Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cosmic Dust: Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Pyroglyphidae: Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Byssinosis: A condition of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION resulting from hypersensitive reaction to inhaled dust during the initial processing of cotton, flax, or hemp in the textile industry. Symptoms include wheezing and tightness in the chest.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Floors and Floorcoverings: The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)MiningCoal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: Species of European house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE. It is the most commonly found house dust mite.Arthropod Proteins: Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Dermatophagoides farinae: Species of American house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)TextilesParticle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Respiratory Tract DiseasesHousekeeping: The care and management of property.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Asbestos, Serpentine: A type of asbestos that occurs in nature as the dihydrate of magnesium silicate. It exists in two forms: antigorite, a plated variety, and chrysotile, a fibrous variety. The latter makes up 95% of all asbestos products. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p.893)Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.

*  Coalworker's pneumoconiosis
It is similar to both silicosis from inhaling silica dust and to the long-term effects of tobacco smoking. Inhaled coal dust ... Prolonged exposure to large amounts of coal dust can result in more serious forms of the disease, simple coal workers' ... is caused by long exposure to coal dust . It is common in coal miners and others who work with coal. ... workers exposed to coal dust develop industrial bronchitis, clinically Express yourself. Organize your knowledge. Expand your ...
*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00005902 - Byssinosis in the United States.
... of the dust has its objective correlate in acute pulmonary function changes developing during exposure to dust on Mondays. A ...
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*  Risk of pulmonary tuberculosis relative to silicosis and exposure to silica dust in South African gold miners. | Occupational &...
... for PTB and cumulative exposure to dust was 1.10 (1.06 to 1.13), and increased with quartiles of cumulative exposure to dust as ... 1) Is silica dust on its own, without the presence of silicosis, associated with an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis ( ... The diagnosis of PTB was on average 7.6 years after the end of exposure to dust, at around 60 years of age. The onset of ... The incidence of PTB in the cohort was studied relative to cumulative exposure to dust and the onset of silicosis. For the ...
*  Progressive massive fibrosis - Wikipedia
The disease arises firstly through the deposition of silica or coal dust (or other dust) within the lung, and then through the ... Macrophages exposed to dust have been shown to have markedly decreased chemotaxis. Production of inflammatory mediators - and ... Hurley JF, Alexander WP, Hazledine DJ, Jacobsen M, Maclaren WM (October 1987). "Exposure to respirable coalmine dust and ... These macrophages seek to eliminate the dust particle through either the mucociliary mechanism, or through lymphatic vessels ...
*  Dust - Wikipedia
Dust resistant surfaces. A dust resistant surface is a state of prevention against dust contamination or damage, by a design or ... Dust in this regime has a complicated emission spectrum, and includes both thermal dust emission and spinning dust emission.[14 ... House dust can become airborne easily. Care is required when removing dust to avoid causing the dust to become airborne. A ... Matthew J. Colloff, Dust Mites. *^ a b Middleton, N. J.; Goudie, A. S. (2001). "Saharan dust: Sources and trajectories". ...
*  Cosmic dust - Wikipedia
Sources of Solar System dust include comet dust, asteroidal dust, dust from the Kuiper belt, and interstellar dust passing ... Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet ... General diffuse interstellar medium dust, dust grains in dense clouds, planetary rings dust, and circumstellar dust, are each ... intergalactic dust, interstellar dust, interplanetary dust (such as in the zodiacal cloud) and circumplanetary dust (such as in ...
*  Devil's Dust - Wikipedia
"Devil's Dust". Official website Devil's Dust on IMDb. ... Devil's Dust is a two-part Australian television docu-drama ... Judge John O'Meally (President of the Dust Diseases Tribunal) rules in favour of Banton, but the fund contests the judgement. ... Though the extreme health risks of exposure to asbestos dust had been documented for many years, manufacturer James Hardie ... Based on journalist Matt Peacock's 2009 book Killer Company, Devil's Dust was researched and developed by producer Stephen ...
*  Dust - Scientific American
