Dystocia: Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.Placenta, Retained: A placenta that fails to be expelled after BIRTH of the FETUS. A PLACENTA is retained when the UTERUS fails to contract after the delivery of its content, or when the placenta is abnormally attached to the MYOMETRIUM.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Freemartinism: A condition occurring in the female offspring of dizygotic twins (TWIN, DIZYGOTIC) in a mixed-sex pregnancy, usually in CATTLE. Freemartinism can occur in other mammals. When placental fusion between the male and the female FETUSES permits the exchange of fetal cells and fetal hormones, TESTICULAR HORMONES from the male fetus can androgenize the female fetus producing a sterile XX/XY chimeric "female"(CHIMERISM).Uterine Inertia: Failure of the UTERUS to contract with normal strength, duration, and intervals during childbirth (LABOR, OBSTETRIC). It is also called uterine atony.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Labor Presentation: The position or orientation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR, determined by its relation to the SPINE of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the NECK.Pelvimetry: Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Trial of Labor: Allowing a woman to be in LABOR, OBSTETRIC long enough to determine if vaginal birth may be anticipated.Fetal Distress: A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.Breech Presentation: A malpresentation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR with the fetal cephalic pole in the fundus of the UTERUS. There are three types of breech: the complete breech with flexed hips and knees; the incomplete breech with one or both hips partially or fully extended; the frank breech with flexed hips and extended knees.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.Menstruation-Inducing Agents: Chemical compounds that induce menstruation either through direct action on the reproductive organs or through indirect action by relieving another condition of which amenorrhea is a secondary result. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.

*  Shoulder Dystocia | Trident Health System

Learn more about Shoulder Dystocia at Trident Health System DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSigns and ... Dystocia is a term used to describe the difficult delivery of a baby. In shoulder dystocia, the baby's head can be delivered, ... Shoulder dystocia cannot be prevented. Babies who are at risk of shoulder dystocia because of large size can be evaluated prior ... After shoulder dystocia is diagnosed, your doctor will go through a series of maneuvers to attempt to dislodge the baby's ...
tridenthealthsystem.com/hl/?/223418/&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1

*  How to manage Dystocia calves - Cowsmo Cowsmo

Dystocia is defined as delayed or difficult parturition. General causes are fetal-maternal size mismatch, fetal mal- ... Dystocia by the numbers. Jason Lombard, DVM, MS and Garry completed a dystocia study (Journal of Dairy Science, 2007) and found ... How to manage Dystocia calves. Geni Wren, Bovine Veterinarian Magazine Dystocia is defined as delayed or difficult parturition ... Calves having mild dystocia were less likely to survive to 30 days than calves born unassisted. "Severe dystocia affects calf ...
cowsmo.com/articles/manage-dystocia-calves-2/

*  Cervical dilation at the time of cesarean section for dystocia - effect on subsequent trial of labor - ABILDGAARD - 2012 - Acta...

Women who had a trial of labor after a prior cesarean section for dystocia done late in labor and women with a vaginal delivery ... Objective. To investigate the effect of cervical dilation at the time of cesarean section due to dystocia and success in a ... The success rate for vaginal birth among women with prior cesarean section for dystocia at 4-8 cm dilation was 39%, but 59% for ... Adam Korrick Lewkowitz, Sanae Nakagawa, Mari-Paule Thiet, Melissa Greer Rosenstein, Effect of stage of initial labor dystocia ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/aogs.12023/full?globalMessage=0

*  Dystocia | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org

There can be many types of dystocia which include shoulder dystocia cervical dystocia pelvic dystocia ... The term dystocia in obstetrics means a 'difficult birth' ... The term dystocia in obstetrics means a "difficult birth". ... MR imaging pelvimetry: a useful adjunct in the treatment of women at risk for dystocia? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179 (1): 137- ... Soft tissue and pelvic dystocia. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1987;30 (1): 69-76. - Pubmed citation. ...
https://radiopaedia.org/articles/dystocia

*  ceriteraceria: Shoulder Dystocia - Erb's Palsy Part 4

Shoulder Dystocia - Erb's Palsy Part 4 Lagi 12 hari genap 11 bulan umur Faiqah. Cepat sungguh masa berlalu. Terbaru mengenai ...
oneadda.blogspot.com/2014/04/shoulder-dystocia-erbs-palsy-part-4.html?widgetType=BlogArchive&widgetId=BlogArchive1&action=toggle&dir=open&toggle=MONTHLY-1312128000000&toggleopen=MONTHLY-1396281600000

