Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.BaltimoreMethadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)New York CityHIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.San FranciscoAcquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.PrisonersOpioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Opiate Substitution Treatment: Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.RussiaCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.KentuckyPharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.EstoniaInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Tattooing: The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.United StatesUrban Health: The status of health in urban populations.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.HTLV-II InfectionsLogistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.MexicoUnsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.ArkansasHomosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.VietnamSexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.ConnecticutContraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Appalachian Region: A geographical area of the United States with no definite boundaries but comprising northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, western North Carolina, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia, West Virginia, western Maryland, southwestern Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, and southern New York.Bacillaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.HungaryHIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Rhode IslandRomeProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.WashingtonPeer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Soft Tissue Infections: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Puerto Rico: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Human Rights Abuses: Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.MoscowSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Georgia (Republic)Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Opiate Alkaloids: Alkaloids found in OPIUM from PAPAVER that induce analgesic and narcotic effects by action upon OPIOID RECEPTORS.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.ArgentinaMobile Health Units: Movable or portable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Residential Treatment: A specialized residential treatment program for behavior disorders including substance abuse. It may include therapeutically planned group living and learning situations including teaching of adaptive skills to help patient functioning in the community. (From Kahn, A. P. and Fawcett, J. Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 1993, p320.)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Los AngelesClostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Amyl Nitrite: A vasodilator that is administered by inhalation. It is also used recreationally due to its supposed ability to induce euphoria and act as an aphrodisiac.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Prescription Drug Misuse: Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.ScotlandCaliforniaHealth Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.FloridaMultivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Homeless Youth: Runaway and homeless children and adolescents living on the streets of cities and having no fixed place of residence.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Epidemiologic Research Design: The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.PhiladelphiaHuman T-lymphotropic virus 2: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 that can transform normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. The virus is related to but distinct from HTLV-1.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.UkraineDenial (Psychology): Refusal to admit the truth or reality of a situation or experience.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Social Discrimination: Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.LatviaCocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Montenegro: Montenegro was formerly part of the historic Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Montenegro was granted the status of a republic within YUGOSLAVIA. On May 21, 2006, the Republic of Montenegro held a successful referendum on independence and declared independence on June 3. The capital is Podgorica.BrazilWheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Criminal Law: A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.SwitzerlandEpidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.LondonEndocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.

*  Generic drug users need protection - Baltimore Sun

The court ruled in Pliva v. Mensing that the Food and Drug Administration's regulatory system pre-empts any claim in a state ... In its recent decision on drug labeling, the U.S. Supreme Court prescribed a judgment that looks like bad medicine. ... In Pliva - which combined the cases of two separate plaintiffs who claimed they were made ill after taking a generic drug that ... Rather, it is the court's action - or rather, inaction - in taking a pass on the fundamental inquiry into how generic-drug ...
baltimoresun.com/news/opinion/oped/bs-ed-drug-labeling-20110707-story.html

*  Stigma Increases Likelihood That Drug Users Reoffend - Redorbit

The researchers found that a central theme throughout women's narratives revolved around the double stigma of being a drug user ... Punitive policies intended to reduce drug use by making life difficult for convicted users are counterproductive and actually ... and mental health and substance abuse treatment make it extremely difficult for users and former users to live a normal life ... I'm still a drug addict. It's not like I sold drugs to become a rich person or anything. I sold drugs to pay my rent. I paid it ...
redorbit.com/news/health/1685535/stigma_increases_likelihood_that_drug_users_reoffend/

*  Designer drug users informed of ban

... Gov. adds newest designer drugs to Fla. list. ...
https://news4jax.com/news/local/designer-drug-users-informed-of-ban

*  Class A drug users start as young as seven - Telegraph

Class A drug users start as young as seven Children as young as seven and eight are using ecstasy and cannabis, according to an ... Some users told researchers they had first tried the dance drug ecstasy when they were just seven years old. Photo: PA ... A Home Office survey found that some drug users had admitted taking ecstasy when they were just seven years old, while others ... Analysis of drug misuse in the 2011-12 Crime Survey for England and Wales, published on Thursday, said: "The most commonly ...
telegraph.co.uk/news/health/children/9430259/Class-A-drug-users-start-as-young-as-seven.html

