16 to 25, including 10 men, about their personal experiences with the diagnosis, treatment and support for eating disorders. (guardianlv.com)
- They found that young men with eating disorders were undertreated. (guardianlv.com)
- They may be aware of the symptoms in women, but do not see it in themselves based on the belief that men do not get eating disorders. (guardianlv.com)
- The researchers note that findings suggest that men ignored symptoms and did not seek help because of the continuing perception that eating disorders as predominantly a female problem. (guardianlv.com)
- Health care personnel need to get better at looking for possible eating disorders in men. (guardianlv.com)
- The image issues leading to eating disorders are generally similar in men and women. (guardianlv.com)
- The research also found that a failure to attain what may be unrealistic body image goals can lead to depression, risky behaviors like drinking and drugs, as well as eating disorders. (guardianlv.com)
- Eating disorders are complex. (guardianlv.com)
- However, creating a greater awareness that eating disorders affect men too might help symptoms being recognized and not ignored. (guardianlv.com)
- Eating Disorders are destructive and can be deadly if left untreated. (eating-disorder-referral.com)
- Kassandra Gratwick-Sarll , Caroline Bentley , Improving Eating Disorders Mental Health Literacy: A Preliminary Evaluation of the "Should I Say Something? (wiley.com)
- Marking anorexia with a brain protein ( Eating disorders are frequently seen. (bio-medicine.org)
- Eating disorders are frequently seen as psychological or societaldis. (bio-medicine.org)
- Eating disorders are frequently seen as psychological or societal diseases, but do they have an underlying biological cause? (bio-medicine.org)
- Now, a study recommended by Cynthia Bulik, a member of Faculty of 1000 Medicine and leading expert in the field of psychiatry and eating disorders, shows that BDNF levels are higher in women who have recovered from anorexia. (bio-medicine.org)
- Whether you or someone you love is entering treatment for the first time, or a relapse occurs, The Meadows Model is unparalleled in producing successful outcomes for recovery and proven vanguard for treating women and girls with eating disorders, dual diagnosis concerns, and the underlying issues they face. (remudaranch.com)
- For over 25 years, our program has been focused on helping women and girls recover from eating disorders , dual diagnosis concerns , and the underlying issues , they face. (remudaranch.com)
- Patients in our care follow a proven timeline designed to help them identify, understand, treat and overcome their eating disorders and negative behaviors. (remudaranch.com)
- Each year millions of people in the United States are affected by serious and sometimes life-threatening eating disorders. (nyhq.org)
- It is suggested that the reason women in this age group are particularly vulnerable to eating disorders is because of their tendency to go on strict diets to achieve an "ideal" figure. (nyhq.org)
- Researchers have found that such stringent dieting can play a key role in triggering eating disorders. (nyhq.org)
- The consequences of eating disorders can be severe - 5 percent to 20 percent of cases of anorexia nervosa leads to death from starvation, cardiac arrest, other medical complications, or suicide. (nyhq.org)
- Increasing awareness of the dangers of eating disorders - sparked by medical studies and extensive media coverage of the illness - has led many people to seek help. (nyhq.org)
- Nevertheless, some people with eating disorders refuse to admit they have a problem and refuse treatment. (nyhq.org)
- To understand eating disorders, researchers have studied the neuroendocrine system, which is made up of a combination of the central nervous and hormonal systems. (nyhq.org)
- Many people with eating disorders also appear to suffer from depression, and is believed that there may be a link between these two disorders. (nyhq.org)
- Biochemical similarities have been discovered between people with eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and patients with OCD frequently have abnormal eating behaviors. (nyhq.org)
- Because eating disorders tend to run in families, and female relatives are the most often affected, genetic factors are believed to play a role in the disorders. (nyhq.org)
- Teens with eating disorders often base how they feel about themselves on how much they weigh and how they look. (alberta.ca)
- How are eating disorders treated? (alberta.ca)
- Treatment for eating disorders includes counselling and sometimes medicines. (alberta.ca)
- Many teens struggle with eating disorders for a long time. (alberta.ca)
- If left untreated, eating disorders can cause serious health problems. (alberta.ca)
amounts of food
- Bingeing, in this situation, is defined as eating much larger amounts of food than would normally be eaten within a short period of time (usually less than 2 hours). (rochester.edu)
- Eats large amounts of food even when not really hungry. (thedietchannel.com)
- People with binge eating disorder (and bulimia) typically consume huge amounts of food at one time - often junk food - to reduce stress and relieve anxiety. (nyhq.org)