*  A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term

Labour dystocia is defined as a slow or difficult labour or childbirth. According to Kjaergaard et al. [10] the term 'dystocia ... The total cohort comprised 2652 nulliparous women, among whom 985 (37.1%) met the protocol criteria for dystocia. Results: ... Additional research on this topic would be beneficial, including further evaluation of the criteria for labour dystocia. ... Background: Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal ...
https://dspace.mah.se/handle/2043/15894

*  word-poem:\\dystocia | Word Poems

dystocia: a prolonged or difficult labor or delivery Why is war? The child kills time for fifty years, trapped among mirrors ... The child was formed by dystocia. She learns. to wear women's undergarments, undergoes. a tummy tuck. She hesitates, then ...
https://risapoemaday.wordpress.com/2011/07/14/word-poemdystocia/

*  Dystocia | Calfology

Managing the dystocia calf. Submitted by Dan Van Arsdall on Mon, Jan 23 @ 10am Dystocia is defined as delayed or difficult ... Special Care for the Dystocia Calf Submitted by Dan Van Arsdall on Mon, Jan 23 @ 10am * Calving difficulty, sometimes called ... Meyers et al reported that 50% of still-births were a direct result of dystocia. ... dystocia, affects between 13 to 15 % of Holstein calves.. * 48-hour survival rates drop drastically for calves when deliveries ...
calfology.com/library/tag/dystocia?page=2

*  "Observation of dystocia in wild elk" by Chad P. Lehman, Lowell E. Schmitz et al.

Our visual observations indicated that it took approximately 4 days for a radio-collared cow elk to succumb to dystocia in our ... Little is known about dystocia in wild elk populations, and our observation provides some insight about fetal malpresentations. ... In 2011, one of 34 (3%) pregnant cow elk in our study experienced dystocia during birth. ... incidence of dystocia in wild elk (Cervus elaphus) across the west is rare. ...
scholarsarchive.byu.edu/wnan/vol72/iss2/14/

*  How to manage dystocia calves | Bovine Vet Online

Dystocia is defined as delayed or difficult parturition. General causes are fetal-maternal size mismatch, fetal malpresentation ... Dystocia by the numbers. Jason Lombard, DVM, MS and Garry completed a dystocia study (Journal of Dairy Science, 2007) and found ... Calves having mild dystocia were less likely to survive to 30 days than calves born unassisted. "Severe dystocia affects calf ... Treat every calf that was exposed to dystocia as a compromised calf. Garry says in his dystocia study, "Perhaps some of the ...
bovinevetonline.com/news/industry/How-to-manage-dystocia-calves-185378352.html?page=2

*  Shoulder Dystocia and Birth Injury: Prevention and Treatment, Book by James A. O'Leary (Paperback) | chapters.indigo.ca

Buy the Paperback Book Shoulder Dystocia and Birth Injury by James A. O'Leary at Indigo.ca, Canada's largest bookstore. + Get ... Shoulder Dystocia and Birth Injury: Prevention and Treatment. EditorJames A. O'Leary. Paperback , November 5, 2010. ... Title:Shoulder Dystocia and Birth Injury: Prevention and TreatmentFormat:PaperbackDimensions:325 pages, 9.25 × 6.1 × 0 in ... Customer Reviews of Shoulder Dystocia and Birth Injury: Prevention and Treatment. Write a Review. (not you?) ...
https://chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/shoulder-dystocia-and-birth-injury/9781617379277-item.html

*  Risks Associated with Shoulder Dystocia-Brachial Plexus Injuries - Cloth Diapers & Parenting Community - DiaperSwappers.com

Risks Associated with Shoulder Dystocia-Brachial Plexus Injuries Moms of Many or Multiples ... Risks Associated with Shoulder Dystocia-Brachial Plexus Injuries Thought I'd post this on this forum too, as some of us are ... Re: Risks Associated with Shoulder Dystocia-Brachial Plexus Injuries Good post! Your son will be in my thoughts.. My daughter ... Re: Risks Associated with Shoulder Dystocia-Brachial Plexus Injuries Yeah, we are an hour outside of Philadelphia, so we go to ...
diaperswappers.com/forum/showthread.php?p=15908590

