Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)Early Medical Intervention: Action taken to reduce susceptibility or exposure to health problems and to detect and treat disease in early stages.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Intervention Studies: Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Child, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Education, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.United StatesHealth Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Stanford-Binet Test: An individual intelligence test designed primarily for school children to predict school performance and the ability to adjust to everyday demands.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Family Therapy: A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.Foster Home Care: Families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Education, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.RomaniaMothers: Female parents, human or animal.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Orphanages: Institutions for the housing and care of orphans, foundlings, and abandoned children. They have existed as such since the medieval period but the heading is applicable to such usage also in modern parlance.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Secondary Care: Specialized healthcare delivered as a follow-up or referral from a PRIMARY CARE provider.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Education, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Orthodontics, Interceptive: Recognition and elimination of potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.New South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Schools: Educational institutions.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Great BritainPhysical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Evidence-Based Practice: A way of providing health care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Reactive Attachment Disorder: Markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness that begins before age 5 and is associated with grossly pathological child care. The child may persistently fail to initiate and respond to social interactions in a developmentally appropriate way (inhibited type) or there may be a pattern of diffuse attachments with nondiscriminate sociability (disinhibited type). (From DSM-V)Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.EnglandPatient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.

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*  Exceptional Needs: Early Childhood Special Education/Mild Interventions - Ball State University

This program requires a minimum of 126 credit hours and is located in the Department of Special Education. The introductory ... For more information contact Azar Hadadian, TC 722, or go to the Department of Special Education website. ... Exceptional Needs, Dual Major in Elementary Education--Special Education Exceptional Needs: Early Childhood Special Education/ ...

*  Strength of Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Care and Education Settings: A Systematic Review | Healthy Eating Research

Strength of Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Care and Education Settings: A Systematic Review. ... and policies of early care and education settings that influence children's nutrition, physical activity, and sedentary ... and data suggesting a link between early care and education (ECE) participation and overweight/obesity, obesity prevention in ... and a coding strategy was developed to assess intervention strength based on the hypothesis that more intensive interventions ...

*  Early intervention - Digital Education Resource Archive (DERA)

Digital Education Resource Archive (DERA) is powered by EPrints 3 and is hosted by EPrints Services. ...

*  News | 08/02/16 grant awarded to CEE to evaluate early intervention using phonics | School of Social Sciences, Education and...

The project is an early intervention reading project using phonics to develop reading in Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 in schools ... Major research grant awarded to CEE to evaluate early intervention using phonics to develop reading 8/02/2016 ... Phonics is a whole-school approach for early readers from reception to year two and for children in years three and four who ... The Centre for Effective Education (CEE) and Ruth Miskin Training will team up to examine the impact of two systematic phonics- ...

*  Early Intervention & Preschool Special Education | Washington County, NY - Official Website

Information on the Washington County Early Intervention & Preschool Special Education ... Early Intervention & Preschool Special Education Early Intervention Program. The Early Intervention Program (EI) provides ... More information about the Early Intervention Program can be found at:. www.health.ny.gov/community/infants_children/early_ ... your pediatrician can refer to the Early Intervention Program. As a parent you may also refer your child to the Early ...

*  Synthesis of IES Research on Early Intervention and Early Childhood Education | Early Childhood News Update

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*  Position Statement on Personnel Standards for Early Education and Early Intervention: Call for Feedback | Early Childhood News...

Review the DEC Position Statement on Personnel Standards for Early Education and Early Intervention here. ... We are in the process of revising and updating the Position Statement and Concept Paper on Personnel Standards for Early ... This entry was posted in Call for Papers/Presentations, Uncategorized and tagged Early Childhood Education, Early Intervention ... Position Statement on Personnel Standards for Early Education and Early Intervention: Call for Feedback. Posted on December 10 ...

*  Mount Diablo Unified Community Advisory Committee on Special Education: Early Autism Intervention Can 'Normalize' Brain Activity

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*  0412315300 isbn/isbn13 $$ Compare Prices at 110 Bookstores! Early Intervention Studies for Young Children with Special Needs ...

