Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Triatominae: A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.GuatemalaCulicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.ArgentinaEntomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Bedbugs: Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.PanamaInsect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.MexicoPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.BrazilSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Support Vector Machines: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.

*  vector-borne disease - Latest News on vector-borne disease | Read Breaking News on Zee News

Get latest news on vector-borne disease. Read Breaking News on vector-borne disease updated and published at Zee News ... vector-borne disease. Delhi: Dengue cases on the rise, over 750 reported in a week As per reports, as many as 756 people have ... Rise in dengue, chikungunya cases: Why no scientific solution to prevent vector-borne diseases, asks Delhi High Court In 2016, ... A 30-year-old man was the first victim here to die of the vector-borne disease malaria this year, authorities said. ...
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*  Live Online Chat: Small Bite, Big Threat - Vector-Borne Diseases in Asia | Asian Development Bank

... we focus on vector-borne diseases like dengue, malaria and lymphatic filariasis that are threatening the lives of millions ... On World Health Day 2014, we focus on vector-borne diseases like dengue, malaria and lymphatic filariasis that are threatening ... Live Online Chat: Small Bite, Big Threat - Vector-Borne Diseases in Asia. *Facebook ... ADB, World Health Organization Urge Greater Vigilance and Action in Fighting Vector-borne Diseases ...
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*  CDC - Home - Division of Vector-Borne Diseases - NCEZID

DVBD is part of the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). ... Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) home page. ... Vector-Borne Diseases - At a Glance. Dengue: Globally, dengue ... About the Division of Vector-Borne Diseases. The Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) strives to protect the nation from ... Vector-borne diseases are among the most complex of all infectious diseases to prevent and control. DVBD combines specialized ...
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*  Vector-Borne Disease Research

The WHO estimates that vector-borne diseases contribute to 17% of the estimated global burden of infectious diseases. To aid in ... We've got you covered! ATCC houses a number of products that support research on prevalent vector-borne diseases such as Zika, ... Browse our growing portfolio of products by clicking on the links below, or explore our collection vector-borne disease ... The development and evaluation of rapid diagnostic methods is critical for the detection and effective treatment of vector- ...
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*  Parasites & Vectors | Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Neglected Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases (EurNegVec): with...

... parasitic diseases, intermediate hosts, vectors and vector-borne pathogens.,/p, ... p,,i,Parasites & Vectors,/i, publishes articles on the biology of parasites, ... Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Neglected Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases (EurNegVec): with Management Committee and ... The 1st Conference on Neglected Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases (EurNegVec): with Management Committee and Working Group ...
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*  Parasites & Vectors | Community news

... parasitic diseases, intermediate hosts, vectors and vector-borne pathogens.,/p, ... p,,i,Parasites & Vectors,/i, publishes articles on the biology of parasites, ... ESCCAP - Vector-borne Diseases 2016 meeting. 29 April 2016. WHO collaborating centre for the epidemiology, detection and ... Keystone Symposium: Vectors, Pathogens and Diseases: Current Trends and Emerging Challenges (T1) - 05 June 2017 ...
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*  100 Fantasy Disease Vectors - Lee's Lists | RPGNow.com

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*  Positions on foreign disease vectors, feral cats revised

Control of Foreign Disease Vectors and Invasive Species. To protect animal, human, and environmental health, the AVMA supports ... Under the five-year review directive, the CEI evaluated the AVMA position statement on Foreign Disease Vector Control and ... on international commerce and travel to prevent the entry of foreign disease vectors and invasive species into the United ...
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*  Recent Articles | Disease Vectors, Culture And Genetics & Genomics | The Scientist Magazine®

Features Do Microbes Trigger Alzheimer's Disease? The once fringe idea is gaining traction among the scientific community. ... tags: disease vectors x culture x genetics & genomics x The Scientist. » disease vectors, culture and genetics & genomics ...
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*  Resistance of Insect Pests and Disease Vectors to Synthetic Pyrethroids

