Dysentery: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Dysentery, Amebic: DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.Brachyspira hyodysenteriae: A species of anaerobic, spiral bacteria that was formerly classified as Serpulina hyodysenteriae and Treponema hyodysenteriae (and for a short while, Serpula hyodysenteriae). This organism is the agent of swine dysentery.Treponemal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA.Spirochaetales Infections: Infections with bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.Shigella flexneri: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.Shigella dysenteriae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.Arsanilic Acid: An arsenical which has been used as a feed additive for enteric conditions in pigs and poultry. It causes blindness and is ototoxic and nephrotoxic in animals.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Shigella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Treponema: A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.Spirochaeta: A genus of flexible, spiral rods found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud, sewage, and polluted water. None of the species properly referred to in this genus are pathogenic.Shigella sonnei: A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.Coronavirus, Bovine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Spirochaetaceae: A family of spiral bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.Ronidazole: Antiprotozoal and antimicrobial agent used mainly in veterinary practice.Carbadox: An antibacterial agent that has been used in veterinary practice for treating swine dysentery and enteritis and for promoting growth. However, its use has been prohibited in the UK following reports of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p125)Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Yugoslavia: Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries 7 April 1992. Macedonia became independent 8 February 1994 as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA REPUBLIC).Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Shigella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Brachyspira: A genus of spiral bacteria of the family Brachyspiraceae.Trichuriasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Schools, Nursery: Schools for children usually under five years of age.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.BangladeshEntamoebiasis: Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Amdinocillin Pivoxil: Pivaloyloxymethyl ester of amdinocillin that is well absorbed orally, but broken down to amdinocillin in the intestinal mucosa. It is active against gram-negative organisms and used as for amdinocillin.Liver Abscess, Amebic: Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.Lupinus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.
DysenteryBacillary dysenteryPorcine intestinal spirochaetosis: Porcine intestinal spirochaetosis is a notifiable pig disease caused by the bacterium Brachyspira pilosicoli. Infection causes mild gastrointestinal signs in young pigs and intestinal spirochetosis in humans, as it is a zoonosis.Shigella flexneri: Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Shigella that can cause diarrhea in humans. Several different serogroups of Shigella are described; S.Shigella dysenteriae: Shigella dysenteriae is a species of the rod-shaped bacterial genus Shigella. Shigella species can cause shigellosis (bacillary dysentery).Arsanilic acidEnteroinvasive Escherichia coliTreponema carateum: Treponema carateum is a species of spirochete bacteria in the genus Treponema.Shigella sonnei: Shigella sonnei is a species of Shigella. Together with Shigella flexneri, it is responsible for 90% of shigellosis.Bovine coronavirus: Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is as a member of the Coronaviridae family which are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses with a club-shaped surface. Infection causes 'Calf Enteritis' and contributes to the 'Enzootic Pneumonia complex' in calves.Entamoeba histolytica: Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic protozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba. Predominantly infecting humans and other primates, E.Health in Burundi: Following independence, the World Health Organization (WHO) assisted in the organization of public health services and the training of sanitarians and public health nurses for Burundi. Students from Burundi received medical training at universities in France and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.SpirochaetaceaeRonidazoleCarbadoxSubtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Yugoslavia at the 1972 Summer Paralympics: The Republic of Yugoslavia sent a delegation to compete at the 1972 Summer Paralympics in Heidelberg, West Germany. They sent twenty two competitors, fifteen male and seven female.Congenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.Brachyspira pilosicoli: Brachyspira pilosicoli is a Gram-negative, spiral-shaped, obligate anaerobe bacterium. It is a member of the Spirochaete family.TrichuriasisHaustrum (anatomy): The haustra (singular haustrum) of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation (sac formation), which give the colon its segmented appearance. The teniae coli run the length of the large intestine.Shabondama: is a Japanese nursery rhyme written by Ujō Noguchi in 1922. It is widely taught in Japanese nursery schools and kindergartens as a simple melody; it is also sometimes used in elementary school moral education courses, where students learn that it is a meditation on the death of a child.Gram-negative bacterial infection: Gram-negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E.Economy of ChittagongCecectomyAmoebic liver abscessLupinus mutabilis: Lupinus mutabilis is a species of lupin grown in the Andes, mainly for its edible bean. Vernacular names include tarwi (tarhui), chocho, altramuz, Andean lupin, South American lupin, Peruvian field lupin, or pearl lupin.
(1/739) Involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1beta in enhancement of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures caused by Shigella dysenteriae.