*  Drug users leaving behind needles | KIMA

KIMA heard your complaints and looked into a neighborhood where drug users are leaving behind needles and other paraphernalia. ... KIMA heard your complaints and looked into a neighborhood where drug users are leaving behind needles and other paraphernalia. ... It's a sort of drug camp people say is out of control.. The property at Front and Walnut Streets is owned by the Burlington ...
kimatv.com/news/local/drug-users-leaving-behind-needles

*  New Laws Force Drug Users Into Rehab Against Their Will

... Involuntary commitment laws are being opened up to allow some people ... Now lawmakers in at least eight states are considering bills that would make it even easier for drug users like Hicks to be ... Addiction experts say that could actually lead to an increased risk of overdose, as drug users return to the community without ... Massachusetts-which has permitted courts to force drug users into treatment for more than two decades-has so little bed space ...
https://thedailybeast.com/new-laws-force-drug-users-into-rehab-against-their-will

*  Drug user relapsed and stole - Blackpool Gazette

Drug user relapsed and stole. Blackpool Magistrates Court Published: 20:21 Sunday 12 June 2016 ... Mr Townley added: "She aims to become drug-free again. While she is not taking drugs she is offence-free." ... rehabilitation to be supervised by the Probation Service plus drug rehabilitation, and fined £20 with £85 and £85 victims' ...
blackpoolgazette.co.uk/our-region/blackpool/south-shore/drug-user-relapsed-and-stole-1-7960457

*  Study: Internet Addicts Suffer Withdrawal Symptoms Like Drug Users | TIME.com

... they undergo withdrawal symptoms similar to those experienced by drug users. The study, carried out by researchers at Swansea ... A new study shows that when heavy Internet users go offline, ... Internet Addicts Suffer Withdrawal Symptoms Like Drug Users. ... they undergo withdrawal symptoms similar to those experienced by drug users.. The study, carried out by researchers at Swansea ... Obsessive internet users can undergo 'comedowns' similar to those experienced by people using ecstasy, researchers say. ...
healthland.time.com/2013/02/19/study-internet-addicts-suffer-withdrawal-symptoms-like-drug-users/?iid=op-article-mostpop2

*  HCV Antivirals Cost-Effective for Injecting Drug Users | Article | NursingCenter

HCV Antivirals Cost-Effective for Injecting Drug Users. Model shows antiviral treatment cost-effective when baseline prevalence ... 6 (HealthDay News) -- Antivirals are cost-effective for injecting drug users (IDUs) where the chronic prevalence of hepatitis C ...
nursingcenter.com/healthdayarticle?Article_id=660286

*  Synthetic drug users: Guinea pigs in someone else's science experiment | Stuff.co.nz

The children who woke her live in the house, where the pernicious effects of the drug often has their caregivers looking like ... People from all walks of like are becoming hooked on an ever-changing drug and it's killing people in unprecedented numbers. ... It's cheap, easily accessible and takes users far away from the hopelessness of their lives, Te Manawa Family Services ... That's why the drug is sometimes misleadingly referred to as synthetic cannabis, he says. ...
https://stuff.co.nz/manawatu-standard/news/97258994/synthetic-drug-users-guinea-pigs-in-someone-elses-science-experiment

*  IRIN | "Seek, test, treat and retain" to stem HIV among drug users

Drug users are people too According to Russian AIDS activist Anya Sarang, more than half a million drug users in Southeast Asia ... "the war on drug users", and the application of science over ideology to deal with drug use. Attitude shift New research and ... drug users on OST stuck with the ARV programme. In addition, studies show that intravenous drug use is not associated with ... "It seems that drug users are not genuinely considered as humans, and so the concept of human rights doesn't apply," she told ...
irinnews.org/news/2010/07/28/seek-test-treat-and-retain-stem-hiv-among-drug-users

*  Chronic Hepatitis Intervention Project for Drug Users - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Chronic Hepatitis Intervention Project for Drug Users. This study has been completed. ... and sexual risk behaviors among injection drug users. Am J Public Health. 2009 Apr;99 Suppl 1:S180-6. doi: 10.2105/AJPH. ... and progression of HIV and hepatitis C among out of treatment injecting drug users. ... Effects of a hepatitis C virus educational intervention or a motivational intervention on alcohol use, injection drug use, ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00596843?order=505

*  Inside the world of drug users using unregulated research chemicals | Calgary Herald