*  Erbs palsy lawyers, brachial plexus palsy, shoulder dystocia - medical malpractice attorneys

Erb's palsy, Palsy, or Shoulder Dystocia occurs when excessive lateral traction is applied to the fetal neck region during ...
medical-malpractice-lawyers-attorneys.com/erbs_palsy_lawyers.html

*  Birth Injury - Shoulder Dystocia with Brachial Plexus Injury Caused by Sacrum : Medical Exhibit

Birth Injury - Shoulder Dystocia with Brachial Plexus Injury. This medical exhibit pictures a lesser known cause of shoulder ... bad baby, brachial plexus injury, fetal shoulder dystocia, fetal shoulder entrapment trauma, neuropathy birth injury, pubic ... In this case, the baby's left shoulder is caught behind the mother's sacrum instead of the typical shoulder dystocia injury ... dystocia, or brachial plexus injury, during normal vaginal delivery. ...
ebsco.smartimagebase.com/birth-injury-shoulder-dystocia-with-brachial-plexus-injury-caused-by-sacrum/view-item?ItemID=1229

*  Anyone had previous shoulder dystocia & large baby- did you doctor suggest c-section? - Cloth Diapers & Parenting Community -...

Anyone had previous shoulder dystocia & large baby- did you doctor suggest c-section? Pregnancy ... My 7th baby had dystocia and she was only 8pounds 14 ounces. My ob said that would have no bearing on my next delivery even if ... I would not consent to a section because of previous dystocia or large baby. All my babies have been average weight. No clue ... It wasn't till after his c-section that I learned that moms who experience a shoulder dystocia have a 7x GREATER chance of ...
diaperswappers.com/forum/showthread.php?t=1465430

*  Anyone had previous shoulder dystocia & large baby- did you doctor suggest c-section? - Page 3 - Cloth Diapers & Parenting...

Anyone had previous shoulder dystocia & large baby- did you doctor suggest c-section? Pregnancy ... Risk Factors for Shoulder Dystocia That May Be Associated with Prior Pregnancies:. A history of shoulder dystocia during a ... My first son also 'turtled' a lot (doctors say another sign of a shoulder dystocia). Meaning he went up and down, up and down, ... But they never seemed to acknowledge that there could be much worse outcomes with a dystocia. Green Baby Bottoms. Exactly what ...
diaperswappers.com/forum/showthread.php?p=15969504

*  Brachial Plexus Injuries-Be Informed Of the Risks Associated with Shoulder Dystocias - Cloth Diapers & Parenting Community -...

Brachial Plexus Injuries-Be Informed Of the Risks Associated with Shoulder Dystocias Labor, Delivery & Postpartum ... Brachial Plexus injuries often happen at birth as a result of a shoulder dystocia. When babies become stuck, they are often ... Please be informed about your risks of experiencing shoulder dystocia and do your best to minimize those. Talk with your care ... Brachial Plexus Injuries-Be Informed Of the Risks Associated with Shoulder Dystocias ...
diaperswappers.com/forum/showthread.php?p=15867050

Shoulder dystociaFriesian horsePrenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Lower segment Caesarean section: A lower (uterine) segment Caesarean section (LSCS) is the most commonly used type of Caesarean section used today. It includes a transverse cut just above the edge of the bladder and results in less blood loss and is easier to repair than other types of Caesarean sections.Williamsoceras: Williamsoceras is an endocerid that Rousseau Flower (1968) added to his Allotrioceratidae (Flower 1955) on the basis of having a vertical partition within the siphuncle, known as a ventral process, with inter-connecting tubule-like structures along its margin where intercepted by endocones. Three species are named and described (Flower 1968) from the Garden City limestone of Whiterockian age near Logan and northern Utah, including the genotype Williamsoceras adnatum.Labor inductionPlant breedingTranscutaneous pacing: Transcutaneous pacing (also called external pacing) is a temporary means of pacing a patient's heart during a medical emergency. It is accomplished by delivering pulses of electric current through the patient's chest, which stimulates the heart to contract.Birth weight: Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.Definitions from Georgia Department of Public Health.Fetal distressFloating breech: A floating breech is a breechblock of a firearm that is not held rigidly to the barrel at the moment of firing, but instead is free to move in the opposite direction to the projectile. This can help to reduce the recoil induced in the body of the firearm so long as the subsequent motion of the breechblock is retarded in some manner - either by a spring, or by back-pressure against a piston attached to the breechblock provided by tapping the expelled propellant gases.Nordli's Cabinet: Nordli's Cabinet governed Norway between 15 January 1976 and 4 February 1981. The Labour Party cabinet was led by Odvar Nordli.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Birth trauma (physical)Obstetric labor complicationNonstress testThe Unscrambler: The Unscrambler® X is a commercial software product for multivariate data analysis, used for calibration of multivariate data which is often in the application of analytical data such as near infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, and development of predictive models for use in real-time spectroscopic analysis of materials. The software was originally developed in 1986 by Harald MartensHarald Martens, Terje Karstang, Tormod Næs (1987) Improved selectivity in spectroscopy by multivariate calibration Journal of Chemometrics 1(4):201-219 and later by CAMO Software.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Twin reversed arterial perfusionInternational Association of Plastics DistributorsFetal viability: Fetal viability or foetal viability is the ability of a fetus to survive outside the uterus.Moore, Keith and Persaud, T.