8. WHO Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control. 1986. Resistance of vectors and reservoirs of disease to pesticides. ... Citation for this article: Mueller - Beilschmidt, Doria 1990, 'Resistance of insect pests and disease vectors to synthetic ... Malaria In Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors, pp.7-9. Geneva, Switzerland: ... Resistance of Insect Pests and Disease Vectors to Synthetic Pyrethroids By Doria Mueller-Beilschmidt ...
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*  Recent Articles | Disease Vectors, Microbiology And Cell & Molecular Biology | The Scientist Magazine®

tags: disease vectors x microbiology x cell & molecular biology x The Scientist. » disease vectors, microbiology and cell & ... Most didn't believe French doctor Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran when he said he'd spotted the causative agent of the disease- ... Features Do Microbes Trigger Alzheimer's Disease? The once fringe idea is gaining traction among the scientific community. ... Do Microbes Trigger Alzheimer's Disease?. By Jill U. Adams , September 1, 2017 ...
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*  Population genetics suggest that multiple invasion processes need to be addressed in the management plan of a plant disease...

... and the disease and vector remain of commercial significance today (Kuniata et al. 2001). Apparently, disease-free populations ... Hemiptera: Delphacidae) as a vector of Ramu Stunt disease of sugarcane in Papua New Guinea. Journal of the Australian ... vector of Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane. Virus Research 141:247-257.. *CrossRef , ... is a significant invasive agricultural pest because it is the only known vector for Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane (Kuniata et ...
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*  Figure 1 - Genomic Changes of Chagas Disease Vector, South America - Volume 10, Number 3-March 2004 - Emerging Infectious...

... the main vector of Chagas disease. We identified two allopatric groups, named Andean and non-Andean. The Andean specimens ... Genomic Changes of Chagas Disease Vector, South America Francisco Panzera*. , Jean Pierre Dujardin†, Paula Nicolini*, María ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, * National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Office of ... Emerging Infectious Disease journal ISSN: 1080-6059 Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this ...
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*  Bridging Laboratory and Field Research for Genetic Control of Disease Vectors: Edited By: BGJ Knols and C Louis | NHBS Book...

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*  An animal homolog of plant Mep/Amt transporters promotes ammonia excretion by the anal papillae of the disease vector mosquito...

Whereas A. gambiae is a major vector for malaria, Aedes aegypti is the vector for re-emerging tropical diseases dengue and ... An animal homolog of plant Mep/Amt transporters promotes ammonia excretion by the anal papillae of the disease vector mosquito ... An animal homolog of plant Mep/Amt transporters promotes ammonia excretion by the anal papillae of the disease vector mosquito ... An animal homolog of plant Mep/Amt transporters promotes ammonia excretion by the anal papillae of the disease vector mosquito ...
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*  Insect pests and insect-vectored diseases of palms - a review - Australian Museum

Insect pests and insect-vectored diseases of palms - a review. Australian Journal of Entomology. 48. 328-342. ... Refereed Article Insect pests and insect-vectored diseases of palms - a review ... Palm production faces serious challenges ranging from diseases to damage by insect pests, all of which may reduce productivity ... This paper discusses insect pests that attack palms, pathogens the insects vector as well as other disorders that are ...
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*  Vector Borne Diseases - ICGEB

Vector-borne diseases, arbovirus, vector biology, Chikungunya, dengue, host pathogen interactions, RNAi, functional genomics ... Using genomic tools, we are identifying vector factors that may play a role on pathogen establishment within the vector with ... We have seen that initial viral load of both the viruses are important in establishing co-infections in the vector. We are ... Furthermore, we are also interested in identifying vector host factors that may play a role in CHIKV replication and we are ...
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*  BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PETIVERIA ALLIACEA AND FLUEGGAE VIROSA ON THE LIFE CYCLE OF A DISEASE VECTOR (MUSCA DOMESTICA) | Abstract

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PETIVERIA ALLIACEA AND FLUEGGAE VIROSA ON THE LIFE CYCLE OF A DISEASE VECTOR (MUSCA DOMESTICA). The ...
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*  Vegetal bio food protects from heart disease Stock Vector & Stock Photos | Bigstock

alternative, bio, care, clean, concept, content, design, dew, disease, drawn, eco, ecology, element, environmental, food, fresh ... graphic, green, health, healthcare, health care, healthy, healthy food, healthy foods, heart, heart disease, herbs, icon, ... vector, vegetal, vegetarian, vegetation, web, welfare, white ... Vegetal bio food protects from heart disease. Stock Photo ID: ...
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*  Recent Articles | Viral Vectors And Disease/Medicine | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 3