... while offering expertise to other users seeking advice. ... while offering expertise to other users seeking advice. ... while offering expertise to other users seeking advice. ...
calgaryherald.com/news/local-news/inside-the-world-of-drug-users-who-mess-with-unregulated-research-chemicals-in-alberta

*  Pregnant drug users may face arrest in TN proposal | Times Free Press

If passed, the law would allow women to be charged with misdemeanor assault if their infants are born drug-dependent. That's an ... The bill doesn't fund new recovery efforts or drug courts.. Bell briefly and unsuccessfully tried to amend the bill to ... About one-third of all births were complicated by drug addiction in East and Northeast regions ... a proposal to allow Tennessee authorities to arrest women for damage done to their infants by drug use during pregnancy has ...
timesfreepress.com/news/local/story/2014/mar/25/bill-focuses-on-drug-damageto-infants/135255/

*  Acute kidney injury due to rhabdomyolysis in narcotic drug users.

Methods: In this prospective study we evaluated the severity of RM and AKI in narcotic drug users. From January 2001 to ... 11 heroin users (HU) and 10 non-heroin users (NHU). The severity of RM was evaluated by estimation, on admission, of serum ... 8837329 - Minocycline and the thyroid: antithyroid effects of the drug, and the role of thyroid p.... 3068039 - Management of ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Acute-kidney-injury-due-to/21786249.html

*  Directly Observed Antiretroviral Therapy Among Active Drug Users - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Injection drug users (IDUs) have shown particularly less favorable outcomes, with HIV progression remaining at high levels, and ... None of these, however, have targeted active drug users or used a prospective, randomized controlled trial (RCT) design to ... Directly Observed Antiretroviral Therapy Among Active Drug Users. This study has been completed. ... Superiority of directly administered antiretroviral therapy over self-administered therapy among HIV-infected drug users: a ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00367172?order=568

*  Preventing Bacterial and Viral Infections Among Injection Drug Users - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... injection drug users who otherwise might not seek care are accessible and teachable, and the presence of a drug-related illness ... Preventing Bacterial and Viral Infections Among Injection Drug Users. This study is currently recruiting participants. See ... Preventing Bacterial and Viral Infections Among Injection Drug Users. Further study details as provided by Michael Stein, MD, ... among 350 injection drug users recruited during an acute medical hospitalization at Boston Medical Center. In the general ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01892358?order=34

*  Hepatitis C breaks out among drug users in Appalachia, officials fear HIV is next | Newsday

... who has studied Perry County drug users for years as the hepatitis rate spiraled through small-town drug circles there. An ... fear of being exposed as a drug user may keep users away from a needle exchange. ... Hepatitis C breaks out among drug users in Appalachia, officials fear HIV is next. June 4, 2015 5:57 AM. By THE ASSOCIATED ... Compare that to New York City, with more than eight million people, where just 49 drug users tested positive in 2013, said Greg ...
https://newsday.com/news/health/hepatitis-c-epidemic-in-kentucky-may-get-worse-with-hiv-officials-warn-1.10506006

*  'That's gonna save lives': Test strips help drug users check for...

That's gonna save lives': Test strips help drug users check for fentanyl. Street drugs are sometimes laced with fentanyl, ... That's gonna save lives': Test strips help drug users check for fentanyl ... That's gonna save lives': Test strips help drug users check for fentanyl ... Complicating the drug crisis even further, street drugs are sometimes laced with fentanyl, leading to an increase in overdose ...
ksbw.com/article/that-s-gonna-save-lives-test-strips-help-drug-users-check-for-fentanyl/10205631

*  Behavioral Intervention for HIV and HCV-Uninfected Injection Drug Users - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... and retain a cohort of young-adult injection drug users for the Third Collaborative Injection Drug Users Study/Drug Users ... Collaborative Injection Drug Users Study III/Drug Users Intervention Trial (CIDUS III/DUIT). ... Behavioral Intervention for HIV and HCV-Uninfected Injection Drug Users. This study has been completed. ... 3. increase the frequency of drug treatment entry or decrease the frequency of injection drug use.. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00164372?order=14

*  Secondary HIV Prevention and Adherence Among HIV-infected Drug Users - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