(1/169) Effects of twinning on gestation length, retained placenta, and dystocia.

Constraints to maximal productivity from twinning in beef cattle include increased incidence of dystocia and retained placenta, longer postpartum interval, and lower conception rate. Incidence and cause(s) of the shorter gestation length and of the increased retained placenta and dystocia associated with twinning were evaluated for 3,370 single and 1,014 twin births produced in a population of cattle selected for natural twin births. Gestation length was shorter for twin than for single pregnancies (275.6 vs. 281.3 d, P<.01) and likely contributed to the higher incidence of retained placenta associated with twin births (27.9 vs. 1.9%; P<.01). Incidence of retained placenta was also higher in the spring (March-April) than in the fall (August-September) calving season (18.3 vs. 11.4%; P<.01). The higher incidence of dystocia with twins than with singles (46.9 vs. 20.6%, P<.01) was primarily due to abnormal presentation (37.0 vs. 4.5%, respectively) of one or both twin calves at parturition. First- (40.5%) and second- (22.7%) parity dams with a single birth had more (P<.01) dystocia than older dams (13.4%), whereas dystocia was not affected (P>.10) by parity with twin births. Because of the shorter gestation length and the increased incidence of retained placenta and(or) dystocia, achievement of increased productivity with twinning in cattle necessitates intensive management of twin-producing dams and their calves during the calving season. Management of the increased dystocia can be facilitated by preparturient diagnosis of twin pregnancies, enabling timely administration of obstetrical assistance to facilitate delivery of twin calves and to increase their neonatal survival.  (+info)

(2/169) The influence of the obstetrician in the relationship between epidural analgesia and cesarean section for dystocia.

BACKGROUND: The association between epidural analgesia for labor and the risk of cesarean section for dystocia remains controversial The authors hypothesized that if epidural analgesia were an important factor in determining cesarean section rates, then obstetricians with higher rates of utilization of epidural analgesia for labor would have higher rates of cesarean section for dystocia. METHODS: The frequency of use of epidural analgesia and frequency of occurrence of various patient risk factors for cesarean section were calculated for 110 obstetricians caring for > or = 50 low-risk parturients. These frequencies were compared by linear regression to obstetricians' rates of cesarean section for dystocia. Stepwise regression was used to attempt to predict obstetricians' cesarean rates from the incidence of various patient and provider risk factors. RESULTS: There was no relationship between frequency of epidural analgesia and rate of cesarean section for dystocia across practitioners (R2 = 0.019; P = 0.156). Weighting each obstetrician's data for the number of patients cared for during the study period did not change this result. Stepwise linear regression only modestly predicted obstetricians' cesarean section rates for dystocia, yielding a model containing 12 variables not including epidural analgesia (gestational age, induction of labor, maternal age, provider volume, nulliparity, and seven interactions; adjusted R2 = 0.312; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of use of epidural analgesia does not predict obstetricians' rates of cesarean section for dystocia. After accounting for a number of known patient risk factors, obstetrical practice style appears to be a major determinant of rates of cesarean section.  (+info)

(3/169) Threshold-linear versus linear-linear analysis of birth weight and calving ease using an animal model: I. Variance component estimation.