Neurologic manifestations, mainly convulsions, are the most frequent extraintestinal complications of shigellosis. We used an animal model to study the roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) in Shigella-related seizures. Administration of Shigella dysenteriae 60R sonicate enhanced the sensitivity of mice to the proconvulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) within 7 h. This was indicated by a significantly higher mean convulsion score and an increased number of mice responding with clonic-tonic seizures in the Shigella-pretreated group. Preinjection of mice with anti-murine TNF-alpha (anti-mTNF-alpha) or anti-murine IL-1beta (anti-mIL-1beta) 30 min prior to administration of Shigella sonicate abolished their enhanced response to PTZ at 7 h. Mean convulsion scores were reduced by anti-mTNF-alpha from 1.2 to 0.8 (P = 0.017) and by anti-mIL-1beta from 1.3 to 0.7 (P = 0.008). Preinjection of anti-mTNF-alpha also reduced the percentage of mice responding with clonic-tonic seizures, from 48 to 29% (P = 0.002), and preinjection of anti-mIL-1beta reduced it from 53 to 21% (P = 0. 012). Neutralization of TNF-alpha or IL-1beta did not protect the mice from death due to S. dysenteriae 60R. These findings indicate that TNF-alpha and IL-1beta play a role in the very early sensitization of the central nervous system to convulsive activity after S. dysenteriae administration. Similar mechanisms may trigger neurologic disturbances in other infectious diseases. (+info)
(2/739) Interleukin-8 controls bacterial transepithelial translocation at the cost of epithelial destruction in experimental shigellosis.
In shigellosis, the network of cellular interactions mediated by a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines or chemokines is clearly tipped toward acute destructive inflammation of intestinal tissues by the bacterial invader. This work has addressed the role played by interleukin-8 (IL-8) in a rabbit model of intestinal invasion by Shigella flexneri. IL-8, which is largely produced by the epithelial cells themselves, appears to be a major mediator of the recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the subepithelial area and transmigration of these cells through the epithelial lining. Neutralization of IL-8 function by monoclonal antibody WS-4 caused a decrease in the amount of PMNs streaming through the lamina propria and the epithelium, thus significantly attenuating the severity of epithelial lesions in areas of bacterial invasion. These findings are in agreement with our previous work (31). In contrast to the PMNs, the bacteria displayed increased transepithelial translocation, as well as overgrowth in the lamina propria and increased passage into the mesenteric blood. By mediating eradication of bacteria at their epithelial entry site, although at the cost of severe epithelial destruction, IL-8 therefore appears to be a key chemokine in the control of bacterial translocation. (+info)
(3/739) Adaptive immune response to Shigella flexneri 2a cydC in immunocompetent mice and mice lacking immunoglobulin A.
Shigella flexneri cydC, which is deficient in cytochrome bd, was rapidly cleared from the lungs of intranasally inoculated mice and was Sereny negative, yet it induced 93% protection against challenge with wild-type S. flexneri. Mice that lack immunoglobulin A (IgA) were fully protected, suggesting that IgA may not be required for adaptive immunity in this model system. (+info)
(4/739) Rupture of the intestinal epithelial barrier and mucosal invasion by Shigella flexneri.
Invasion of the intestinal barrier by Shigella flexneri involves complex interactions with epithelial and phagocytic cells. Major perturbation of the signals that maintain epithelial integrity permits mucosal invasion, leading to tissue destruction. Expression of this invasive phenotype depends on the secretion of Ipa proteins (invasins), which can trigger entry of the pathogen into epithelial cells by causing massive rearrangement of the host cell cytoskeleton and cause macrophage apoptotic death by direct interaction of IpaB with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-converting enzyme. This results in the killing of defense cells and in the release of IL-1beta. In vivo, bacteria translocate through the epithelial barrier, essentially via M cells of the follicle-associated epithelium in the colonic and rectal mucosa. Apoptotic death of macrophages in subepithelial tissues allows bacterial survival and triggers inflammation, which destabilizes epithelial structures and facilitates further bacterial entry. Once they are intracellular, bacteria multiply within the cytoplasm and move from cell to cell by an actin-dependent process. (+info)
(5/739) Protein conjugates of synthetic saccharides elicit higher levels of serum IgG lipopolysaccharide antibodies in mice than do those of the O-specific polysaccharide from Shigella dysenteriae type 1.