HIV-infected drug users (DUs) remain a target population as they represent a significant vector for the transmission of new HIV ... Secondary HIV Prevention and Adherence Among HIV-infected Drug Users. This study is currently recruiting participants. See ... Avants SK, Margolin A, Usubiaga MH, Doebrick C. Targeting HIV-related outcomes with intravenous drug users maintained on ... where many high-risk HIV-infected drug users seek treatment. Moreover, the few evidence-based interventions that are applicable ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01741311?order=74

*  Use of Incentives to Retain Drug Users in HIV Therapy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Use of Incentives to Retain Drug Users in HIV Therapy (Incentives-2). This study is currently recruiting participants. See ... Among drug users who present to care and start highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), retention in care and adherence to ... The proposed research primarily seeks to assess the effectiveness of monetary-based CM in retaining HIV-infected drug users in ... A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating the Role of Contingent Reinforcement in the Engagement of and Retention of Drug Users in ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01488942?order=44

*  Excedrin Recall Is a Wake-Up Call to Over-the-Counter Drug Users | CafeMom

Excedrin Recall Is a Wake-Up Call to Over-the-Counter Drug Users. ...
thestir.cafemom.com/healthy_living/131217/excedrin_recall_is_a_wakeup

*  Management of Hepatitis C in HIV Infected Injection Drug Users (IDUs) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Management of Hepatitis C in HIV Infected Injection Drug Users (IDUs). This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00496912?order=172

*  Hepatitis B Vaccine: Good for 'Newborn' Prostitutes and Drug Users, but Who Else? - NaturalNews.com

... we will be protecting the future generation of promiscuous teens and drug users. The CDC and FDA know that drug users and ... Hepatitis B Vaccine: Good for 'Newborn' Prostitutes and Drug Users, but Who Else?. Reprinting this article: Non-commercial use ... From the above evidence we can conclude that if you wish to groom your children to become future drug users who share needles ... Hepatitis B Vaccine: Good for 'Newborn' Prostitutes and Drug Users, but Who Else?. Friday, July 11, 2008 by: Dr. Gregory Damato ...
naturalnews.com/023610_vaccine_hepatitis_B.html