Birth weight and calving difficulty were analyzed with Bayesian methodology using univariate linear models, a bivariate linear model, a threshold model for calving difficulty, and a joint threshold-linear model using a probit approach. Field data included 26,006 records of Gelbvieh cattle. Simulated populations were generated using parameters estimated from the field data. The Gibbs sampler was used to obtain estimates of the marginal posterior mean and standard deviation of the (co)variance components, heritabilities, and correlations. In the univariate analyses, the posterior mean of direct heritability for calving difficulty was .23 with the threshold model and .18 with the linear model. Maternal heritabilities were .10 and .08, respectively. In the bivariate analysis, posterior means of direct heritability for calving difficulty were .21 and .18 for the bivariate linear-threshold and linear-linear model, respectively. Maternal heritabilities were .09 and .06, respectively. Direct heritability for birth weight was .25 for the univariate model and .26 for bivariate models. Maternal heritability was .05 for the linear-threshold model and the univariate model and .06 for the bivariate linear model. Genetic correlation between direct genetic effects in both traits was .81 for the linear-threshold model and .79 for the bivariate linear. Residual correlation was .35 for the bivariate linear model and .50 for the bivariate linear-threshold. A simulation study confirmed that the posterior mean of the marginal distribution was suitable as a point estimate for univariate threshold and bivariate linear-threshold models.  (+info)

(4/169) Threshold-linear versus linear-linear analysis of birth weight and calving ease using an animal model: II. Comparison of models.

Several models were evaluated in terms of predictive ability for calving difficulty. Data included birth weight and calving difficulty scores provided by the American Gelbvieh Association from 26,006 calves born to first-parity cows and five simulated populations of 6,200 animals each. Included in the model were fixed age of dam x sex interaction effects, random herd-year-season effects, and random animal direct and maternal effects. Bivariate linear-threshold and linear-linear models for birth weight/calving ease and univariate threshold and linear models for calving ease were applied to the data sets. For each data set and model, one-half of calving ease records were randomly discarded. Predictive ability of the different models was defined with the mean square error (MSE) for the difference between a deleted calving ease score and its prediction obtained from the remaining data. In terms of correlation between simulated and predicted breeding values, the threshold models had a 1% advantage for direct genetic effects and 3% for maternal genetic effects. In simulation, the average MSE was .29 for linear-threshold, .32 for linear-linear, .37 for threshold, and .39 for linear model. For the field data set, the MSE was .31, .33, .39, and .40, respectively. Although the bivariate models for calving ease/birth weight were more accurate than univariate models, the threshold models showed a greater advantage under the bivariate model. For the purpose of genetic evaluation for calving difficulty in beef cattle, the use of the linear-threshold model seems justified. In dairy cattle, the evaluation for calving ease can benefit from recording birth weight.  (+info)

(5/169) Relationship of maternal plasma progesterone and estrone sulfate to dystocia in Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows.

Thirteen primiparous and 41 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cattle were used to study the relationship between maternal plasma progesterone (P4) and estrone sulfate (E1S) concentrations and the prevalence of dystocia. The calvings in 4 heifers and 30 cows were normal (eutocia), while the calvings in 9 heifers and 11 cows were difficult (dystocia). Neither the concentrations of P4 nor E1S were different between the groups with eutocia and dystocia from days 90 to 270 of pregnancy. However, a few days prior to parturition, eutocial cows and heifers showed a sharp decline of plasma P4, while dystocial cattle did not show such a remarkable decline of P4 concentration. Plasma P4 levels in dystocial cows a few days antepartum were significantly higher than in eutocial animals (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Prepartum E1S concentrations were significantly lower (P<0.05) in dystocial than eutocial cattle during the prepartum period from days 6 to 1 in heifers and from days 3 to 1 in cows. These results suggest that insufficient production of E1S and delayed regression of the corpora lutea are possible causes of dystocia in cattle.  (+info)

(6/169) No mutations found in candidate genes for dystocia.

Dystocia is a disorder characterized by prolonged or dysfunctional labour. Delivery that starts late or not at all, leads to an increased risk for Caesarean section, infant morbidity and mortality. Familial aggregations of dystocia suggest a polygenic background. We have studied three candidate genes for dystocia, i.e. the genes for testosterone 5-alpha reductase type 1, prostaglandin F2alpha receptor and endothelin 1 and performed mutational screening in 23 women with dystocia, of which 12 have affected relatives. No mutations were found, making it unlikely that any of these genes represent a major cause of dystocia in man.  (+info)

(7/169) Effect of mode of delivery in nulliparous women on neonatal intracranial injury.

