Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genes, MDR: Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.P-Glycoproteins: A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Dihydropteroate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles: Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that have an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structure giving the appearance of an octagonal dome. (The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 2nd ed.)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Kanamycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Folic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.PiperazinesGenes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.IndiaTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.QuinolinesChromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Atovaquone: A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.UzbekistanRhodamine 123: A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Acriflavine: 3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

*  Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 44,060.77 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research...
Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 44,060.77 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research ... Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 44,060.77 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research ... "Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market - Market Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, ... New Market Research Reports Title "Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Is Expected To Reach US$ ...
*  Enterococcal colonization of infants in a neonatal intensive care unit: associated predictors, risk factors and seasonal...
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial. Enterococcus / drug effects*, isolation & purification*. Female. Germany / epidemiology. ... Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / drug therapy, epidemiology*. Humans. Infant. Infant, Low Birth Weight. Infant, Newborn. ... Multiple-drug resistant enterococci: the nature of the problem and an agenda for the futureEmerg Infect Dis 1998;4:239-49. [ ... Multidrug resistance was defined by resistance of an enterococcal isolate against three of the five antibiotic classes. ...
*  Selection coefficients as function of antibiotic concen | Open-i
... function of antibiotic concentrations during competition experiments between strains carrying chromosomally carried resistance ... Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism*. *Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial*. *Escherichia coli/drug effects*/genetics/isolation ... three of the resistance cassettes, tetRA (tetracycline resistance), dhfr (trimethoprim resistance), and the mph operon ( ... three of the resistance cassettes, tetRA (tetracycline resistance), dhfr (trimethoprim resistance), and the mph operon ( ...
*  Allicin - Wikipedia
Allicin has been studied for its potential to treat various kinds of multiple drug resistance bacterial infections, as well as ...
*  Drug resistance - Wikipedia
... researchers have recognized the need for new drugs that inhibit bacterial efflux pumps, which cause resistance to multiple ... drugs designed to block the mechanisms of bacterial antibiotic resistance are used. For example, bacterial resistance against ... Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ... The chances of drug resistance can sometimes be minimized by using multiple drugs simultaneously. This works because individual ...
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In addition, by 1990, many common bacterial species had developed some degree of resistance to drug treatment and multiple ... ostensibly to fight the drug war. However, Mexican activists say the real motive is the protection of foreign investment in ...
*  Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria...
Tremendous use of antibiotics has developed multiple drug resistance (MDR) in many bacterial pathogens. The increasing drug ... Bacterial strains. Eight different characterized drug resistant bacterial strains including S. typhi, Shigella, P. aeruginosa, ... Development of drug resistance in pathogens and increasing interest of consumers for safe food forces to explore new ... J Food Drug Anal. 2002, 10: 120-126.Google Scholar. *. Oskay M, Oskay D, Kalyoncu F: Activity of some plant extracts against ...
*  Abstract
Conclusion: The frequency of single as well as multiple drug resistance was very high among the bacterial isolates. Antibiogram ... Abstract:Aims: Bacterial meningitis remains a major cause of mortality and long term neurological sequelae worldwide. The ... Results: Bacterial pathogens were isolated from 205 samples showing an isolation rate of 13.94%. Gram's stain positivity was ... generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides can be used as single or in combinations for the empirical treatment of bacterial ...
*  Obligate aerobe acid-fast rods TUBERCULOSIS OVERVIEW, CAUSE, AND PATHOGENESIS Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle...
... major bacterial opportunist multiple drug-resistance multiple drug-resistance 37 spread from cattle infected cattle are culled ... 30 Tuberculosis and Drug resistance Multiple drug resistant (MDR) resistant to first line drugs Extremely drug resistant (XDR) ... Areas of Concern TB cases continue to be reported in every state Drug-resistant cases reported in almost every state Estimated ... of TB in the United States cases were reported in every state cases were reported in every state drug-resistant cases drug- ...
*  Microbiology MSII Temple Bacteria Flashcards - Cram.com
In non AIDS they almost never occur, but with AIDS they are major bacterial opportunists with multiple drug resistance causing ... Note that Iv Drug use/Alcohol use are risk factors?. Tx with PCN is now only marginally effective, and other resistances are ... Multiple antibiotic resistance n endemic countries is 30-80%. Spreads from human to human via droplets (,10 bacilli may infect ... It can transfer genes for drug resistance via plasmids and transposons to other bugs.. All strains produce B-lactimase ( ...
*  Data Release Announcements | NASA GeneLab
In this study researchers isolated and characterized bacterial strains from the ISS that showed multiple drug resistance to ... Multiple samples containing mixtures of DNA from Enterobacteria phage lambda, Escherichia coli and Mus musculus were sequenced ... Tracking of antimicrobial resistance genes is crucial to understanding the risk to for infection and illness to crew working in ... Response of B. subtilis to low pressure may give clues to potential for bacterial survival in extreme environments like Mars ...