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*  DEC Recommended Practices : A Comprehensive Guide for Practical Application in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special...

A Comprehensive Guide for Practical Application in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education ISBN13:9780977377220 ... A Comprehensive Guide for Practical Application in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education ...

*  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

early intervention education services. *adult classes that help parents and other caregivers handle problem behaviors or other ... Besides early intervention services and support from your child's school, providing a stable, nurturing, and safe home ... But many things can be done to help a child reach his or her full potential, especially when the condition is diagnosed early ...

*  A Full Life With Autism Tuesday, July 16, 2013

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*  3-K for All Resources - Educators - New York City Department of Education

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*  Steinhardt Researchers Show Diet, Parental Behavior, and Preschool Can Boost Children's IQ

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*  Developmental Science and Preventive Interventions for Child... : Infants & Young Children

The current status of preventive intervention programs designed to reduce the school readiness gap f ... Camilli G., Vargas S., Ryan S., Barnett W. S. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on ... Weikert D. (1988). A perspective in High/Scope's early education research. Early Child Development and Care, 33, 29-40. *Cited ... Interventions to enhance early attachments. In Berlin L. J., Ziv Y., Amaya-Jackson L., Greenberg M. T. (Eds.), Enhancing early ...

*  Fish Oil, Interactive Reading Programs Could Boost Intelligence - Redorbit

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Initiation of early intervention and education is essential to the athlete's recovery. During initial and subsequent contact ... establish guidelines for intervention, and judge whether the intervention is effective in improving dual-task performance. Dual ... Biopsychosocial factors such as age,32 gender,33,34 headache,35 education level,36 learning disability/attention deficit ... Physical Activity Tolerance Intervention. After medical clearance is obtained, and using the HRT determined from the steps ...

*  Responding to the Needs of LGBT Homeless Youth | Human Rights Campaign

HYP identified three main themes to effectively end youth homelessness: prevention and early intervention, education, and ...

*  SpecialKids search results, filtered by Camps, Learning disability / ADHD, Evaluation

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*  Facing Autism in New Brunswick: CASDA National Autism Strategy Is Not A REAL National Autism Strategy: It Does Not Help...

If you ask for help with early intervention, education and adult residential care they will quickly wipe their hands saying ... It should embrace the efforts for a real national contribution to autistic early intervention, education and adult residential ... I recommend that this organization stop pretending and start getting serious about helping with early intervention, education, ... Our efforts in education also resulted in the autism specific education of more than 500 education assistants and resource ...