Our development of vaccines to prevent shigellosis is based on the hypothesis that a critical (protective) level of serum IgG to the O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) domain of Shigella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) confers immunity. The O-SP is a hapten and must be conjugated to a protein to induce serum antibodies. The O-SP of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (approximately 27 tetrasaccharide repeat units), prepared by acid hydrolysis of the LPS, was bound to human serum albumin (HSA) by multiple point attachment (O-SP-HSA): The molar ratio of HSA to O-SP was 1.0. Synthetic saccharides, composed of one or multiples of the O-SP tetrasaccharide, equipped with a spacer at their reducing end, were bound to HSA by a single point attachment: The average molar ratios of the saccharides to HSA ranged from 4 to 24. Serum IgG anti-LPS, elicited in mice by O-SP-HSA or synthetic tetra-, octa-, dodeca-, and hexadecasaccharide fragments, was measured by ELISA. Outbred 6-week-old female mice were injected s.c. three times at biweekly intervals with 2.5 micrograms of saccharide as a conjugate and were bled 7 days after the second and third injections. Excepting the tetramer, conjugates of the octamer, dodecamer and hexadecamer elicited IgG LPS antibodies after the second injection, a statistically significant rise (booster) after the third injection, and higher levels than those vaccinated with O-SP-HSA (P = 0.0001). The highest geometric mean levels of IgG anti-LPS were elicited by the hexadecamer with 9 chains or 9 moles of saccharide/HSA (15.5 ELISA units) followed by the octamer with 20 chains (11.1 ELISA units) and the dodecamer with 10 chains (9.52 ELISA units). Clinical evaluation of these synthetic saccharides bound to a medically useful carrier is planned. (+info)
(6/739) Outbreaks of Shigella sonnei infection associated with eating fresh parsley--United States and Canada, July-August 1998.
In August 1998, the Minnesota Department of Health reported to CDC two restaurant-associated outbreaks of Shigella sonnei infections. Isolates from both outbreaks had two closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns that differed only by a single band. Epidemiologic investigations implicated chopped, uncooked, curly parsley as the common vehicle for these outbreaks. Through inquiries to health departments and public health laboratories, six similar outbreaks were identified during July-August (in California [two], Massachusetts, and Florida in the United States and in Ontario and Alberta in Canada). Isolates from five of these outbreaks had the same PFGE pattern identified in the two outbreaks in Minnesota. This report describes the epidemiologic, traceback, environmental, and laboratory investigations, which implicated parsley imported from a farm in Mexico as the source of these outbreaks. (+info)
(7/739) Safety and immunogenicity of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri 2a O-specific polysaccharide conjugates in children.
O-specific polysaccharide conjugates of shigellae were safe and immunogenic in young adults, and a Shigella sonnei conjugate conferred protection [1-3]. Shigellosis is primarily a disease of children; therefore, the safety and immunogenicity of S. sonnei and Shigella flexneri 2a conjugates were studied in 4- to 7-year-old children. Local and systemic reactions were minimal. The first injection of both conjugates elicited significant rises in geometric mean levels of serum IgG only to the homologous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (S. sonnei, 0.32-8.25 ELISA units [EU]; S. flexneri 2a, 1.15-20.5 EU; P<.0001). Revaccination at 6 weeks induced a booster response to S. flexneri 2a LPS (20.5-30.5 EU, P=.003). Six months later, the geometric mean levels of IgG anti-LPS for both groups were higher than the prevaccination levels (P<.0001). Similar, but lesser, rises were observed for IgM and IgA anti-LPS. The investigational Shigella conjugates were safe and immunogenic in children and merit evaluation of their efficacy. (+info)
(8/739) A functional role for ezrin during Shigella flexneri entry into epithelial cells.
Shigella flexneri is an enteroinvasive bacterium responsible for bacillary dysentery in humans. Bacterial entry into epithelial cells is a crucial step for the establishment of the infection. It is characterized by a transient reorganization of the host cell cytoskeleton at the site of bacterial interaction with the cell membrane, which leads to bacterial engulfment by a macropinocytic process. We show in this study that the membrane-cytoskeleton linker, ezrin, a member of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) family, plays an active role in the process of Shigella uptake. Ezrin is highly enriched in cellular protrusions induced by the bacterium and is found in close association with the plasma membrane. In addition, Shigella entry is significantly reduced in cells transfected with a dominant negative allele of ezrin with entry foci showing much shorter cellular protrusions. These results indicate that ezrin not only acts as a membrane-cytoskeleton linker, but may also mediate extension of cellular projections in the presence of signals such as those elicited by invading microorganisms. (+info)