*  Multiple drug resistance - Wikipedia
... and the concerning bacterial population amplifies. Therefore, the resistance gene is farther distributed in the organism and ... Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of ... Drug resistance MDRGN bacteria Xenobiotic metabolism Multidrug tolerance NDM1 enzymatic resistance Herbicide resistance P- ... Li XZ, Nikaido H (August 2009). "Efflux-mediated drug resistance in bacteria: an update". Drugs. 69 (12): 1555-623. doi:10.2165 ...
*  Superbug research earns UTHealth student prestigious UNCF/Merck ... ( Charles Darkoh a grad...)
Overuse of antibiotics has resulted in some of these bacteria developing resistance to the drugs designed to kill them. C. ... Superbugs are bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics.. Within the last decade, the number of cases of C. difficile ... For years, doctors have prescribed diverse antibiotics to treat various bacterial infections. ... Researcher tests promising drug on those with Down syndrome. 10. AgriLife Research genetically fingerprinting E. coli from ...
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Synergistic Interactions of Methanolic Extract of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. with Antibiotics against...
... the antibacterial agents were improved and combining natural products with antibiotic could be potential sources for resistance ... agents useful against infectious multi-drug resistant bacteria. ... against drug resistance bacterial isolates. Int. J. Mol. Sci ... bacterial infections caused by resistant strains have been increased dramatically [8]. Multiple drug resistance, an intrinsic ... Acacia mearnsii; checkerboard assay; drug-herbal interaction; multi-drug resistance; synergistic effects ...
*  New compound overcomes drug-resistant Staph infection in mice
... an otherwise dangerous bacterial infection. The new compound targets an enzyme ... ... thus reducing the likelihood that new forms of drug resistance will emerge. Explore further: Modified bone drug kills malaria ... but the findings may allow scientists to target multiple enzymes essential to bacterial survival, ... Modified bone drug kills malaria parasite in mice. February 27, 2012 A chemically altered osteoporosis drug may be useful in ...
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*  Immunohistochemistry Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 2,986.4 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research | Springfield Chronicle
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*  Chemists design molecules for controlling bacterial behavior
Chemists in the College of Arts and Sciences have figured out how to control multiple bacterial behaviors-potentially good news ... without causing drug resistance. Yan-Yeung Luk, associate professor of chemistry, has spearheaded the discovery, in conjunction ... Chemists in the College of Arts and Sciences have figured out how to control multiple bacterial behaviors-potentially good news ... bacteria have become smarter and have developed resistance to many drugs," says Luk, an expert in bio-organic chemistry, ...
*  Antibiotics | Free Full-Text | Multiple Pathways of Genome Plasticity Leading to Development of Antibiotic Resistance | HTML
The origins of resistance are intensively studied and many mechanisms involved in resistance have been identified, such as ... In this review, we focus on factors leading to integron rearrangements and gene capture facilitating antibiotic resistance ... The emergence of multi-resistant bacterial strains is a major source of concern and has been correlated with the widespread use ... Apart from the evolution of bacterial resistance, sub-MICs are also involved in the conservation of multiple resistances by the ...
*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Klebsiella pneumoniae Antimicrobial Drug Resistance, United States, 1998-2010 - 18786 | Emerging...
Cross Resistance Dispatch Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial Epidemiological Monitoring Humans Inpatients Klebsiella ... To determine the distribution and antimicrobial drug resistance in bacterial pathogens causing nosocomial infections, ... demonstrated significant increases in resistance to all antimicrobial drugs studied, except tetracycline. Cross-resistance ... Anti-Bacterial Agents Antimicrobial Resistance Bacteria CRKP Cross-resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae ...
*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Silent Nucleotide Polymorphisms and a Phylogeny for Mycobacterium tuberculosis - 14591 | Emerging...
Bacterial Proteins Base Sequence Catalase DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases DNA Fingerprinting DNA Gyrase Drug Resistance, Multiple ... Molecular Detection of Mutations Associated with First- and Second-Line Drug Resistance Compared with Conventional Drug ... Nucleotide substitutions proven to cause drug resistance are distributed throughout the tree, whereas nonsynonymous base ... we demonstrate that neutral genetic variation in genes associated with antimicrobial drug resistance has sufficient variation ...
*  TREATMENT AND PREVENTION TUBERCULOSIS (TB) | Preventive of TB | Vaccines Tuberculosis
Single-drug treatment often causes bacterial resistance to drugs. Therefore, all recommended therapies include multiple drugs ... Adjustments to the treatments are made based on susceptibility of the bacterial strain. A combination of antibiotics, including ... With the advent of effective antibiotics for TB, drug therapy has become the cornerstone of treatment. ...
*  Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria - Wikipedia
Antibiotic resistance Drug resistance Multiple drug resistance Cerceo, Elizabeth; Deitelzweig, Steven B.; Sherman, Bradley M.; ... Vergidis, Paschalis I.; Falagas, Matthew E. (2008-02-01). "Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections: the emerging ... Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN bacteria) are a type of Gram-negative bacteria with resistance to multiple ... This drug shows promise in infections from multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase [KPC]- and ESBL- ...
*  Frontiers | Novel Routes for Improving Biocontrol Activity of Bacillus Based Bioinoculants | Microbiology
... usually a drug resistance gene, into the chromosome of a bacterial strain. Using this strategy, a second selective marker gene ... Edgar, R. C. (2004). MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Res. 32, 1792- ... Bacterial volatiles induce systemic resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 134, 1017-1026. doi: 10.1104/pp.103.026583 ... bacterial blight and bacterial leaf streak). Agar diffusion tests performed with several FZB42 mutant strains (Figure 3) ...