School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Online patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical): __FORCETOC__Special education in the United Kingdom: 'Special Educational Needs' is an umbrella term for an aspect of UK school education focusing on students primarily with learning difficulties and/or disability. In school documents, it is abbreviated to 'SEN' / 'SEND' – these abbreviations are also used in Commonwealth countries such as Australia and Singapore.Developmental Disability (California): In California, Developmental Disabilitymeans a disability that is attributable to mental retardation], [[cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism, or disabling conditions found to be closely related to mental retardation or to require treatment similar to that required for individuals with mental retardation.David Rees Griffiths: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingStandard evaluation frameworkDJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Family aggregation: Family aggregation, also known as familial aggregation, is the clustering of certain traits, behaviors, or disorders within a given family. Family aggregation may arise because of genetic or environmental similarities.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Salvador Minuchin: Salvador Minuchin (born 1921) is a family therapist born and raised in San Salvador, Entre Ríos, Argentina. He developed structural family therapy, which addresses problems within a family by charting the relationships between family members, or between subsets of family (Minuchin, 1974).Kitten Rescue: Kitten Rescue is a nonprofit, all volunteer 501(c)(3) charity that operates one of the largest kitten and cat welfare and adoption centers in Los Angeles, California. The organization was founded in the spring of 1997, and aims to find loving homes for unwanted and abandoned cats and kittens, as well as to help Los Angeles become a no-kill city.Atlantic University: Atlantic University is private, distance education institution of higher and continuing education in Virginia Beach, Virginia. It is associated with Edgar Cayce's Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.Community mental health service: Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as Community Mental Health Teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum). The array of community mental health services vary depending on the country in which the services are provided.Bio Base EuropeParent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Eco-Runner Team Delft: Eco-Runner Team DelftLocal Health BoardIncremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.AIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.Hinduism in Romania: There is relatively little history of active practice of Hinduism in Romania, although many prominent Romanian thinkers have had an interest in Hindu thought, and since the Romanian Revolution of 1989 there have been some converts.Mothers TalkNational Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Cancer screeningHalfdan T. MahlerPorter-Leath: Porter-Leath, formerly known as the Children's Bureau, is a non-profit organization based in Memphis, Tennessee that serves children and families in the area. Porter-Leath was founded in 1850 as an orphanage and has since grown to six program service areas.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Adult interaction with infants: When adults come into contact with infants, it is unlikely that they would be able to have a proper conversation, as the infant would not know enough about pop culture or general knowledge to create a stimulating conversation for the adult. Also, the adult may not understand baby-language and cannot relate to their situation properly.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Nihon UniversityReferral (medicine): In medicine, referral is the transfer of care for a patient from one clinician to another.García Olmos L, Gervas Camacho J, Otero A, Pérez Fernández M.Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.McKenzie method: The McKenzie method (also MDT = Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy) is a comprehensive method of care primarily used in physical therapy.Madrasi chess: Madrasi chess is a chess variant invented in 1979 by Abdul Jabbar Karwatkar which uses the conventional rules of chess with the addition that when a piece is attacked by a piece of the same type but opposite colour (for example, a black queen attacking a white queen) it is paralysed and becomes unable to move, capture or give check. Most of the time, two like pieces attack each other mutually, meaning they are both paralysed (en passant pawn captures are an exception to this, since the attack is not mutual.Feasibility Study (The Outer Limits): "Feasibility Study" is an episode of The Outer Limits television show. It was first broadcast on 11 July 1997, during the third season.National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.Substance-related disorder

(1/257) Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems: I. The high-risk sample. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model, intervention included a universal-level classroom program plus social skills training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. At the end of Grade 1, there were moderate positive effects on children's social, emotional, and academic skills; peer interactions and social status; and conduct problems and special-education use. Parents reported less physical discipline and greater parenting satisfaction/ease of parenting and engaged in more appropriate/consistent discipline, warmth/positive involvement, and involvement with the school. Evidence of differential intervention effects across child gender, race, site, and cohort was minimal.  (+info)

(2/257) Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems: II. Classroom effects. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

This study examined the effectiveness of the universal component of the Fast Track prevention model: the PATHS (Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies) curriculum and teacher consultation. This randomized clinical trial involved 198 intervention and 180 comparison classrooms from neighborhoods with greater than average crime in 4 U.S. locations. In the intervention schools, Grade 1 teachers delivered a 57-lesson social competence intervention focused on self-control, emotional awareness, peer relations, and problem solving. Findings indicated significant effects on peer ratings of aggression and hyperactive-disruptive behavior and observer ratings of classroom atmosphere. Quality of implementation predicted variation in assessments of classroom functioning. The results are discussed in terms of both the efficacy of universal, school-based prevention models and the need to examine comprehensive, multiyear programs.  (+info)

(3/257) Evaluation of antecedent stimulus parameters for the treatment of escape-maintained aberrant behavior.