The infectious disease scientist spent seven years in the U.S. before returning home to establish a thriving center for ... Scientists hope that these devices will one day replace animal models of disease and help advance personalized medicine. ... tags: viral vectors x disease/medicine x The Scientist. » viral vectors and disease/medicine ...
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*  Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases Create New Public Health Challenge | NSF - National Science Foundation

... and the insect vectors that spread the disease to humans.. Although vector-borne diseases are sensitive to climate, climate ... Vector-borne zoonotic diseases result from disease-causing agents or pathogens that naturally infect wildlife, and are ... Human activities are advancing the spread of vector-borne, zoonotic diseases such as West Nile virus, Lyme disease and dengue ... The incidence of any vector-borne disease involves a complex interplay of multiple factors affecting animal hosts, vectors and ...
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*  Report vector-borne disease cases regularly: BMC to pvt hospitals | mumbai news | Hindustan Times

Many private hospitals are not reporting vector-borne diseases to the public health department, leaving government health ... Report vector-borne disease cases regularly: BMC to pvt hospitals Many private hospitals are not reporting vector-borne ... suffering from the vector-borne disease, regularly. Vectors refer to organisms like insects that can transmit infectious ... Many private hospitals are not reporting vector-borne diseases to the public health department, leaving government health ...
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*  Vector-borne diseases should be prevented: WHO

Vector-borne diseases like Malaria, Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis could be eradicated through preventive measures and more ... Vector-borne diseases are transmitted by vectors like mosquitoes, sand flies and fleas. ... Vector-borne diseases should be prevented: WHO. Published On: Tue, Mar 25th, 2014 , Global Health , By BioNews ... "In India, the National Health Mission has been important in curbing vector-borne diseases," Khalakdina said. ...
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*  DNA Clean-Up Buffers

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*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Vectors encoding five different FPs: Cerulean, EGFP, Venus, tdTomato, and mCherry were used to concurrently transduce HSPCs, ... Visualizing developing organ formation as well as progession and treatment of disease often heavily relies on the ability to ... Muscular dystrophies are a group of degenerative muscle diseases characterized by progressive loss of contractile muscle cells ... Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23300962/long-term-in-vivo-imaging-of-multiple-organs-at-the-single-cell-level