Resistance mutation: A resistance mutation is a point mutations in virus genes that allow the virus to become resistant to treatment with a particular antiviral drug. The term was first used in the management of HIV, the first virus in which genome sequencing was routinely used to look for drug resistance.Multiple drug resistance: Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs. The types most threatening to public health are MDR bacteria that resist multiple antibiotics; other types include MDR viruses, fungi, and parasites (resistant to multiple antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic drugs of a wide chemical variety).Resistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.BacitracinTariquidarBlood vessel: The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body. There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart.Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis: Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as a form of TB infection caused by bacteria that are resistant] to treatment with at least two of the most powerful [[Therapy#Lines of therapy|first-line anti-TB drugs, isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP).Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.Antileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.ABCC4: ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 4 (ABCC4), also known as the multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) or multi-specific organic anion transporter B (MOAT-B), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC4 gene.Coles PhillipsManagement of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex refers to a genetically related group of Mycobacterium species that can cause tuberculosis in humans or other organisms.Transporter associated with antigen processing: Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette transporter family. It delivers cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they bind to nascent MHC class I molecules.PBR322: pBR322 is a plasmid and was one of the first widely used E. coli cloning vectors.PyrimethanilStreptomycinDoxorubicinDiscovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors: Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NtRTIs) began in the 1980s when the AIDS epidemic hit Western societies. NRTIs inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).IsoniazidChloroquineDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Pregnancy-associated malaria: Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or placental malaria is a presentation of the common illness that is particularly life-threatening to both mother and developing fetus. PAM is caused primarily by infection with Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous of the four species of malaria-causing parasites that infect humans.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Thermal cyclerTriparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Missense mutation: In genetics, a missense mutation (a type of nonsynonymous substitution) is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid. Another type of nonsynonymous substitution is a nonsense mutation in which a codon is changed to a premature stop codon that results in truncation of the resulting protein.Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter: Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters (TRAP transporters) are a large family of solute transporters found in bacteria and archaea, but not in eukaryotes, that appear to be specific for the uptake of organic acids. They are unique in that they utilize a substrate binding protein (SBP) in combination with a secondary transporter.Streptomyces kanamyceticus: Streptomyces kanamyceticus is a bacterial species in the genus Streptomyces. It is the species from which the antibiotic kanamycin is isolated.Protease inhibitor (pharmacology): Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis caused by hepatitis C virus. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.Strandpulling: Strandpulling is the general term for the practice of stretching steel springs, rubber cables or latex tubing, as a form of exercise and as a competitive sport, using a "chest expander", with many specific movements designed to target different muscles and provide progressive resistance usually, but not always, to the upper body.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Intermittent preventive therapy: Intermittent preventive therapy or intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a public health intervention aimed at treating and preventing malaria episodes in infants (IPTi), children (IPTc), schoolchildren (IPTsc) and pregnant women (IPTp). The intervention builds on two tested malaria control strategies: a) to clear existing parasites (treatment effect seen in mass drug administrations) and b) to prevent new infections (prophylaxis).PGLO: The pGLO plasmid is an engineered plasmid used in biotechnology as a vector for creating genetically modified organisms. The plasmid contains several reporter genes, most notably for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the ampicillin resistance gene.VoriconazoleTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingDihydrofolate reductaseAntiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Erythromycin 3''-O-methyltransferase: Erythromycin 3-O-methyltransferase (, EryG) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:erythromycin C 3-O-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionLipoplatin: Lipoplatin (Liposomal cisplatin) is a nanoparticle of 110 nm average diameter composed of lipids and cisplatin. This new drug has successfully finished Phase I, Phase II and Phase III human clinical trials (2,3).Azole: An azole is a class of five-membered nitrogen heterocyclic ring compounds containing at least one other non-carbon atom of either nitrogen, sulfur, or oxygen.Dihydropteroate synthase inhibitor: A dihydropteroate synthase inhibitor is a drug that inhibits the action of dihydropteroate synthase. Most are sulfonamides.Chloramphenicol acetyltransferaseATC code S01: ==S01A Anti-infectives==Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Microneme: Micronemes are cellular organs, or organelles, possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans that are restricted to the apical third of the protozoan body. They are surrounded by a typical unit membrane.Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica: Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica is a skin condition caused by a Candida albicans infection, characterized by an oval-shaped area of macerated white skin on the web between and extending onto the sides of the fingers.SCCmec: SCCmec, or staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, is a mobile genetic element of Staphylococcus bacterial species. This genetic sequence includes the mecA gene coding for resistance to the antibiotic methicillin and is the only known way for Staphylococcus strains to spread the gene in the wild by horizontal gene transfer.