We evaluated a methodology for identifying the range of stimulus features of antecedent stimuli associated with aberrant behavior in demand contexts in natural settings. For each participant, an experimental analysis of antecedents (Phase 1) was conducted to confirm the hypothesis that task instructions occasioned increases in aberrant behavior. During Phase 2, specific stimulus features associated with the presentation of task instructions were assessed by evaluating the child's behavior across two distinct settings, therapists, and types of tasks in a sequential fashion. Aberrant behavior occurred immediately across settings and therapists, presumably because the presence of a discriminative stimulus for escape-maintained behavior (the delivery of a task instruction) occasioned aberrant behavior. However, aberrant behavior decreased initially across tasks, suggesting that familiarity with the task might be a variable. During Phase 3, an experimental (functional) analysis of consequences was conducted with 2 participants to verify that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement. During Phase 4, a treatment package that interspersed play with task instructions was conducted to disrupt the ongoing occurrence of aberrant behavior. Immediate and durable treatment effects occurred for 2 of the 3 participants.  (+info)

(4/257) Brief report: cautions against using the Stanford-Binet-IV to classify high-risk preschoolers.

OBJECTIVE: To explore concurrent and predictive validity of the Stanford-Binet: Fourth Edition (SB-IV) by comparing scores on the SB-IV with scores from the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) and later achievement scores in preschoolers at risk due to very low birthweight, and/or intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and other medical complications. METHODS: At ages 3,4, and 5, 92 preschoolers were tested with the SB-IV and BDI as part of an 8-year early intervention follow-up. RESULTS: The SB-IV and BDI concurrent correlations at ages 3, 4, and 5 were statistically significant (r = .73-.78, p < .0001), as were predictive correlations (r = .58-.85, p < .0001). However, the BDI and SB-IV failed to place the children in the same categories for intervention services. With the BDI as the comparison measure, SB-IV failed to detect 87% of the children who were "delayed" (by BDI) at age 3 and 50% of the "delayed" children at age 5. CONCLUSIONS: Caution is recommended when using the SB-IV to assess high risk for early intervention eligibility.  (+info)

(5/257) Vaccination coverage among children enrolled in Head Start programs or day care facilities or entering school.

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Undervaccinated children enrolled in day care centers and schools are vulnerable to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. A Healthy People 2000 objective is to increase to > or = 95% vaccination coverage among children attending licensed day care facilities and kindergarten through postsecondary school (objective 20.11). REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: September 1997-June 1998. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: CDC's National Immunization Program administers grants to support 64 vaccination programs. These programs are in all 50 states, eight territories or jurisdictions (American Samoa, Republic of Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, Republic of Palau, and the U.S. Virgin Islands), five cities (Chicago, Houston, San Antonio, New York City, and Philadelphia), and the District of Columbia. Grant guidelines require annual school vaccination surveys and biennial surveys of Head Start programs and licensed day care facilities. This system constitutes the only source of nationally representative vaccination coverage estimates for these populations. RESULTS: Head Start Programs: Of the 64 reporting areas, 33 (51.6%) submitted coverage levels for children enrolled in Head Start programs. Of these, all 33 programs reported coverage levels for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine (DTP), diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT), or tetanus toxoids (Td), poliovirus vaccine, and measles vaccine; and 32 reported coverage levels for mumps and rubella vaccines. Four programs reported coverage levels for the combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR). The mean vaccination coverage levels for the 1997-98 school year among the reporting vaccination programs were 97.8% for poliovirus vaccine (range: 80.0%-100.0%), 97.0% for DTP/DT/Td (range: 87.7%-100.0%), 93.3% for measles vaccine (range: 91.4%-100.0%), and 93.2% for mumps and rubella vaccines (range: 91.4%-100.0%). Licensed Day Care Facilities: Of the 63 reporting areas with licensed day care facilities, 38 (60.3%) submitted coverage levels for enrolled children. Of these, all 38 programs reported coverage levels for poliovirus vaccine and DTP/DT/Td, 37 reported coverage levels for measles vaccine, and 36 reported coverage levels for mumps and rubella vaccines. Four programs reported coverage levels for the combined MMR. The mean vaccination coverage levels among the reporting areas were 95.8% for poliovirus vaccine (range: 85.1%-99.8%), 95.7% for DTP/DT/Td (range: 77.6%-99.9%), 89.1% for measles vaccine (range: 78.0%-99.9%), and 89.1% for mumps and rubella vaccines (range: 78.0%-99.9%). Kindergarten/First Grade: Of the 64 reporting areas, 43 (67.2%) submitted coverage levels for children enrolled in kindergarten and first grade. Of these 43 programs, 42 reported coverage levels for poliovirus vaccine and DTP/DT/Td, and 43 reported coverage levels for measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines. Four of the 43 programs reported coverage levels for the combined MMR. The mean vaccination coverage levels among the reporting areas were 96.7% for poliovirus vaccine (range: 82.8%-99.9%), 96.7% for DTP/DT/Td (range: 82.8%-99.8%), 96.0% for measles vaccine (range: 82.8%-99.9%), and 96.5% for mumps and rubella vaccines (range: 82.8%-99.9%). INTERPRETATION: High levels of vaccination coverage among children entering school most likely result from the successful implementation of state-specific school vaccination laws, which have applied to children entering school in all states and the District of Columbia since at least 1990. All states, territories, and the District of Columbia have additional laws that require vaccination of children in licensed day care facilities. However, because a high proportion of states and territories did not submit vaccination coverage reports to CDC, these estimated means may not reflect levels for all children in the United States.  (+info)