Ditch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Triatoma infestansDipetalogaster: Dipetalogaster, a genus of Triatominae, the kissing bugs, has only a single species, Dipetalogaster maxima, which is found in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. The blood-sucking Dipetalogaster live in crevices in the rocks and feed on lizards.Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.Chagas: Time to Treat campaign: The Chagas: Time to Treat Campaign is an international campaign started by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative to advocate for increased research and development of treatments for Chagas disease. Chagas is a potentially fatal neglected disease that affects between 8 and 13 million people worldwide.Rhodnius nasutus: Rhodnius nasutus is a Chagas disease vector native to the northeast of Brazil. It is primarily associated with the Copernicia prunifera palm tree (Carnauba).Aedes aegyptiGuatemala syphilis experiment: The syphilis experiments in Guatemala were United States-led human experiments conducted in Guatemala from 1946 to 1948, during the administration of President Truman and President Juan José Arévalo with the cooperation of some Guatemalan health ministries and officials. Doctors infected soldiers, prostitutes, prisoners and mental patients with syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases, without the informed consent of the subjects, and treated most subjects with antibiotics.Psorophora howardiiInsecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Pyrethroid: A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).Marcos Paz, Buenos AiresCultural entomologyCulex quinquefasciatus: Culex quinquefasciatus (earlier known as Culex fatigans), the southern house mosquito, is a medium-sized mosquito found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is the vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, avian malaria, and arboviruses including St.Anopheles culicifacies: Anopheles culicifacies (sensu lato) is one of the major vectors of malaria on the Indian Subcontinent. It has been reported to be a species complex consisting of five sibling species which have been provisionally designated as species A, B, C, D, and E.Bed bug infestation: A bed bug can individually and collectively cause a number of health effects including skin rashes, psychological effects and allergic symptoms. Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters.Trypanosoma: Trypanosoma is a genus of kinetoplastids (class Kinetoplastida), a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa. The name is derived from the Greek trypano- (borer) and soma (body) because of their corkscrew-like motion.Ukiah Ambulance: Ukiah Ambulance is now Medstar Ambulance of Mendocino County Inc., a private non-profit ground transport ambulance provider serving central and southern Mendocino County.California coastal salt marsh: California's coastal salt marsh is a wetland plant community that occurs sporadically along the Pacific Coast from Humboldt Bay to San Diego. This salt marsh type is found in bays, harbors, inlets, and other protected areas subject to tidal flooding.Roberto Arias: Roberto Emilio Arias (1918 – 1989), known as "Tito", was a Panamanian international lawyer, diplomat and journalist who was the husband of Dame Margot Fonteyn. Arias was from a prominent Panamanian political family, whose members had reached the Presidency four times; amongst them, his own father, Harmodio Arias.National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Cytoplasmic incompatibility: Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is a phenomenon that results in sperm and eggs being unable to form viable offspring. The effect arises from changes in the gamete cells caused by intracellular parasites like Wolbachia, which infect a wide range of insect species.Roll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Insect sting allergy: Insect sting allergy is the term commonly given to the allergic response of an animal in response to the bite or sting of an insect. Typically, insects which generate allergic responses are either stinging insects (wasps, bees, hornets and ants) or biting insects (mosquitoes, ticks).EcosystemBiopesticide: Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated historically with biological control - and by implication - the manipulation of living organisms.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightAndesobia jelskiiOld Portal de Mercaderes (Mexico City): Old Portal de Mercaderes in the historic center of Mexico City was and is the west side of the main plaza (otherwise known as the "Zócalo"). This side of the plaza has been occupied by commercial structures since the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in 1521.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Coles PhillipsMatrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Genetic variation: right|thumbSelf-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV): Self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) is a viral vector engineered from the naturally occurring adeno-associated virus (AAV) to be used as a tool for gene therapy. Use of recombinant AAV (rAAV) has been successful in clinical trials addressing a variety of diseases.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).University of CampinasFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Corinna CortesSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Synapto-pHluorin: Synapto-pHluorin is a genetically encoded optical indicator of vesicle release and recycling. It is used in neuroscience to study transmitter release.Chromosome engineering: Chromosome engineering is "the controlled generation of chromosomal deletions, inversions, or translocations with defined endpoints." For: By combining chromosomal translocation, chromosomal inversion,and chromosomal deletion, chromosome engineering has been shown to identify the underlying genes that cause certain diseases in mice.GC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase: Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal or SABG) is a hypothetical hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-galactosides into monosaccharides only in senescent cells.Citrine (colour): Citrine is a colour], the most common reference for which is certain coloured varieties of [[quartz which are a medium deep shade of golden yellow. Citrine has been summarized at various times as yellow, greenish-yellow, brownish yellow or orange.Spatiotemporal gene expressionRecombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Adenovirus genome: Adenovirus genomes are linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules that are typically 26-46 Kbp long, containing 23-46 protein-coding genes. The example used for the following description is Human adenovirus E, a mastadenovirus with a 36 Kbp genome containing 38 protein-coding genes.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.

(1/1021) Pathogenesis of cancrum oris (noma): confounding interactions of malnutrition with infection.

This study showed that impoverished Nigerian children at risk for cancrum oris (noma) had significantly reduced plasma concentrations of zinc (< 10.8 micromol/L), retinol (< 1.05 micromol/L), ascorbate (< 11 micromol/L), and the essential amino acids, with prominently increased plasma and saliva levels of free cortisol, compared with their healthy counterparts. The nutrient deficiencies, in concert with previously reported widespread viral infections (measles, herpesviruses) in the children, would impair oral mucosal immunity. We postulate, subject to additional studies, that evolution of the oral mucosal ulcers including acute necrotizing gingivitis to noma is triggered by a consortium of microorganisms of which Fusobacterium necrophorum is a key component. Fusobacterium necrophorum elaborates several dermonecrotic toxic metabolites and is acquired by the impoverished children via fecal contamination resulting from shared residential facilities with animals and very poor environmental sanitation.  (+info)

(2/1021) Isolation of tick-borne encephalitis virus from wild rodents and a seroepizootiologic survey in Hokkaido, Japan.