- Someone with a binge eating disorder has frequent episodes of binge eating, occurring at least two days a week for six months. (medicinenet.com)
- Binge eating episodes are associated with at least three of the following symptoms. (medicinenet.com)
- Eats much more quickly during binge episodes than during normal eating. (thedietchannel.com)
- Usually eats alone during binge eating episodes, in order to avoid discovery of the disorder. (thedietchannel.com)
- Binge eating disorder is an illness that resembles bulimia nervosa and is characterized by episodes of uncontrolled eating or bingeing. (nyhq.org)
- Individual psychology is also thought to play a role: about 50% of people with binge eating disorder suffer from depression , and it is thought that negative emotions -- anxiety , shame, and guilt -- contribute to out-of-control eating behaviors. (medicinenet.com)
- Eating binges happen at least twice a week for 3 months. (rochester.edu)
- It is also possible that frequent dieting and strange eating patterns can trigger binges in some people. (thedietchannel.com)
- Eating binges occur at least twice a week for three months and may occur as often as several times a day. (nyhq.org)
- You may feel uncomfortably full for a few hours, but you then return to your normal eating pattern. (thedietchannel.com)
- do not stop eating until they are uncomfortably full. (nyhq.org)
disorder treatment center
- The Eating Disorder Referral Directory is designed to assist men and women in locating the best eating disorder treatment center for their unique situation. (eating-disorder-referral.com)
concerning an eating d
- The beliefs of adolescent girls concerning an eating disorder problem were investigated. (wiley.com)
- Finally, for some people, certain medications such as antidepressants can help to treat associated depressive symptoms and in some patients can help regulate the urge to binge eat. (medicinenet.com)
- Partly, this is because the men themselves were unaware that their symptoms, such as purging, not eating for days, over-exercising, using steroids, obsessively counting calories or even binge eating, indicated a possible eating disorder, according to the interviews. (guardianlv.com)
- In addition, participants with a high level of eating disorder symptoms considered the prevalence of BN to be higher, and its symptoms more acceptable, than asymptomatic participants. (wiley.com)
- Many binge eaters say that being angry, sad, bored, worried, or stressed can cause them to binge eat. (thedietchannel.com)
- About 8 million men and women suffer from Binge Eating Disorder (BED), which is nearly three times the amount of those affected by Anorexia and Bulimia. (wiredprnews.com)
- We now know that as many as 4 million Americans suffer from Binge Eating Disorder. (thedietchannel.com)
- However, for those who suffer from Binge Eating Disorder (BED), overeating becomes a way of life. (thedietchannel.com)
- Persons with bulimia nervosa , however, usually purge, fast, or do strenuous exercise after they binge eat. (medicinenet.com)
- A newly recognized condition, those suffering from BED eat more than normal meal portions, feel a loss of control when eating and do not purge after binging. (wiredprnews.com)
- Often, a person with binge eating disorder feels overweight and has a history of trying to lose weight many times. (medicinenet.com)
- In fact, the most common eating disorder is Binge Eating Disorder (BED), which presents itself in normal-weight, overweight, and obese people. (thedietchannel.com)
- Being overweight or obese as a result of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) comes with an increased risk for diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, and some cancers. (thedietchannel.com)
- Anorexia is marked by the refusal to eat and an obsession with thinness. (thedietchannel.com)
- Psychotherapy , such as cognitive behavioral therapy and insight-oriented therapy, can help patients learn to recognize the thoughts and feelings that can trigger binge eating. (medicinenet.com)
- Some self-help strategies such as keeping a journal and meditation can help people to identify and tolerate difficult feelings that can lead to binge eating. (medicinenet.com)
- Often eats alone during periods of normal eating, owing to feelings of embarrassment about food. (thedietchannel.com)
- But there are some feelings and actions that are common with each type of eating disorder. (alberta.ca)
- And it can help teens deal with feelings or situations that may have brought on their eating disorder. (alberta.ca)
- Nutritional counselling can help teens get back to and stay at a healthy weight and learn healthy eating habits. (alberta.ca)
- Binge eating also occurs with another eating disorder, called bulimia nervosa. (medicinenet.com)
- Researchers are actively studying how abnormalities in levels of certain neurochemicals in the brain can contribute to binge eating. (medicinenet.com)
- Many people with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) are obese and their health is at risk. (thedietchannel.com)