(6/257) Merging universal and indicated prevention programs: the Fast Track model. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model, this intervention includes a universal-level classroom program plus social-skill training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. The theoretical principles and clinical strategies utilized in the Fast Track Project are described to illustrate the interplay between basic developmental research, the understanding of risk and protective factors, and a research-based model of preventive intervention that integrates universal and indicated models of prevention.  (+info)

(7/257) A preschool program for safety and injury prevention delivered by home visitors.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of an injury prevention program delivered by school based home visitors to the families of low income children attending preschool enrichment programs in Washington State. STUDY SAMPLE: The families of children attending preschool Head Start programs in two regions were eligible. A total of 213 families (77.8% of those eligible) from intervention sites, and 149 families (71.9% of those eligible) from concurrent comparison sites, agreed to participate and completed the trial. INTERVENTION: Trained school personnel conducted home safety inspections as part of a planned home visit. Intervention families were offered educational materials as well as smoke detectors, batteries, ipecac, and age appropriate car safety restraints based on results of the home inspection. EVALUATION METHODS: At a repeat home visit three months later, the proportion of families with a positive change in injury prevention knowledge or behavior among those in the intervention group was compared with the proportion in the comparison group. Smoke detector presence and function were observed. RESULTS: Among families without a working smoke detector at baseline, the intervention was associated with an increased probability of having a working detector at follow up (relative risk (RR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 8.6). Intervention families were also more likely to report the presence of ipecac in the home (RR 4.7, 95% CI 3.0 to 7.3) at follow up and to have obtained an age appropriate booster seat (RR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 8.8). The program was acceptable to client families and to the home visitors who conducted the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Among the families of low income children enrolled in preschool enrichment programs, home safety inspections and the distribution of safety supplies by school based home visitors appears to improve knowledge and behavior related to poisoning, smoke detector installation, and car safety seat use over three months of follow up.  (+info)

(8/257) Relationship of therapists' attitudes, children's motor ability, and parenting stress to mothers' perceptions of therapists' behaviors during early intervention.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Federal law mandates family-centered care as the service delivery model in early intervention programs for children from birth to 36 months of age. This study investigated the relationship of therapists' attitudes, children's motor ability, and parenting stress to mothers' perceptions of physical therapists' family-centered behaviors during early intervention. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five physical therapists and 75 mother-child dyads (3 from each therapist's caseload) participated. The mean chronological age for the children was 21.2 months (SD=7.3, range=6-35). Mothers participated in a structured interview using the Measures of Processes of Care (MPOC-56), and they completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) and a questionnaire. The Bayley-II Motor Scale was administered to the children. Therapists completed a modified version of the Measures of Processes of Care for Service Providers (MPOC-SP) and a questionnaire. RESULTS: Scores for mothers on the MPOC-56 and for therapists on the MPOC-SP indicated strong positive perceptions and attitudes toward family-centered behaviors. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that parenting stress explained a considerable amount of the variance in mothers' perceptions of family-centered behaviors, whereas therapists' attitudes explained a considerable amount of the variance in mothers' perceptions of respectful and supportive care. Children's motor ability was inversely related to parenting stress. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that mothers perceive that physical therapists are using family-centered behaviors in early intervention. Findings from the questionnaires suggest that some early intervention policies may be barriers for therapists and prevent them from actualizing attitudes toward family-centered behaviors.  (+info)