We repeat the passage, " Dust thou art and to dust thou shalt return," but we hardly realize that the almost impalpable ... Dust is commonly regarded as being matter of death. But though upon examination with a powerful microscope we find it to ... Dust is so universally diffused throughout the atmosphere that no place within the limits of animated existence can be said to ... In view of these facts it will be seen that streets filled with dust, must be prejudicial to the sanitary condition of large ...
*  Dust - Business Insider
Copyright © 2017 Business Insider Inc. All rights reserved. Registration on or use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy. ...
*  DUST 514 - GameSpot
Dust 514 is a console-based hybrid massively multiplayer online first-person shooter set within the EVE universe and will ... Video Review - Dust 514. Kevin VanOrd drops in on the Eve Universe as a grunt in this Dust 514 video review. ... Dust 514 - Fight Your Own War E3 Trailer. Check out this E3 2013 trailer for Dust 514. ... DUST 514 - Recent Highlights Trailer. Check out past updates in this trailer for DUST 514. ...
*  Biting the Dust
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/phenomena/2004/10/11/biting-the-dust.html ...
*  Supernova dust - LA Times
This is where large amounts of dust were found. It is contrasted with the outer shell (white and blue circles), where the ... This is where large amounts of dust were found. It is contrasted with the outer shell (white and blue circles), where the ...
*  Dust Lyrics - Boots
Lyrics to Dust by Boots: [Intro:] / Yeah, bye / [Verse:] / Your love is a whitewashed flower / Every second is an hour so my ... Dust Lyrics Languages Arabic Deutsch Greek English Spanish French Italian Japanese Korean Netherlands Portuguese Russian ... The webs you spin immortalized in dust. [Verse 2:]. Your love is a fire gettin' nearer. It's a stranger in the mirror, it's a ... The webs you spin immortalized in dust. [Outro:]. Did I forget your name?. Baby you don't buy it. And everything could change. ...
*  Dust Lyrics - Ataxia
Lyrics to Dust by Ataxia: Some of the chances we take, / To make the money we make. / Manufacturing disease / The creature we ... Dust Lyrics Languages Arabic Deutsch Greek English Spanish French Italian Japanese Korean Netherlands Portuguese Russian ... We gather dust when you said it's a must. And in the end that we shake. It is the function that's fake. We don't feel real. You ...
*  Dust's a devil | New Scientist
One thing Mars does have in abundance is dust - and dust is the enemy of moving parts, particularly for long-term colonisation ... Dust's a devil. From Martin Greenwood Nigel Henbest focuses on human issues associated with a permanent Mars settlement (13 ...
*  Kicking up some dust
There were theories, sure, and the best one of the lot was that when a cloud of gas and dust collapsed (due to a collision with ... Dust clumps up on one side, making it brighter. It's certainly possible that's what's happening here. ... It's possible that HIP 12545 passed close enough to HD 15115 to disturb the dust disk, causing the asymmetry. The gravity of ...
*  Dust - Conservapedia
Dust is the term for very small particles of matter that can be carried by the wind. In outside conditions, dust is usually ... Dust. From Conservapedia. This is an old revision of this page, as edited by CPalmer (Talk , contribs) at 16:39, 14 November ... In the domestic environment, 95% of household dust is actually discarded human skin. ... Retrieved from "http://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Dust&oldid=557738" ...
*  Dust by Arthur Slade | Scholastic
p,Seven-year-old Matthew disappearsone day on a walk into Horshoe, a dust bowl farm town in Depression-era Saskatchewan. Other ...
*  Fred Dust | ideo.com
Fred Dust works with leaders and change agents to unlock the creative potential of business, government, educational, and ... Fred Dust works with leaders and change agents to unlock the creative potential of business, government, educational, and ...
*  Dust Mites | HuffPost UK
Your Bed May Be Home To Thousands Of Squirming Dust Mites (Graphic Video) ...
*  dust mites - User Journals
Treatments and Tools for dust mites. Find dust mites information, treatments for dust mites and dust mites symptoms. ... MedHelp's dust mites Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Dust mites are soooooooo disgusting! Unseen by the human eye but under the scope, those pes... ...
*  Dust: An Elysian Tail™
Shield your identity from curious onlookers with Dust's trademark hat from Dust: An Elysian Tail! ... Wear the robes of the fabled warrior, Dust, hero of Dust: An Elysian Tail! ... Wear the robes of the fabled warrior, Dust, hero of Dust: An Elysian Tail! ... Assume the visage of Dust himself, hero of Dust: An Elysian Tail! ... Trial Game - Dust: An Elysian Tail™ *. Release date:. 8/15/2012 ...
*  Sleep Dust. | HubPages
Sleep Dust. Its portal, is the open mouths of all of those who slumber. It slips quietly inside giving souls wings. Fantastic ...
*  Dust: An Elysian Tail™
As the mysterious warrior, Dust, you must master the ancient Blade of Ahrah to battle dozens of enemies with an intuitive ... As the mysterious warrior, Dust, your action-packed journey will take you from peaceful glades to snowy mountaintops and beyond ... http://marketplace.xbox.com/en-us/Product/Dust-An-Elysian-Tail/3474e888-1cca-4fae-b4e7-f125e3f85dfe?cid=SLink Click to create ...