- Finally, some preliminary research suggests there is a genetic component to binge eating, since the disorder tends to run in families. (thedietchannel.com)
- Social and cultural factors also likely play a role in binge eating disorder, as food can become a way to show love, get comfort, or even induce guilt. (medicinenet.com)
- With binge eating, however, comes guilt and depression. (nyhq.org)
- They may pull away from family and friends, make excuses not to eat around other people, and lie about their eating habits. (alberta.ca)
- Feels disgusted, depressed, or guilty after binge eating. (thedietchannel.com)
- Family members will work with their loved one so each party can take responsibility for his or her part of the process and break the dysfunctional eating disorder patterns. (remudaranch.com)
- A person with a binge-eating disorder consumes a large amount of food within two hours, and does it often. (medicinenet.com)
- Most of us overeat from time to time, and many people often feel they've eaten more than they should have. (medicinenet.com)
- Binge eating disorder is found in 2 to 5 percent of the general population, and is more often seen in women than men. (nyhq.org)
- Teens who have an eating disorder often strongly deny that they have a problem. (alberta.ca)
- Eat way too much in a short time (called binging), often over a couple of hours or less, on a regular basis. (alberta.ca)
- Binge Eating Disorder (BED) can result in physical, psychological, and social consequences. (thedietchannel.com)
- You are unable to stop eating, even when you are full. (medicinenet.com)
- At times, you find yourself at a party where the food is too good to stop eating, or you're watching a movie, and before you know it, you scarf down an entire bag of chips without even realizing it. (thedietchannel.com)
- Feel out of control and feel like they can't stop eating during a binge. (alberta.ca)
- Feel like they can't stop eating and eat so much that they feel painfully full. (alberta.ca)
- With as many men affected by BED as women, The Eating Disorder Center of Denver (EDCD) aims to offer a treatment program that is accommodating and effective for both genders. (wiredprnews.com)
- To locate a treatment center by state simply click on the state below to search our database of eating disorder clinics across the United States. (eating-disorder-referral.com)
- Our holistic treatment program is based on uncovering and understanding the "whys" of an eating disorder. (remudaranch.com)
- Remuda Ranch at The Meadows in Arizona uses a specialized approach that combines proven medical and clinically intensive treatment to help restore balance to the lives of women and girls struggling with an eating disorder. (remudaranch.com)
- About 2% of all adults in the U.S. (as many as 4 million Americans) have binge eating disorder. (medicinenet.com)
- The phrase "eating disorder" typically brings to mind two different scenarios: anorexia and bulimia. (thedietchannel.com)
- Eats an unusually large amount of food at one time. (thedietchannel.com)
- Teens with this problem eat too much in a short time. (alberta.ca)
- Eat alone because they are embarrassed about how much they eat. (alberta.ca)
- eat large quantities of food. (nyhq.org)
- Many people with binge eating disorder have been on multiple diets. (medicinenet.com)
- An eating disorder is a condition that causes some people to have unhealthy thoughts and behaviours about food and body image. (alberta.ca)
- Are secretive about eating, hide food, or won't eat around other people. (alberta.ca)
- Having a binge eating disorder means being unable to control the amount of food consumed. (medicinenet.com)
- Men with an eating disorder are not getting the help they need. (guardianlv.com)
- Cognitive-behavioural therapy can help teens who have an eating disorder change the way they think about food and the way they view their body. (alberta.ca)
- If you think you have an eating disorder, get help. (alberta.ca)
- Fasting is not eating for at least 24 hours. (medicinenet.com)
- No one should feel embarrassed or ashamed about having an eating disorder. (alberta.ca)
- Probably not: Eating a lot of food does not always mean that a person has an eating problem. (medicinenet.com)
- Teens with this problem limit how much food they eat. (alberta.ca)
- Strenuous exercise, in this case, means exercising for more than an hour just to keep from gaining weight after binge eating. (medicinenet.com)
- Teens with this problem eat too much, too fast. (alberta.ca)
- Remuda Ranch at The Meadows was founded on the belief that complete and lasting recovery from an eating disorder is possible. (remudaranch.com)
- Whether depression causes binge eating disorder or whether binge eating disorder causes depression is not known. (thedietchannel.com)
- Emotions may also play a role, triggering binge eating as a coping mechanism. (thedietchannel.com)
- Every eating disorder is different because every person is different. (remudaranch.com)
- Second, the physical ramifications of binge eating must also be addressed. (thedietchannel.com)
- How Common Is Binge Eating? (medicinenet.com)
- Anorexia is a serious and occasionally fatal eating disorder most comm. (bio-medicine.org)