(1/3396) Clinical outcomes of Estonian patients with primary multidrug-resistant versus drug-susceptible tuberculosis.

Little is known about the clinical outcomes of patients with primary multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. Clinical outcomes among 46 patients in Estonia with primary MDR tuberculosis and 46 patients with pansusceptible tuberculosis were compared. Patients with MDR tuberculosis were more likely than those with pansensitive tuberculosis to have treatment failure (odds ratio, 8.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-26.3) after adjusting for medical problems and weeks of effective treatment, often with second-line drugs. Ten patients (22%) with MDR tuberculosis and 2 (4%) with susceptible tuberculosis died of tuberculosis (P=.03). MDR tuberculosis (hazard ratio [HR], 7.8; 95% CI, 1.6-37.4), number of medical problems (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.4), and male sex (HR, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.1-29.6) were associated with death due to tuberculosis in multivariable analysis. Human immunodeficiency virus test results were negative for all 55 patients tested. These findings underscore the urgent need for increased attention to prevention and treatment of MDR tuberculosis globally.  (+info)

(2/3396) Development and spread of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents: an overview.

Resistance to antimicrobial agents is emerging in a wide variety of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. The emergence and spread of multiply resistant organisms represent the convergence of a variety of factors that include mutations in common resistance genes that extend their spectrum of activity, the exchange of genetic information among microorganisms, the evolution of selective pressures in hospitals and communities that facilitate the development and spread of resistant organisms, the proliferation and spread of multiply resistant clones of bacteria, and the inability of some laboratory testing methods to detect emerging resistance phenotypes. Twenty years ago, bacteria that were resistant to antimicrobial agents were easy to detect in the laboratory because the concentration of drug required to inhibit their growth was usually quite high and distinctly different from that of susceptible strains. Newer mechanisms of resistance, however, often result in much more subtle shifts in bacterial population distributions. Perhaps the most difficult phenotypes to detect, as shown in several proficiency testing surveys, are decreased susceptibility to beta-lactams in pneumococci and decreased susceptibility to vancomycin in staphylococci. In summary, emerging resistance has required adaptations and modifications of laboratory diagnostic techniques, empiric anti-infective therapy for such diseases as bacterial meningitis, and infection control measures in health care facilities of all kinds. Judicious use is imperative if we are to preserve our arsenal of antimicrobial agents into the next decade.  (+info)

(3/3396) Antibiotic resistance: consequences of inaction.