SyringeManagement of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Comfort Food (novel): Comfort Food: A Novel by Noah Ashenhurst contains a cast of characters: a romantic academic, a self-assured young writer, an enigmatic musician, a slacker, a wealthy mountaineer, and a former heroin addict—characters whose lives intersect in the unique, award-winning debut novel.Substance-related disorderList of drug interactions: The following is a list of interactions with various prescription and over-the counter drugs:List of people with hepatitis C: The infectious disease hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which affects the liver and is transmitted by blood-to-blood contact, or by exposure to another person's infected blood. The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can cause inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis).Tobacco harm reduction: Tobacco harm reduction (THR) is a public health strategy to lower the health risks associated with using nicotine, as an example of the concept of harm reduction, a strategy for dealing with the abuse of other drugs. Smoking tobacco is widely acknowledged as a leading cause of illness and death.William Donald SchaeferMethadone clinic: A methadone clinic is a clinic which has been established for the dispensing of methadone (Dolophine), a schedule II opioid analgesic, to those who abuse heroin and other opioids. The focus of these clinics is the elimination or reduction of opioid usage by putting the patient on methadone.List of bus routes in Brooklyn: The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) operates a number of bus routes in Brooklyn, New York, United States; one minor route is privately operated under a city franchise. Many of them are the direct descendants of streetcar lines (see list of streetcar lines in Brooklyn); the ones that started out as bus routes were almost all operated by the Brooklyn Bus Corporation, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, until the New York City Board of Transportation took over on June 5, 1940.HIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.Shanghai Drug Abuse Treatment Centre: The Shanghai Drug Abuse Treatment Centre, or SDATC (), is a governmental organization providing drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation services in Shanghai, China. SDATC is the only government-supported centre in Shanghai and was established in 1997 on the approval of Shanghai Narcotic Control Commission and Shanghai Public Health Bureau.British Columbia Medical Journal: The British Columbia Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed general medical journal covering scientific research, review articles, and updates on contemporary clinical practices written by British Columbian physicians or focused on topics likely to be of interest to them, such as columns from the BC Centre for Disease Control and the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia. Although it is published by the British Columbia Medical Association (BCMA), it maintains distance from the BCMA in order to encourage open debate.Opioid overdose: .0, -Crack cocaine: Crack cocaine is the freebase form of cocaine that can be smoked. It may also be termed rock, work, hard, iron, cavvy, base, but is most commonly known as just crack; the Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment calls it the most addictive form of cocaine.Clickfine pen needlesUniform State Narcotic Drug Act: The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws developed the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act in 1934 due to the lack of restrictions in the Harrison Act of 1914. The act was a revenue-producing act and, while it provided penalties for violations, it did not give authority to the states to exercise police power regarding either seizure of drugs used in illicit trade or punishment of those responsible.Jack London's San Francisco Stories: Jack London's San Francisco Stories is an anthology of Jack London short stories set in the San Francisco Bay Area. The book was edited by Matthew Asprey.Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.Stateville Penitentiary Malaria Study: The Stateville Penitentiary malaria study was a controlled study of the effects of malaria on the prisoners of Stateville Penitentiary near Joliet, Illinois in the 1940s. The study was conducted by the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago in conjunction with the United States Army and the State Department.International Law Enforcement Academy: International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) are international police academies administered by the U.S.Amphetamine dependence: .0–.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.List of Drug Enforcement Administration operations: The following is a list of major operations undertaken by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, in reverse chronological order.Pulse St. Petersburg: Pulse St. Petersburg is a monthly entertainment magazine published in English and Russian.Controlling Vice: Regulating Brothel Prostitution in St. Paul, 1865-1883: Controlling Vice is a book by Minnesotan author Joel Best, published in 1998. It is the story of the strategies that the Minnesota police officers enforced in attempts to regulate prostitution in the late nineteenth century.University of Kentucky College of DentistryGenovese Drug Stores: Genovese Drug Stores was a pharmacy chain located in the New York City-Long Island area of the United States, including northern New Jersey, along with Fairfield County, Connecticut and Hartford County, Connecticut. It was acquired by Eckerd in 1998.Prenatal methamphetamine exposure: Prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) is the exposure of a prenatal fetus to methamphetamine when a woman uses the drug during her pregnancy. Methamphetamine (MA) has shown increasing popularity in the past two decades among women of childbearing age.Canine hepacivirus: Canine hepacivirus is a single strand RNA virus of the genus Hepacivirus.Kapoor A, Simmonds P, Gerold G, Qaisar N, Jain K, Henriquez JA, Firth C, Hirschberg DL, Rice CM, Shields S, Lipkin WI (2011) Characterization of a canine homolog of hepatitis C virus.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.List of California state prisonsClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Estonia (race car)Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.List of tattoo artists: This is a list of notable tattoo artists.Hepatitis B immune globulinList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Mac OS X Server 1.0Seroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.Old Portal de Mercaderes (Mexico City): Old Portal de Mercaderes in the historic center of Mexico City was and is the west side of the main plaza (otherwise known as the "Zócalo"). This side of the plaza has been occupied by commercial structures since the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in 1521.Gun laws in Arkansas: Gun laws in Arkansas regulate the sale, possession, and use of firearms and ammunition in the state of Arkansas in the United States.Prescott Townsend: Prescott Townsend (June 24, 1894 – May 23, 1973) was an American gay rights activist.Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City: The Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City is a Vietnamese national institute initially created by the French in 1891 under the name Pasteur Institute - Sai Gon, in 1975 renamed the Institute of Epidemiology, and in 1991 given the current name.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Plymouth Congregational Church (New Haven, Connecticut)LifeStyles Condoms: LifeStyles Condoms is a brand of condom made by the Australian company Ansell Limited, previously known as Pacific Dunlop Limited.Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force: The Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force (HKAPF, ) is established in 1914 as the Police Reserve unit, provides additional manpower to the Hong Kong Police Force, especially during emergencies and other incidents.Felony murder rule (Florida): In the state of Florida, the common law felony murder rule has been codified in Florida Revised Statutes § 782.04.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Childbirth in rural Appalachia: Childbirth in rural Appalachia has long been a subject of concern. Infant mortality rates are higher in Appalachia than in other parts of the United States.City Park (Budapest)Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Generic Pharmaceutical Price Decay: Generic Pharmaceutical Price Decay is what happens (in the UK) once the originator brand has lost its patent exclusivity (patent expiry) and generic versions of the originator brand have been launched.Applied Economics, 2004, 36, 731–73, The price premium of generic to brand-names and pharmaceutical price index, Ying KonNHH Dept.Miss Rhode IslandDell Hymes: Dell Hathaway Hymes (June 7, 1927, Portland, OregonNovember 13, 2009, Charlottesville, Virginia) was a linguist, sociolinguist, anthropologist, and folklorist who established disciplinary foundations for the comparative, ethnographic study of language use. His research focused upon the languages of the Pacific Northwest.