Mineral dust: Mineral dust is a term used to indicate atmospheric aerosols originated from the suspension of minerals constituting the soil, being composed of various oxides and carbonates. Human activities lead to 30% of the dust load in the atmosphere.Interstellar cloud: Interstellar cloud is the generic name given to an accumulation of gas, plasma, and dust in our and other galaxies. Put differently, an interstellar cloud is a denser-than-average region of the interstellar medium.Brevipalpus: Brevipalpus is a genus of mites in the family Tenuipalpidae, the flat mites.Brevipalpus californicus.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Quartz tube furnacePneumoconiosisWood fibre: Wood fibers are usually cellulosic elements that are extracted from trees and used to make materials including paper.ByssinosisSilicon dioxideIndoor air pollution in developing nations: Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.Biocidal natural building material: A biocidal natural building material is a natural building material which has biocidal properties. The biocidal properties of biocidal natural building materials are inherent to the material, rather than being supplemented afterwards.Allergen immunotherapy: Allergen immunotherapy, also known as desensitization or hypo-sensitization, is a medical treatment for some types of allergies. It is useful for environmental allergies, allergies to insect bites, and asthma.Manual vacuum cleaner: The manual vacuum cleaner was a type of non-electric vacuum cleaner, using suction to remove dirt from carpets, being powered by human muscle, similar in use to a manual lawn mower. Its invention is dated to the second half of the 19th century, when patents were granted to inventors in the United States, England, France, and elsewhere.Doffer: A doffer is someone who removes ("doffs") bobbins, pirns or spindles holding spun fiber such as cotton or wool from a spinning frame and replaces them with empty ones. Historically, spinners, doffers, and sweepers each had separate tasks that were required in the manufacture of spun textiles.Stillwater Mining Company: Stillwater Mining Company () is a palladium and platinum mining company with headquarters located at Billings, Montana, United States. It is the only palladium and platinum producer in the USA.Briquette: A briquette (or briquet) is a compressed block of coal dust"briquette, n. 2.Pyroglyphidae: Pyroglyphidae is a family of mites. It includes the house dust mite.High-speed door: High-speed doors are door systems, mainly used in industrial applications. They are technical enhancements of the generally known sectional doors, PVC fabric doors or roller shutters.National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.SilicosisUnifine mill: A Unifine mill is a single one-pass impact milling system which produces ultrafine-milled whole-grain wheat flour that requires no grain pre-treatment and no screening of the flour. Like the grist or stone mills that had dominated the flour industry for centuries, the bran, germ, and endosperm elements of grain are processed into a nutritious whole wheat flour in one step.Pocket petMango (software)Gossypium herbaceum: Gossypium herbaceum, commonly known as Levant cotton, is a species of cotton native to the semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Arabia where it still grows in the wild as a perennial shrub. It is a sister-species of Gossypium arboreum.Mopani Copper MineBresle methodExhaust systemTechnical textile: A technical textile is a textile product manufactured for non-aesthetic purposes, where function is the primary criterion. Technical textiles include textiles for automotive applications, medical textiles (e.Coulter counter: 150px|thumb|right|The tip of the Coulter counter in a buffer solution, counting cells in solution.Hands of a Working Man: "Hands of a Working Man" is a song written by D. Vincent Williams and Jim Collins, and recorded by American country music artist Ty Herndon.P-AnisidineChondrule: Chondrules in the chondrite Grassland|200px|thumb|Chondrules in the chondrite Grassland. A millimeter scale is shown.Asbestos: Asbestos (pronounced or ) is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes. They are commonly known by their colors, as blue asbestos, brown asbestos, white asbestos, and green asbestos.Metallurgy: Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), founded in 1988, performs basic research in the field of allergy and asthma with the aim to improve the understanding and treatment of these conditions, which affect around 30-40% of the westernized population. The Institute has its roots in the Tuberculosis Research Institute of Davos, a medical society founded in 1905 to study the beneficial effects of high altitude treatment of tuberculosis.Chrysotile: (SiO)(OH)(ideal)Breathing tube (breathing apparatus): A breathing tube is a flexible tube for breathing through, as part of a scuba set or other breathing apparatus or a medical oxygen apparatus or anaesthetic apparatus (Here they are distinguished from the medium-pressure hoses which are often found as parts of modern breathing apparatus.)

(1/1985) Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia.

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in Eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls, using a Vitalograph spirometer. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% were calculated and corrected to BTPS. A significantly higher post-shift reduction FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by the acute exposure to cement dust.  (+info)

(2/1985) Asthma visits to emergency rooms and soybean unloading in the harbors of Valencia and A Coruna, Spain.