Bacterial resistance presents therapeutic dilemmas to clinicians worldwide. The warnings were there long ago, but too few people heeded them. Thus an emerging problem has grown to a crisis. Resistance is an ecological phenomenon stemming from the response of bacteria to the widespread use of antibiotics and their presence in the environment. While determining the consequences of inaction on the present and future public health, we must work to remedy the lack of action in the past. By improving antibiotic use and decreasing resistance gene frequency at the local levels, we can move towards reversing the resistance problem globally.  (+info)

(4/3396) Consequences of inaction: importance of infection control practices.

The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in health care facilities is due in large part to overuse of antibiotics and poor compliance with recommended infection control practices. To control the spread of such pathogens, health care facilities must reduce overuse and abuse of antibiotics, and they must implement new multidisciplinary programs to improve hand hygiene practices among health care workers and improve compliance with recommended barrier precautions.  (+info)

(5/3396) Minimizing potential resistance: the molecular view.

The major contribution of molecular biology to the study of antibiotic resistance has been the elucidation of nearly all biochemical mechanisms of resistance and the routes for dissemination of genetic information among bacteria. In this review, we consider the potential contribution of molecular biology to counteracting the evolution of resistant bacteria. In particular, we emphasize the fact that fundamental approaches have had direct practical effects on minimizing potential resistance: by improving interpretation of resistance phenotypes, by providing more adequate human therapy, by fostering more prudent use of antibiotics, and by allowing the rational design of new drugs that evade existing resistance mechanisms or address unexploited targets.  (+info)

(6/3396) Restricting the selection of antibiotic-resistant mutants: a general strategy derived from fluoroquinolone studies.

Studies with fluoroquinolones have led to a general method for restricting the selection of antibiotic-resistant mutants. The strategy is based on the use of antibiotic concentrations that require cells to obtain 2 concurrent resistance mutations for growth. That concentration has been called the "mutant prevention concentration" (MPC) because no resistant colony is recovered even when >10(10) cells are plated. Resistant mutants are selected exclusively within a concentration range (mutant selection window) that extends from the point where growth inhibition begins, approximated by the minimal inhibitory concentration, up to the MPC. The dimensions of the mutant selection window can be reduced in a variety of ways, including adjustment of antibiotic structure and dosage regimens. The window can be closed to prevent mutant selection through combination therapy with > or =2 antimicrobial agents if their normalized pharmacokinetic profiles superimpose at concentrations that inhibit growth. Application of these principles could drastically restrict the selection of drug-resistant pathogens.  (+info)

(7/3396) Detection of rpoB mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by biprobe analysis.

A biprobe assay utilizing LightCycler technology was developed to detect rifampin resistance-associated gene mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis rpoB gene. Three biprobes detected all mutations present in the 46 rifampin-resistant isolates. Wild-type sequences were correctly identified in each case. The method was reproducible, accurate, and easy to use.  (+info)

(8/3396) Emergence of rifampin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae as a result of antimicrobial therapy for penicillin-resistant strains.

A multidrug-resistant strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated in The Netherlands during a nosocomial outbreak among 36 patients who mainly had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. After the commencement of barrier nursing and short-term ceftriaxone-rifampin eradication therapy, the epidemic ceased. However, eradication therapy failed in 3 patients, and follow-up investigation of these patients showed the emergence of rifampin-resistant isolates.  (+info)