(1/404) I love you... and heroin: care and collusion among drug-using couples.

BACKGROUND: Romantic partnerships between drug-using couples, when they are recognized at all, tend to be viewed as dysfunctional, unstable, utilitarian, and often violent. This study presents a more nuanced portrayal by describing the interpersonal dynamics of 10 heroin and cocaine-using couples from Hartford, Connecticut. RESULTS: These couples cared for each other similarly to the ways that non-drug-using couples care for their intimate partners. However, most also cared by helping each other avoid the symptoms of drug withdrawal. They did this by colluding with each other to procure and use drugs. Care and collusion in procuring and using drugs involved meanings and social practices that were constituted and reproduced by both partners in an interpersonal dynamic that was often overtly gendered. These gendered dynamics could be fluid and changed over time in response to altered circumstances and/or individual agency. They also were shaped by and interacted with long-standing historical, economic and socio-cultural forces including the persistent economic inequality, racism and other forms of structural violence endemic in the inner-city Hartford neighborhoods where these couples resided. As a result, these relationships offered both risk and protection from HIV, HCV and other health threats (e.g. arrest and violence). CONCLUSION: A more complex and nuanced understanding of drug-using couples can be tapped for its potential in shaping prevention and intervention efforts. For example, drug treatment providers need to establish policies which recognize the existence and importance of interpersonal dynamics between drug users, and work with them to coordinate detoxification and treatment for both partners, whenever possible, as well as provide additional couples-oriented services in an integrated and comprehensive drug treatment system.  (+info)

(2/404) The interplay between interpersonal dynamics, treatment barriers, and larger social forces: an exploratory study of drug-using couples in Hartford, CT.

BACKGROUND: The drug treatment field tends to place emphasis on the individual rather than the individual in social context. While there are a growing number of studies indicating that drug-using intimate partners are likely to play an important role in determining treatment options, little attention has been given to the experience and complex treatment needs of illicit drug-using (heroin, cocaine, crack) couples. METHODS: This exploratory study used in-depth interviews and ethnographic engagement to better understand the relationship between interpersonal dynamics and the treatment experience of ten relatively stable drug-using couples in Hartford, CT. Semi-structured and open-ended qualitative interviews were conducted with each couple and separately with each partner. Whenever possible, the day-to-day realities and contexts of risk were also observed via participant and non-participant observation of these couples in the community. A grounded theory approach was used to inductively code and analyze nearly 40 transcripts of 60-90 minute interviews as well as fieldnotes. RESULTS: This study builds on a concept of complex interpersonal dynamics among drug users. Interpersonal dynamics of care and collusion were identified: couples cared for each other and colluded to acquire and use drugs. Care and collusion operate at the micro level of the risk environment. Treatment barriers and inadequacies were identified as part of the risk environment at the meso or intermediate level of analysis, and larger social forces such as gender dynamics, poverty and the "War on Drugs" were identified at the macro level. Interpersonal dynamics posed problems for couples when one or both partners were interested in accessing treatment. Structural barriers presented additional obstacles with the denial of admittance of both partners to treatment programs which had a sole focus on the individual and avoided treating couples. CONCLUSION: Detoxification and treatment facilities need to recognize the complex interplay between interpersonal dynamics which shape the treatment experience of couples, and which are also shaped by larger structural dynamics, including barriers in the treatment system. Improvements to the treatment system in general will go a long way in improving treatment for couples. Couples-specific programming also needs to be developed.  (+info)

(3/404) Treatment at the front end of the criminal justice continuum: the association between arrest and admission into specialty substance abuse treatment.