Soybean unloading in the harbor of Barcelona, Spain, has been associated with large increases in the numbers of asthma patients treated in emergency departments between 1981 and 1987. In this study, the association between asthma and soybean unloading in two other Spanish cities, Valencia and A Coruna, was assessed. Asthma admissions were retrospectively identified for the period 1993-1995, and harbor activities were investigated in each location. Two approaches were used to assess the association between asthma and soybean unloading: One used unusual asthma days (days with an unusually high number of emergency room asthma visits) as an effect measure, and the other estimated the relative increase in the daily number of emergency room visits by autoregressive Poisson regression, adjusted for meteorologic variables, seasonality, and influenza incidence. No association between unusual asthma days and soya unloading was observed in either Valencia or A Coruna, except for one particular dock in Valencia. When the association between unloaded products and the daily number of emergency asthma visits was studied, a statistically significant association was observed for unloading of soya husk (relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.94) and soybeans (relative risk = 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.59) in A Coruna. In Valencia, a statistical association was found only for the unloading of soybeans at two particular docks. Although these findings support the notion that asthma outbreaks are not a common hidden condition in most harbors where soybeans are unloaded, the weak associations reported are likely to be causal. Therefore, appropriate control measures should be implemented to avoid soybean dust emissions, particularly in harbors with populations living in the vicinity.  (+info)

(3/1985) Mechanisms and mediators in coal dust induced toxicity: a review.

Chronic inhalation of coal dust can cause several lung disorders, including simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), chronic bronchitis, lung function loss, and emphysema. This review focuses on the cellular actions and interactions of key inflammatory cells and target cells in coal dust toxicity and related lung disorders, i.e. macrophages and neutrophils, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. Factors released from or affecting these cells are outlined in separate sections, i.e. (1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related antioxidant protection mechanisms, and (2) cytokines, growth factors and related proteins. Furthermore, (3) components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including the modifying role of ROS, cytokines, proteases and antiproteases are discussed in relation to tissue damage and remodelling in the respiratory tract. It is recognised that inhaled coal dust particles are important non-cellular and cellular sources of ROS in the lung, and may be significantly involved in the damage of lung target cells as well as important macromolecules including alpha-1-antitrypsin and DNA. In vitro and in vivo studies with coal dusts showed the up-regulation of important leukocyte recruiting factors, e.g. Leukotriene-B4 (LTB4), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF alpha), as well as the neutrophil adhesion factor Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Coal dust particles are also known to stimulate the (macrophage) production of various factors with potential capacity to modulate lung cells and/or extracellular matrix, including O2-., H2O2, and NO, fibroblast chemoattractants (e.g. Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF beta), PDGF, and fibronectin) and a number of factors that have been shown to stimulate and/or inhibit fibroblast growth or collagen production such as (TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, Insulin Like Growth Factor, and Prostaglandin-E2). Further studies are needed to clarify the in vivo kinetics and relative impact of these factors.  (+info)

(4/1985) Personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica in California agriculture.

AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California over a period of one year. METHODS: Ten farms were randomly selected in Yolo and Solano counties and workers were invited to wear personal sampling equipment to measure inhalable and respirable dust levels during various operations. The samples were analysed for endotoxin using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay and crystalline silica content using X-ray diffraction. In total 142 inhalable samples and 144 respirable samples were collected. RESULTS: The measurements showed considerable difference in exposure levels between various operations, in particular for the inhalable fraction of the dust and the endotoxin. Machine harvesting of tree crops (Geometric mean (GM) = 45.1 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 7.9 mg/m3), and cleaning of poultry houses (GM = 6.7 mg/m3) showed the highest inhalable dust levels. Cleaning of poultry houses also showed the highest inhalable endotoxin levels (GM = 1861 EU/m3). Respirable dust levels were generally low, except for machine harvesting of tree crops (GM = 2.8 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 0.9 mg/m3). Respirable endotoxin levels were also low. For the inhalable dust fraction, levels were reduced considerably when an enclosed cabin was present. The percentage of crystalline silica was overall higher in the respirable dust samples than the inhalable dust samples. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences exist in personal exposure levels to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California agriculture with some operations showing very high levels.  (+info)

(5/1985) Fine particulate air pollution, resuspended road dust and respiratory health among symptomatic children.

The short-term association of particulate air pollution with peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) and respiratory symptoms was examined. Forty-nine children with chronic respiratory symptoms aged 8-13 yrs were followed daily for six weeks in spring, 1995, in Kuopio, Finland. Daily concentrations of particulate material with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm and < or = 2.5 microm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), black carbon, and the number concentrations of particles from 0.01-10 microm diameter were measured. During the study period, PM10 were mainly resuspended soil and street dust, and the concentration was estimated using aluminum content of PM10 samples. No consistent effect of particles was found as the associations varied by lag. Of the lags examined, only 1-day lagged PM2.5 was statistically significantly associated with morning PEF (beta=-1.06, SE=0.52 (per interquartile increase in pollutant)). Evening PEF was significantly associated with the 1-day lagged number of particles in the size range 0.1-1.0 microm (beta=-1.56, SE=0.72). One-day lagged PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5 and resuspended PM10, and 4-day average of PM2.5 were significantly associated with increased risk of cough. Given the short duration of the study, separating the effects of different types of particles was difficult. The present study demonstrates the highly variable size and number distribution and chemical composition of particles in Finland, and underlines the importance of measuring the size and chemical composition of particles to determine which types of particles are associated with health effects.  (+info)

(6/1985) Contributory and exacerbating roles of gaseous ammonia and organic dust in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis.

Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial pollutants in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis induced by Pasteurella multocida. Forty, 1-week-old Large White piglets were weaned and divided into eight groups designated A to H. The groups were housed in Rochester exposure chambers and continuously exposed to the following pollutants: ovalbumin (groups A and B), ammonia (groups C and D), ovalbumin plus ammonia (groups E and F), and unpolluted air (groups G and H). The concentrations of pollutants used were 20 mg m-3 total mass and 5 mg m-3 respirable mass for ovalbumin dust and 50 ppm for ammonia. One week after exposure commenced, the pigs in groups A, C, E, and G were infected with P. multocida type D by intranasal inoculation. After 4 weeks of exposure to pollutants, the pigs were killed and the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed with a morphometric index (MI). Control pigs kept in clean air and not inoculated with P. multocida (group H) had normal turbinate morphology with a mean MI of 41.12% (standard deviation [SD], +/- 1. 59%). In contrast, exposure to pollutants in the absence of P. multocida (groups B, D, and F) induced mild turbinate atrophy with mean MIs of 49.65% (SD, +/-1.96%), 51.04% (SD, +/-2.06%), and 49.88% (SD, +/-3.51%), respectively. A similar level of atrophy was also evoked by inoculation with P. multocida in the absence of pollutants (group G), giving a mean MI of 50.77% (SD, +/-2.07%). However, when P. multocida inoculation was combined with pollutant exposure (groups A, C, and E) moderate to severe turbinate atrophy occurred with mean MIs of 64.93% (SD, +/-4.64%), 59.18% (SD, +/-2.79%), and 73.30% (SD, +/-3.19%), respectively. The severity of atrophy was greatest in pigs exposed simultaneously to dust and ammonia. At the end of the exposure period, higher numbers of P. multocida bacteria were isolated from the tonsils than from the nasal membrane, per gram of tissue. The severity of turbinate atrophy in inoculated pigs was proportional to the number of P. multocida bacteria isolated from tonsils (r2 = 0.909, P < 0.05) and nasal membrane (r2 = 0.628, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that aerial pollutants contribute to the severity of lesions associated with atrophic rhinitis by facilitating colonization of the pig's upper respiratory tract by P. multocida and also by directly evoking mild atrophy.  (+info)

(7/1985) Evidence for suppressed activity of the transcription factor NFAT1 at its proximal binding element P0 in the IL-4 promoter associated with enhanced IL-4 gene transcription in T cells of atopic patients.

Allergen-specific T cells in atopic patients are polarized IL-4-producing Th2 cells, promoting IgE synthesis by B cells. The molecular basis for increased IL-4 gene expression in atopy is not fully understood. IL-4 gene regulation in general involves the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors, of which NFAT1 and NFAT2 are most prominent in peripheral T cells. Recently, a unique inhibitory role of NFAT1 in IL-4 gene control was shown in the mouse. In a series of electrophoretic mobility shift assays with protein extracts of highly polarized Th2 clones from atopics and Th1 clones from controls we compared DNA-binding activities at the two NFAT-binding elements P0 and P1 of the crucial proximal human IL-4 promoter. At the most proximal P0 site, NFAT-containing complexes devoid of NFAT2 were readily inducible in the Th1 clones, but hardly or not in the Th2 clones. In contrast, both in Th1 and Th2 clones NFAT-containing complexes were strongly inducible at the P1 site, consisting of NFAT2 and a P0-compatible NFAT activity, without apparent differences between Th1 and Th2 clones. Like in Th2 clones, suppressed NFAT-P0 complex formation was observed also at the polyclonal level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of three of five severe atopic dermatitis patients with strongly elevated serum IgE levels, but not in control PBMC. These findings suggest that high-level IL-4 production in atopic Th2 cells is associated with selective reduction of suppressive NFAT1 activity at the IL-4 P0 element and that some patients with this multifactorial disease may have a putative systemic disorder at this level.  (+info)

(8/1985) High concentrations of heavy metals in neighborhoods near ore smelters in northern Mexico.