  • inhibits
  • As a result, it is hypothesized that triclocarban's molecular mechanism resembles that of triclosan, which inhibits bacterial fatty acid synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fosfomycin is bactericidal and inhibits bacterial cell wall biogenesis by inactivating the enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-3-enolpyruvyltransferase, also known as MurA. (wikipedia.org)
  • confer
  • As these resistance genes on the chromosome do not confer any significant fitness costs, the MSC values approach zero, making the MSC values for trimethoprim and erythromycin uncertain in this low range. (nih.gov)
  • While resistance to dalfopristin may be conferred via a single point of mutation, quinupristin/dalfopristin offers the benefit of requiring multiple points of mutation targeting both dalfopristin and quinupristin components to confer drug resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • In 2016, critical segment held the largest revenue share for the vector segment due to factors such as rising prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Carbapenem resistance cases, rising public awareness leading to early disease diagnosis and treatment, and regulatory agencies such as WHO, CDC taking initiatives to promote public health and welfare. (dovernewsnow.com)
  • infection
  • New Market Research Reports Title "Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 44,060.77 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research" Has Been Added to Credenceresearch.com Report Database. (dovernewsnow.com)
  • The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market - Market Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025," the global multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market was valued at US$ 26,169.09 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 44,060.77 Mn by 2025 expanding at a CAGR of 6.01 % from 2017 to 2025. (dovernewsnow.com)
  • High segment will be the fastest growing segment for the vectors market throughout the forecast period 2017-2025 majorly due to factors such as increasing number of patients suffering with Helicobacter pylori (clarithromycin-resistant), and Staphylococcus aureus, (vancomycin-resistant) infection and public-private partnership in the diagnosis and antibiotics development to treat antimicrobial drug resistance. (dovernewsnow.com)
  • Chemistry professor Eric Oldfield (in blue, center), graduate student Wei Zhu (left), research scientist Yonghui Zhang, University of Illinois, and their colleagues at UC San Diego discovered a compound that cured drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The WHO defines antimicrobial resistance as a microorganism's resistance to an antimicrobial drug that was once able to treat an infection by that microorganism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also often used to eradicate Helicobacter pylori along with other drugs and to prevent infection in people recovering from surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 5-nitroimidazole drugs (metronidazole and tinidazole) are the mainstay of treatment for infection with Trichomonas vaginalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • While no human trials have been approved yet, the molecule has been tested in vivo with the mouse peritonitis model, and was shown to be highly selective towards bacterial cell walls, leaving mammalian cells unharmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • Microbial pathogenecity and other infectious diseases have been controlled by use of commercially available antimicrobial drugs since last many years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemists in the College of Arts and Sciences have figured out how to control multiple bacterial behaviors-potentially good news for the treatment of infectious diseases and other bacteria-associated issues, without causing drug resistance. (phys.org)
  • With regard to antibiotics, antivirals, and other agents indicated for treatment of infectious pathological disease, drugs of last resort are commonly withheld from administration until after the trial and failure of more commonly used treatment options to prevent the development of drug resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Mutations in myostatin, or drugs that block myostatin cause increases in muscle mass. (nasa.gov)
  • This plasticity is a consequence not only of spontaneous mutations or genome rearrangements that can occur during the bacterial life cycle, but also of exogenous gene acquisition through genetic exchange between bacteria and gene capture in integrons. (mdpi.com)
  • aureus
  • Illinois chemistry and Institute for Genomic Biology professor Douglas Mitchell tested the new compound against regular and drug-resistant S. aureus in cell culture and found that it had potent activity against both. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In cases presenting with suspected S. aureus, it is suggested by many public health institutions (including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States) to treat first with empirical therapies for S. aureus, with an emphasis on evaluating the response to initial treatment and laboratory diagnostic techniques to isolate cases of drug resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmids
  • Enzymes conferring resistance to fosfomycin have also been identified and are encoded both chromosomally and on plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • this is usually attributed to the following: The genetic elements encoding efflux pumps may be encoded on chromosomes and/or plasmids, thus contributing to both intrinsic (natural) and acquired resistance respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • develop resistance
  • In short, the lack of concerted effort by governments and the pharmaceutical industry, together with the innate capacity of microbes to develop resistance at a rate that outpaces development of new drugs, suggests that existing strategies for developing viable, long-term anti-microbial therapies are ultimately doomed to failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be seen in cancerous tumors where some cells may develop resistance to the drugs used in chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemicals contained in these preparations, besides harming beneficial organisms, may intentionally or inadvertently target organisms that have the potential to develop resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-negative bacteria can develop resistance to polymyxins through various modifications of the LPS structure that inhibit the binding of polymyxins to LPS. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • World Health Organization in 2016 had started a joint initiative between Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP) and the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiatives (DNDi) to develop new antibiotic treatment for antimicrobial resistance ensuring its optimal use. (dovernewsnow.com)