blind and visually impaired students

  • In preparation for the reauthorization, blind national organizations including the American Foundation for the Blind decided to be proactive and develop a list of recommended amendments to ensure needed quality of services and education for blind and visually impaired students. (nad.org)
  • The Hadley School for the Blind offers over tuition-free distance education courses to blind and visually impaired students. (acb.org)

Individuals wit

  • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act was first enacted as "Education for All Handicapped Children Act" also known as Public Law 94-142 in 1975 out of the concern that only one in five children with disabilities received education from U.S. schools and that many states had laws excluding students with certain disabilities, including those who were deaf, blind, emotionally disturbed, or intellectually challenged. (nad.org)
  • In summary, the Cogswell- Sullivan Macy Act will enhance the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act to better meet the needs of students who are deaf, hard of hearing, deafblind blind, or visually impaired. (nad.org)
  • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a federal law that requires schools to serve the educational needs of eligible students with disabilities. (spps.org)


  • About 686,000 students with disabilities (SWDs) receive special education services in California, comprising about 10 percent of the state's public school enrollment. (ca.gov)
  • Specific learning disabilities-including dyslexia-are the most common diagnoses requiring special education services (affecting about 4 percent of all K-12 students), followed by speech and language impairments. (ca.gov)
  • Federal law only requires schools to provide special education services to students with diagnosed disabilities that interfere with their educational attainment. (ca.gov)
  • Works to improve the educational outcome of students with disabilities, has information on educational opportunities, and hosts ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) clearinghouse on disabilities and gifted education information. (acb.org)
  • Ensure that all children with disabilities have access to a free and appropriate public education (FAPE), just like their peers. (spps.org)
  • Assist states in the implementation of a statewide, systems of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families. (spps.org)


  • About One in Ten California Students Receives Special Education Services. (ca.gov)
  • Central/northern California no-cost home-based early intervention, giving support and advocacy to families, and in-service training and consultation for professionals. (acb.org)


  • To determine a student's need and eligibility for special education, schools must conduct a formal evaluation process. (ca.gov)


  • Special Education Services Vary Based on Individual Student Needs. (ca.gov)
  • If schools determine that general education programs cannot adequately meet a disabled student's needs, they develop Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) to define the additional services the school will provide. (ca.gov)
  • Special education uses special instructional methods and, when needed, special services from a speech clinician, school social worker and other specialists to meet the individual needs of a child with a disability. (spps.org)
  • If the evaluation results show and the team determines that the child does indeed have a disability and has special education needs, an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) is created and will be based off of the evaluation. (spps.org)

provide special education services

  • Ensure that schools provide special education services in the child's Least Restrictive Environment (LRE). (spps.org)


  • This program requires a minimum of 126 credit hours and is located in the Department of Special Education. (bsu.edu)
  • For more information contact Azar Hadadian , TC 722, or go to the Department of Special Education website . (bsu.edu)
  • In addition to these organizations, contact your state education department for early intervention and childhood learning enhancement information. (acb.org)