In developing countries, rapid industrialization without environmental controls has resulted in heavy metal contamination of communities. We hypothesized that residential neighborhoods located near ore industries in three northern Mexican cities would be heavily polluted with multiple contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) and that these sites would be point sources for the heavy metals. To evaluate these hypotheses, we obtained samples of roadside surface dust from residential neighborhoods within 2 m of metal smelters [Torreon (n = 19)] and Chihuahua (n = 19)] and a metal refinery [Monterrey (n = 23)]. Heavy metal concentrations in dust were mapped with respect to distance from the industrial sites. Correlation between dust metal concentration and distance was estimated with least-squares regression using log-transformed data. Median dust arsenic, cadmium, and lead concentrations were 32, 10, and 277 microg/g, respectively, in Chihuahua; 42, 2, and 467 microg/g, respectively, in Monterrey, and 113, 112, and 2,448 microg/g, respectively, in Torreon. Dust concentrations of all heavy metals were significantly higher around the active smelter in Torreon, where more than 90% of samples exceeded Superfund cleanup goals. At all sites, dust concentrations were inversely related to distance from the industrial source, implicating these industries as the likely source of the contamination. We concluded that residential neighborhoods around metal smelting and refining sites in these three cities are contaminated by heavy metals at concentrations likely to pose a health threat to people living nearby. Evaluations of human exposure near these sites should be conducted. Because multiple heavy metal pollutants may exist near smelter sites, researchers should avoid attributing toxicity to one heavy metal unless others have been measured and shown not to coexist.  (+info)