BACKGROUND: Infants delivered by vacuum extraction or other operative techniques may be more likely to sustain major injuries than those delivered spontaneously, but the extent of the risk is unknown. METHODS: From a California data base, we identified 583,340 live-born singleton infants born to nulliparous women between 1992 and 1994 and weighing between 2500 and 4000 g. One third of the infants were delivered by operative techniques. We evaluated the relation between the mode of delivery and morbidity in the infants. RESULTS: Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 1 of 860 infants delivered by vacuum extraction, 1 of 664 delivered with the use of forceps, 1 of 907 delivered by cesarean section during labor, 1 of 2750 delivered by cesarean section with no labor, and 1 of 1900 delivered spontaneously. As compared with the infants delivered spontaneously, those delivered by vacuum extraction had a significantly higher rate of subdural or cerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio, 2.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 3.9), as did the infants delivered with the use of forceps (odds ratio, 3.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 5.9) or cesarean section during labor (odds ratio, 2.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 3.4), but the rate of subdural or cerebral hemorrhage associated with vacuum extraction did not differ significantly from that associated with forceps use (odds ratio for the comparison with vacuum extraction, 1.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.7 to 2.2) or cesarean section during labor (odds ratio, 0.9; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.4). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of intracranial hemorrhage is higher among infants delivered by vacuum extraction, forceps, or cesarean section during labor than among infants delivered spontaneously, but the rate among infants delivered by cesarean section before labor is not higher, suggesting that the common risk factor for hemorrhage is abnormal labor.  (+info)

(8/169) Nutrition and obstructed labor.

Obstructed labor is one of the most common preventable causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Among the common causes are cephalopelvic disproportion, malpresentation, and malposition. Recognizing the causes of obstructed labor is important if the complications are to be prevented. Adequate prevention, however, can be achieved only through a multidisciplinary approach aimed in the short term at identifying high-risk cases and in the long term at improving nutrition. Early motherhood should be discouraged, and efforts are needed to improve nutrition during infancy, childhood, early adulthood, and pregnancy. Improving the access to and promoting the use of reproductive and contraceptive services will help reduce the prevalence of this complication.  (+info)



Obstetrics


  • Labour dystocia, another serious complication in obstetrics, has also been increasingly highlighted during the past decades [4- (mah.se)

women


  • All women with a prior cesarean section due to dystocia who had undergone a subsequent pregnancy with a singleton delivery during 2006-2010. (wiley.com)
  • Women who had a trial of labor after a prior cesarean section for dystocia done late in labor and women with a vaginal delivery prior to their cesarean section had a greater chance of a successful vaginal birth during a subsequent delivery. (wiley.com)
  • MR imaging pelvimetry: a useful adjunct in the treatment of women at risk for dystocia? (radiopaedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. (mah.se)
  • The total cohort comprised 2652 nulliparous women, among whom 985 (37.1%) met the protocol criteria for dystocia. (mah.se)
  • However, violence exposed women consuming alcoholic beverages during late pregnancy had increased odds of labour dystocia, crude OR 1.45, 95% CI (1.07-1.96). (mah.se)
  • Conclusions: Our findings indicate that nulliparous women who have a history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy do not appear to have a higher risk of labour dystocia at term, according to the definition of labour dystocia in this study. (mah.se)

birth


  • In 2011, one of 34 (3%) pregnant cow elk in our study experienced dystocia during birth. (byu.edu)

pregnancy


  • To investigate the effect of cervical dilation at the time of cesarean section due to dystocia and success in a subsequent pregnancy of attempted vaginal delivery. (wiley.com)
  • Background: Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. (mah.se)
  • Univariate logistic regression analysis showed no association between history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy and labour dystocia at term, crude OR 0.91, 95% CI (0.77-1.08), OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.54-1.50), respectively. (mah.se)

term


  • the term 'dystocia' is frequently used in clinical practice, yet there is no consistency in the use of terminology for prolonged labour or labour. (mah.se)

study


  • Our visual observations indicated that it took approximately 4 days for a radio-collared cow elk to succumb to dystocia in our study. (byu.edu)

difficult


  • Labour dystocia is defined as a slow or difficult labour or childbirth. (mah.se)
  • Dystocia is defined as delayed or difficult parturition. (calfology.com)