  • Special education is the "catch-all" term that encompasses the specialized services that schools provide for disabled students. (ca.gov)
  • This report provides a comprehensive review of special education-conveying information on applicable laws, affected students, services, funding, and student outcomes. (ca.gov)
  • Although federal law encourages schools to educate disabled students in mainstream settings, most (about three-quarters) of special education services are delivered in settings other than regular classrooms. (ca.gov)
  • In General, the State Uses a Regional Structure to Organize Special Education. (ca.gov)
  • Because economies of scale often improve both programmatic outcomes and cost-effectiveness, special education funding and some services are administered regionally by 127 Special Education Local Plan Areas (SELPAs) rather than by the approximately 1,000 school districts in the state. (ca.gov)
  • The Excess Costs Associated With Providing Special Education Services Are Supported by Federal, State, and Local Funds. (ca.gov)
  • Because federal and state special education funds typically are not sufficient to cover the costs of all IEP-required services, however, schools spend from their local unrestricted general funds to make up the difference. (ca.gov)
  • In 2010-11, special education expenditures totaled $8.6 billion. (ca.gov)
  • State special education categorical funds covered the largest share of these costs (43 percent), combined with spending from local general purpose funds (39 percent) and federal special education funds (18 percent). (ca.gov)
  • Over the past several years, a combination of increasing special education costs and relatively flat state and federal special education funding has resulted in local budgets covering an increasing share of these costs. (ca.gov)
  • Here, we provide you with the latest publications from NASET to read and download, as well as some of the most interesting issues that have happened this week in the field of special education. (naset.org)
  • Why are special education students more scarce in charter schools than in regular public schools in Pennsylvania? (naset.org)
  • It merits serious investigation, some special education advocates say. (naset.org)
  • If not for two charters with very high percentages of special education students, the low special ed enrollment rate at Pennsylvania charter schools would have been even lower. (naset.org)
  • Offers a children's special education school, residential living center, infant-family program and day camping in the Los Angeles area. (acb.org)
  • Publishes a NAPSEC Member Programs list containing links to private special education schools throughout the United States and a free referral service. (acb.org)
  • When a parent is concerned that their child may have a disability and is not making expected progress in development or in school the parent can also request that an evaluation be done by specialists in special education. (spps.org)
  • A child must meet certain requirements when tested to be able to receive special education services. (spps.org)
  • What is special education? (spps.org)
  • Who is eligible to receive special education services? (spps.org)
  • Not every child who appears to struggle in school will receive special education services under IDEA. (spps.org)
  • IDEA lists 13 different disability categories under which 3-21-year-olds may be eligible for special education and related services. (spps.org)
  • How do I find out if my child is eligible to receive special education services? (spps.org)
  • If the evaluation results show and the team determines that the child "not eligible" to receive special education services, under IDEA, the school system must tell the parent(s) in writing and explain why your child has been found "not eligible," as well as provide you with information about what you can do if you disagree with the decision. (spps.org)


  • Most SELPAs are collaborative consortia of nearby districts, county offices of education (COEs), and charter schools, although some large districts have formed their own independent SELPAs, and three SELPAs consist of only charter schools. (ca.gov)
  • Rationale: Due to the above issues with tracking and evaluation and other factors, the majority of deaf and blind children are falling in the cracks and are not receiving access to education nor language, and at the very same time, many schools established to focus on deaf and blind education are struggling to keep their doors open. (nad.org)


  • It is important to note that most SWDs require less severe, less costly services, whereas some students require intensive interventions that cost notably more than $22,300 per year. (ca.gov)


  • The Alliance for Parental Involvement in Education assists and encourages parental involvement in education whether in school, private school, or at home. (acb.org)
  • NCPIE's mission is to advocate the involvement of parents and families in their children's education, and to foster relationships between home, school, and community to enhance the education of all our nation's young people. (acb.org)
  • The request for an evaluation can be made by the parent, the school, therapist, or other individual(s) who are involved in the education or care of the student. (spps.org)
  • Being that your child was evaluated and continues to show concerns, meeting with the teacher and other school personnel can help to determine what can be done within the regular education classroom to address the concerns further. (spps.org)


  • An organization which renders support and assistance to professionals in all phases of education and rehabilitation of blind and visually impaired children and adults. (acb.org)