  • exposure
  • 3) What is the predominant chronological sequence between the development of PTB and the development of silicosis after the end of exposure to dust? (bmj.com)
  • The incidence of PTB in the cohort was studied relative to cumulative exposure to dust and the onset of silicosis. (bmj.com)
  • The RR (95% CI) for PTB increased with increasing quartiles of cumulative exposure to dust 1.0, 1.51 (0.78 to 2.91), 2.35 (1.28 to 4.32), and 3.22 (1.75 to 5.90). (bmj.com)
  • In miners who did not have radiologically diagnosed silicosis (n = 1934, PTB = 74), the adjusted RR (95% CI) for PTB and cumulative exposure to dust was 1.10 (1.06 to 1.13), and increased with quartiles of cumulative exposure to dust as 1.00, 1.46 (0.70 to 3.03), 2.67 (1.37 to 5.23), and 4.01 (2.04 to 7.88). (bmj.com)
  • The risk of PTB increases with the presence of silicosis, and in miners without radiological silicosis, with quartiles of exposure to dust. (bmj.com)
  • The diagnosis of PTB was on average 7.6 years after the end of exposure to dust, at around 60 years of age. (bmj.com)
  • 2016
  • Pleiades' Dust is the first EP by the Canadian technical death metal band Gorguts, released on May 13, 2016 through Season of Mist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Irene Barber - vocals Ryan Frederiksen - guitar Steve Becker - bass Jim Acquavella - drums Matt Bayles - keyboards, production Mark Holcomb - rhythm guitar Jason Craig - Bass Jacob James - Bass Andy King - drums Split with Aeges (The Mylene Sheath, 2013) Dragon Mouth (The Mylene Sheath, 2014) Scale (The Mylene Sheath, 2016) Dust Moth - Dragon Mouth review. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • The emission could arise from the electric dipole of very rapidly spinning (10-60 GHz) extremely small (nanometer) dust grains (Draine & Lazarian 1998), most likely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • In 1999, the Dust Brothers collaborated with Carlos Santana and Eagle-Eye Cherry on Santana's multi-platinum album Supernatural. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eatin' Dust is the fifth studio album from stoner rock band Fu Manchu, released on February 19, 1999 on the now defunct Man's Ruin label. (wikipedia.org)
  • fugitive dust
  • Atmospheric or wind-borne fugitive dust , also known as aeolian dust , comes from arid and dry regions where high velocity winds are able to remove mostly silt-sized material, deflating susceptible surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most governmental EPAs, including the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) mandate that facilities that generate fugitive dust, minimize or mitigate the production of dust in their operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • supernova
  • Artist's impression of dust formation around a supernova explosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • There were theories, sure, and the best one of the lot was that when a cloud of gas and dust collapsed (due to a collision with another cloud, or maybe the wind from a nearby star, or getting slapped around by a supernova blast), it formed a flat disk. (slate.com)
  • 1997
  • Eatin' Dust was the second album for new members Brant Bjork and Bob Balch, who replaced Ruben Romano and Eddie Glass in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997). This signal traced the warm galactic dust emission which was unexpected as the extrapolated infrared dust signal to microwave frequencies should have been at least an order of magnitude lower than that seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grains
  • Dust in the atmosphere is produced by saltation and sandblasting of sand-sized grains, and it is transported through the troposphere . (wikipedia.org)
  • Small dust grains are likely to have a permanent electric dipole moment μ due to the intrinsic dipole moment of molecules within the grain and uneven charge distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to compute the emissivity due to this radiation process, one requires the probability distribution function f(ω) for the rotation rate ω, as well as the number density of dust grains. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2010) account for the wobbling of non-spherical dust grains, in which case the angular velocity is not constant for a given angular momentum and power is radiated at multiple frequencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • asbestos
  • Though the extreme health risks of exposure to asbestos dust had been documented for many years, manufacturer James Hardie persisted in large-scale use of the material, aided by inadequate regulation by state health agencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • surfaces
  • One-third of the global land area is covered by dust-producing surfaces, made up of hyper-arid regions like the Sahara which covers 0.9 billion hectares, and drylands which occupy 5.2 billion hectares. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001 S. C. Sherwood and P. Goldberg "Recognition and Organization of Prepared Surfaces at Dust Cave: A Microstratigraphic Approach" Paper presented at the 66th Annual Meeting for the Society of American Archaeology, New Orleans, LA. 2000 S. C. Sherwood and P. Goldberg "The Stratigraphy Of Dust Cave And Basket Cave In The Context Of The Middle Tennessee River Valley" Paper presented at the National Speleological Society Convention, Elkins West Virginia. (wikipedia.org)
  • density
  • In general relativity, a dust solution is a fluid solution, a type of exact solution of the Einstein field equation, in which the gravitational field is produced entirely by the mass, momentum, and stress density of a perfect fluid that has positive mass density but vanishing pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Universe
  • The evolution of dust traces out paths in which the Universe recycles material, in processes analogous to the daily recycling steps with which many people are familiar: production, storage, processing, collection, consumption, and discarding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dust 514 is a console-based hybrid massively multiplayer online first-person shooter set within the EVE universe and will interact directly with EVE Online. (gamespot.com)
  • Dust 514 took place in the same fictional universe as Eve Online, a science-fiction massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) set 21,000 years in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dust in the Universe: Similarities and Differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • music
  • The Dust Brothers are Los Angeles, California-based, producers, E.Z. Mike (Michael Simpson) and King Gizmo (John King), famous for their sample-based music in the 1980s and 1990s, and specifically for their work on the albums Paul's Boutique by the Beastie Boys, Odelay by Beck, the soundtrack to the film Fight Club and "MMMBop" by Hanson. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dike played some instrumental music created by the Dust Brothers for Yauch, and he recruited the Dust Brothers to make the music for the Beastie Boys' highly acclaimed second album, Paul's Boutique, which was considered one of the best albums of all time by Time Magazine in 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pleiades' Dust was met with very positive reviews from music critics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ashes & Dust was met with generally positive reviews from music critics. (wikipedia.org)
  • A music video to accompany the release of "Dust Clears" was first released onto YouTube on 19 June 2013 at a total length of four minutes and fifty seconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • band
  • For the jazz band, see Cosmic Dust (band) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lightning Dust is a Canadian indie rock band formed in 2007 and based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sound-Dust is the seventh album by the band Stereolab, released in late 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dust Moth is an American rock band from Seattle, Washington, formed by members of the bands Undertow, These Arms Are Snakes, and Minus the Bear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dust Clears" is a song by British electronic group Clean Bandit, featuring chorus vocals by Noonie Bao and mainly sung by band member Jack Patterson. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dust Rhinos are a four-piece Irish-Canadian Celtic punk band formed in Winnipeg, Manitoba. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dust was an American hard rock band active in the early 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • roads