BACKGROUND: To reduce criminal recidivism and drug use, it has been proposed that the substance abuse treatment delivery system cut across different components of the criminal justice continuum. Arrest, at the front end of this continuum, may represent a critical moment to motivate people with substance use disorders (SUD) to seek treatment but is often over looked as an intervention point. We used data from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to compare treatment need and recent treatment admission for participants with no criminal justice (CJ) involvement in the past year, past-year arrest, and CJ supervision (i.e., probation or parole status). RESULTS: Of those arrested, 44.8% met criteria for an SUD. However, only 14% of those arrested with an SUD received treatment in the year of their arrest. In multivariate modelling, arrest was an independent predictor of treatment admission (odds ratio (OR) = 8.74) similar in magnitude to meeting criteria for an SUD (OR = 8.22). Those further along the continuum--under supervision--were most likely to receive treatment (OR = 22.62). CONCLUSION: Arrest involves the largest number of individuals entering the criminal justice system. The NSDUH suggests that nearly 6 million individuals in the US experience an arrest annually and that nearly half meet criteria for an SUD. Although arrest involves the largest number of individuals entering the criminal justice system, it is also the most fleeting point as individuals can move in and out rather quickly. Minimally, arrest imposes contact between the individual and a law enforcement person and can be an opportunity for early intervention strategies such as pre-arraignment diversion into treatment or brief intervention strategies. Using brief intervention at this early point in the continuum may motivate a greater number of individuals to seek treatment or decrease drug and alcohol use. Training and procedural shifts at this point of contact could have important policy implications in reducing the number of subsequent arrests or preventing individuals moving further along the criminal justice continuum, as well as decreasing the fiscal and resource burdens associated with criminal justice processing and confinement.  (+info)

(4/404) A rationale and model for addressing tobacco dependence in substance abuse treatment.

Most persons in drug treatment smoke cigarettes. Until drug treatment facilities systematically treat their patients' tobacco use, millions will flow through the drug treatment system, overcome their primary drug of abuse, but die prematurely from tobacco-related illnesses. This paper reviews the literature on the health benefits of quitting smoking for drug treatment patients, whether smoking causes relapse to other drug or alcohol abuse, the treatment of tobacco dependence, and good and bad times for quitting smoking among drug treatment patients. It also presents a conceptual model and recommendations for treating tobacco in substance abuse treatment, and provides references to internet and paper-copy tools and information for treating tobacco dependence. At present, research on tobacco treatment in drug treatment is in its infancy. Although few drug treatment programs currently offer formal services, many more will likely begin to treat nicotine dependence as external forces and patient demand for these services increases. In the absence of clear guidelines and attention to quality of care, drug treatment programs may adopt smoking cessation services based on cost, convenience, or selection criteria other than efficacy. Because research in this field is relatively new, substance abuse treatment professionals should adhere to the standards of care for the general population, but be prepared to update their practices with emerging interventions that have proven to be effective for patients in drug treatment.  (+info)

(5/404) Brief screening for co-occurring disorders among women entering substance abuse treatment.

BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of identifying co-occurring psychiatric disorders in substance abuse treatment programs, there are few appropriate and validated instruments available to substance abuse treatment staff to conduct brief screen for these conditions. This paper describes the development, implementation and validation of a brief screening instrument for mental health diagnoses and trauma among a diverse sample of Black, Hispanic and White women in substance abuse treatment. With input from clinicians and consumers, we adapted longer existing validated instruments into a 14 question screen covering demographics, mental health symptoms and physical and sexual violence exposure. All women entering treatment (methadone, residential and out-patient) at five treatment sites were screened at intake (N = 374). RESULTS: Eighty nine percent reported a history of interpersonal violence, and 70% reported a history of sexual assault. Eighty-eight percent reported mental health symptoms in the last 30 days. The screening questions administered to 88 female clients were validated against in-depth psychiatric diagnostic assessments by trained mental health clinicians. We estimated measures of predictive validity, including sensitivity, specificity and predictive values positive and negative. Screening items were examined multiple ways to assess utility. The screen is a useful and valid proxy for PTSD but not for other mental illness. CONCLUSION: Substance abuse treatment programs should incorporate violence exposure questions into clinical use as a matter of policy. More work is needed to develop brief screening tools measures for front-line treatment staff to accurately assess other mental health needs of women entering substance abuse treatment.  (+info)

(6/404) Homeless drug users' awareness and risk perception of peer "take home naloxone" use--a qualitative study.