  • In 2016, Beta Lactam held the largest market in the drug class segment due to factors such as rising prevalence of multiple drug resistance cases and development of drugs such as Ceftazidime-avibactam and Doripenem which exhibit broad spectrum activity to counteract drug resistance by bacteria. (dovernewsnow.com)
  • Oxazolidinone and Glycolipopeptides will be the fastest growing market in the drug class segment throughout the forecast period 2017-2025 majorly due to factors such as large development gap in the antibiotic development and emergence of effective antibiotics such as Linezolid and Dalbavancin exhibiting improved pharmacodynamic activity and technological advancement in the rapid diagnostics testing kits. (dovernewsnow.com)
  • The development of the polymers is potentially a treatment for bacterial diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calls for new antibiotic therapies have been issued, but new drug development is becoming rarer. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, development of bacterial resistance under therapy is a frequent occurrence and makes fosfomycin unsuitable for sustained therapy of severe infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • cephalosporins
  • Antibiogram study indicated that the third generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides can be used as single or in combinations for the empirical treatment of bacterial meningitis till culture and sensitivity report is awaited. (njmr.in)
  • compounds
  • While triclocarban has two chlorinated phenyl rings, it is structurally similar to carbanilide compounds often found in pesticides (such as diuron) and some drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • streptogramin
  • Streptogramin resistance is mediated through enzymatic drug inactivation, efflux or active transport of drug out of the cell, and most commonly, conformational alterations in ribosomal target binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • mortality
  • Therapies considered to be drugs of last resort may at times be used earlier in the event that an agent would likely show the most immediate dose-response related efficacy in time-critical situations such as high mortality circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • generations
  • They remain the biggest killer of children and young adults as well as the second-leading cause of death worldwide [ 4 , 5 ] despite remarkable successes of antimicrobial drug generations of the third part of the last century. (mdpi.com)
  • enzyme
  • The new compound targets an enzyme not found in human cells but which is essential to bacterial survival. (medicalxpress.com)
  • To begin the study, McCammon and his colleagues at UC San Diego used computer simulations to look for potential chinks in the armor of a bacterial enzyme known as FPPS that aids in bacterial cell wall formation. (medicalxpress.com)
  • That enzyme, called UPPS, "is important because it's involved in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis," he said. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Like other NRPs, polymyxins are assembled by synthetases with multiple modules, each containing a set of enzyme domains that sequentially operate on the growing chain by adding the next residue and extending the chain through peptide-bond formation and condensation reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • More years of study will be needed to determine whether this compound or others like it will be effective in humans, Oldfield said, but the findings may allow scientists to target multiple enzymes essential to bacterial survival, thus reducing the likelihood that new forms of drug resistance will emerge. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Three related fosfomycin resistance enzymes (named FosA, FosB, and FosX) are members of the glyoxalase superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes function by nucleophilic attack on carbon 1 of fosfomycin, which opens the epoxide ring and renders the drug ineffective. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Unless the drug used makes sexual reproduction or cell-division or horizontal gene transfer impossible in the entire target population, resistance to the drug will inevitably follow. (wikipedia.org)
  • They work mostly by breaking up the bacterial cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Removal of the hydrophobic tail of polymyxin B yields polymyxin nonapeptide, which still binds to LPS, but no longer kills the bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it still detectably increases the permeability of the bacterial cell wall to other antibiotics, indicating that it still causes some degree of membrane disorganization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cases, this leads to bacterial cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fosfomycin enters the bacterial cell through the glycerophosphate transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • ineffective
  • FosC uses ATP and adds a phosphate group to fosfomycin, thus altering its properties and making the drug ineffective. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Individual organisms vary in their sensitivity to the drug used and some with greater fitness may be capable of surviving drug treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymyxins B and E (also known as colistin) are used in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there is currently a shortage of new drugs in the antimicrobial realm, there are a few antibiotics currently being studied and tested for the treatment of serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs of choice for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis include metronidazole and clindamycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment of choice for bacterial vaginosis in nonpregnant women include metronidazole oral twice daily for seven days, or metronidazole gel intravaginally once daily for five days, or clindamycin intravaginally at bedtime for seven days. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of a drug of last resort may be based on agreement among members of a patient's care network, including physicians and healthcare professionals across multiple specialties, or on a patient's desire to pursue a particular course of treatment and a practitioner's willingness to administer that course. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agents classified as fourth-line (or greater) treatments or experimental therapies could be considered by default to be drugs of last resort due to their low placement in the treatment hierarchy. (wikipedia.org)