  • Control of road dust is a significant challenge in urban areas, and also in other locations with high levels of vehicular traffic upon unsealed roads, such as mines and landfill dumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dust control is most commonly used in vineyards, orchards and logging roads. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Special cases include FLRW and Kasner dust. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noteworthy individual dust solutions include: Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dusts (some of the simplest inhomogeneous cosmological models, often employed as models of gravitational collapse) Kantowski-Sachs dusts (cosmological models which exhibit perturbations from FLRW models) Gödel metric Lorentz group Schutz, Bernard F. (2009), "4. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principle components of the neural dust system include the sensor nodes (neural dust), which aim to be in the 10-100 µm3 scale, and a sub-cranial interrogator, which would sit below the dura mater and would provide both power and a communication link to the neural dust. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The Eva/Morrow Mountain occupations represent the most intensive periods of human activity at Dust Cave. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, a medical treatment could introduce thousands of neural dust devices into human brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • atmosphere
  • Dust is so universally diffused throughout the atmosphere that no place within the limits of animated existence can be said to be free from it under ordinary circumstances. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Large
  • In view of these facts it will be seen that streets filled with dust, must be prejudicial to the sanitary condition of large towns, and that the laying of this dust by sprinkling, is more than a mere matter of comfort to their inhabitants. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Dust Rhinos are well known for their live performances and have a large fan-base and pub following. (wikipedia.org)
  • Planets were divided into several large districts, which held resources and installations that dust players had to fight for control over in Planetary Conquest battles, or PC battles for short. (wikipedia.org)
  • producer
  • Based on journalist Matt Peacock's 2009 book Killer Company, Devil's Dust was researched and developed by producer Stephen Corvini for over two years prior to the series' production. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • Due to the extremely small size of the neural dust motes, it would be impractical and nearly impossible to create a functional transmitter in the sensor itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Control
  • The use of neural dust in conjunction with motor prostheses could allow for a much finer control of movement While methods of electrical stimulation of nerves and brain tissue have already been employed for some time, the size and wireless nature of neural dust allows for advancement in clinical applications of the technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • Site
  • Dust Cave is a Paleoindian archaeology site located in northern Alabama. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2009 Erin E. Pritchard "The Dust Cave Archaeological Project, Lauderdale County, Alabama" TVA Archaeology: Seventy-five Years of Prehistoric Site Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Category
  • While neural dust does fall under the category of BCI, it also could be used in the field of neuroprosthetics (also known as neural prosthetics). (wikipedia.org)
  • track
  • Listen to a track from Dust Moth, a new group featuring former members of Minus The Bear, These Arms Are Snakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Coal dust is responsible for the lung disease known as pneumoconiosis, including black lung disease that occurs among coal miners. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • Three years of use without cleaning has caused this laptop heat sink to become clogged with dust, and it can no longer be used as it may overheat. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Iran , the dust is already affecting more than 5 million people directly, and has emerged as a serious government issue in recent years. (wikipedia.org)
  • matter
  • In October 2011, scientists reported that cosmic dust contains complex organic matter (amorphous organic solids with a mixed aromatic - aliphatic structure) that could be created naturally, and rapidly, by stars . (wikipedia.org)
  • and the same matter may have been a million times exchanged and transported, so that the dust which is perhaps this moment provoking the reader to sneeze, may be a portion of that which once revolted against puritan persecution, and wended its way from the Colony of Massachusetts, to find a grave beneath a Rhode Island apple tree. (scientificamerican.com)
  • name
  • The Dust Brothers was also the original name used by the British duo The Chemical Brothers. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • For example, cosmic dust can drive the mass loss when a star is nearing the end of its life , play a part in the early stages of star formation , and form planets . (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001 S. C. Sherwood "The Geoarchaeology of the Late Pleistocene through Early Holocene at Dust Cave. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Road dust may be suppressed by mechanical methods like street sweeper vehicles equipped with vacuum cleaners , vegetable oil sprays, or with water sprayers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cosmic dust can also be detected directly ('in-situ') using a variety of collection methods and from a variety of collection locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyrics
  • Wells and Weber formed Lightning Dust and began creating a sound that was softer and more melodic than Black Mountain's hard rock, with haunting, minimalist instrumentation and spooky, goth-like lyrics written by Webber. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • The astronomers accumulate observational 'snapshots' of dust at different stages of its life and, over time, form a more complete movie of the Universe's complicated recycling steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • PlayStation
  • Eve: Dust 514 (stylized as EVE: DUST514) was a free-to-play first-person shooter developed by CCP Games for the PlayStation 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model
  • In one proposed model of the neural dust sensor, the transistor model allowed for a method of separating between local field potentials and action potential "spikes", which would allow for a greatly diversified wealth of data acquirable from the recordings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earth
  • The terminology has no specific application for describing materials found on the planet Earth except for dust that has demonstrably fallen to Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In outside conditions, dust is usually plentiful in earth with reduced moisture and little topsoil . (conservapedia.com)
  • several
  • Ehren-berg has described several hundred kinds of diatoms found in atmospheric dust. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Dust Rhino have placed several other songs from the "Got Guinness" CD in the top ten on the MP3.com folk and Celtic charts. (wikipedia.org)
  • term
  • One thing Mars does have in abundance is dust - and dust is the enemy of moving parts, particularly for long-term colonisation. (newscientist.com)
  • Neural dust is a term used to refer to millimeter-sized devices operated as wirelessly powered nerve sensors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term is derived from "smart dust", as the sensors used as neural dust may also be defined by this concept. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • They and their feces and other allergens they produce are major constituents of house dust, but because they are so heavy they are not suspended for long in the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • general
  • At this period of moving, most people become familiar with the general appearance of dust, and the peculiarly disagreeable sensations produced by its getting into the eyes, nose, and y mouth. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Don the visage of the nefarious General Gaius in Dust: An Elysian Tail! (xbox.com)