BACKGROUND: Peer use of take home naloxone has the potential to reduce drug related deaths. There appears to be a paucity of research amongst homeless drug users on the topic. This study explores the acceptability and potential risk of peer use of naloxone amongst homeless drug users. From the findings the most feasible model for future treatment provision is suggested. METHODS: In depth face-to-face interviews conducted in one primary care centre and two voluntary organisation centres providing services to homeless drug users in a large UK cosmopolitan city. Interviews recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically by framework techniques. RESULTS: Homeless people recognise signs of a heroin overdose and many are prepared to take responsibility to give naloxone, providing prior training and support is provided. Previous reports of the theoretical potential for abuse and malicious use may have been overplayed. CONCLUSION: There is insufficient evidence to recommend providing "over the counter" take home naloxone" to UK homeless injecting drug users. However a programme of peer use of take home naloxone amongst homeless drug users could be feasible providing prior training is provided. Peer education within a health promotion framework will optimise success as current professionally led health promotion initiatives are failing to have a positive impact amongst homeless drug users.  (+info)

(7/404) Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use.

BACKGROUND: Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. RESULTS: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female) Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. DISCUSSION: Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.  (+info)

(8/404) A success story: HIV prevention for injection drug users in Rhode Island.

BACKGROUND: New HIV diagnoses related to injection drug use (IDU) have declined in the United States. Access to clean syringes and decreasing HIV transmission among injection drug users have been HIV prevention priorities of the Rhode Island (RI) HIV community. To examine trends in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in RI, we performed a retrospective analysis of new HIV diagnoses according to HIV risk factor from 1990-2003. RESULTS: There has been an 80% absolute reduction in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in RI coincident with IDU-specific prevention efforts. CONCLUSION: There has been a greater decline in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in Rhode Island compared to national data reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We hypothesize that this dramatic decline in Rhode Island is related to extensive HIV prevention efforts targeting IDUs. Further research is needed to examine the impact of specific HIV prevention interventions for injection drug users.  (+info)



methadone


  • Methadone treatment has became one of main actions taken in China to control the spread of HIV among drug users. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Utilization of on-site primary care services by HIV-seropositive and seronegative drug users in a methadone maintenance program. (ehesp.fr)
  • The feasibility of onsite primary care services and their use by human immunodeficiency virus HIV-seropositive and seronegative injecting drug users within an outpatient methadone maintenance program are examined. (ehesp.fr)

injectors


  • The study group consisted of 212 seropositive and 264 seronegative drug injectors. (ehesp.fr)
  • The Lindenhurst-based Long Island Minority AIDS Coalition (LIMAC) deliberated placing a van at the intersection of North Main Street and Brooklyn Avenue for drug injectors to exchange used needles for clean ones. (thebody.com)

injection drug


  • The Denver Post on Friday examined efforts to establish needle-exchange programs in Colorado to reduce the risk of HIV and hepatitis C among injection drug users. (thebody.com)
  • Proponents of needle-exchange programs say they prevent HIV and hepatitis C, but opponents say they condone injection drug use. (thebody.com)
  • Thrun noted that several studies have found that needle-exchange programs do not encourage or prolong injection drug use and make IDUs more likely to seek treatment. (thebody.com)
  • It continues, 'Numerous research studies and practical experience with such programs around the nation demonstrate the savings,' adding, 'The same studies and practical experience also refute the primary rationale for opposing needle-exchange programs -- the notion that they increase' injection drug use. (drugs-forum.com)

needles


  • She said NEPs help halt HIV transmission by disposing of used needles, and that LIMAC refers users to treatment programs and other services. (thebody.com)
  • Drug dealers are going to come because they've got their customers and they've got their needles," said resident Pat Rowen. (thebody.com)
  • With needle exchange programs elsewhere in the U.S. and the world, IV drug users turn in dirty needles at an exchange point and receive clean ones, no questions asked. (northcountrynow.com)

AIDS


  • The New York health department's Community Need Index lists Freeport's ZIP code as one of Nassau County's most needy, considering factors including AIDS cases, drug use, and teen pregnancy statistics. (thebody.com)
  • According to Avert, an international HIV/AIDS advocacy group, one in five IV drug users worldwide is infected with HIV. (northcountrynow.com)

addiction


  • We are a small non-profit that runs one of the most read drug information & addiction help websites in the world. (drugs-forum.com)

human


  • We will not defeat drug abuse until we can change human nature. (drugs-forum.com)