To determine the vertebrate host of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in the southern part of Hokkaido, Japan, virus isolation was performed using spleens from small mammals captured in the area. Two virus strains were isolated, one strain from Apodemus speciosus and another from Clethrionomys rufocanus. Virus isolates were inoculated onto baby hamster kidney cell monolayers and antigen slides were prepared for an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay. Two isolates were identified as TBE viruses by monoclonal antibody reactions. To specify the TBE-endemic area in Hokkaido, rodent, horse, and dog sera collected from 1992 to 1997 were tested for neutralization antibody against TBE virus previously isolated from a dog. The positive cases were distributed in four districts in the southern part of Hokkaido.  (+info)

(3/1021) Deriving meteorological variables across Africa for the study and control of vector-borne disease: a comparison of remote sensing and spatial interpolation of climate.

This paper presents the results of an investigation into the utility of remote sensing (RS) using meteorological satellites sensors and spatial interpolation (SI) of data from meteorological stations, for the prediction of spatial variation in monthly climate across continental Africa in 1990. Information from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) polar-orbiting meteorological satellites was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and atmospheric moisture. Cold cloud duration (CCD) data derived from the High Resolution Radiometer (HRR) on-board the European Meteorological Satellite programme's (EUMETSAT) Meteosat satellite series were also used as a RS proxy measurement of rainfall. Temperature, atmospheric moisture and rainfall surfaces were independently derived from SI of measurements from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) member stations of Africa. These meteorological station data were then used to test the accuracy of each methodology, so that the appropriateness of the two techniques for epidemiological research could be compared. SI was a more accurate predictor of temperature, whereas RS provided a better surrogate for rainfall; both were equally accurate at predicting atmospheric moisture. The implications of these results for mapping short and long-term climate change and hence their potential for the study and control of disease vectors are considered. Taking into account logistic and analytical problems, there were no clear conclusions regarding the optimality of either technique, but there was considerable potential for synergy.  (+info)

(4/1021) A hemocyte-like cell line established from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae expresses six prophenoloxidase genes.

Cell lines from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been established as a tool for the study of the mosquito innate immune system in vitro. Here, we describe the first continuous insect cell line that produces prophenoloxidase (PPO). This cell line (4a-3B) expresses constitutively six PPO genes, three of which are novel (PPO4, PPO5, and PPO6). The PPO genes show distinct temporal expression profiles in the intact mosquito, spanning stages from the embryo to the adult in an overlapping manner. Transient induction of larva-specific PPO genes in blood-fed adult females suggests that the developmental hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone may be involved in PPO gene regulation. Indeed, exposure of 4a-3B cells to 20-hydroxyecdysone in culture results in induction of those PPO genes that are mainly expressed in early developmental stages, and repression of PPO5, which is preferentially expressed at the adult stage. The cell line shows bacteria-induced immune transcripts that encode defensin and Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein, but no induction of PPO transcripts. This cell line most likely derives from a hemocyte lineage, and represents an appropriate in vitro model for the study of the humoral and cellular immune defenses of A. gambiae.  (+info)

(5/1021) Bednet impregnation for Chagas disease control: a new perspective.

BACKGROUND: To determine the efficacy and acceptability of deltamethrin-impregnated bednets in controlling Chagas disease in South America. METHODS: In three endemic departments of Colombia, a qualitative study on people's knowledge about Chagas disease, vectors, preventive measures and their willingness for collaboration in control operations was undertaken. Additionally, in an entomological study with 100 laboratory-bred Chagas vectors (Rhodnius prolixus), vectors were released for 5 nights (20 each night) in an experimental room, with the human bait protected for one night by an unimpregnated and for four nights by a deltamethrin-impregnated bednet (13 mg/m2). Vectors were stained with fluorescent powder for observation, collected after 10 h exposure in the experimental room and observed for a further 72 h. RESULTS: The study population did not know anything about Chagas disease, but believed the vector to transmit cutaneous leishmaniasis. Therefore willingness to take part in control operations was high. The experimental hut study showed a vector mortality rate of 95% in a room with impregnated nets and of 10% in a room with unimpregnated nets. CONCLUSION: This study opens a new perspective for Chagas disease control in integrated vector borne disease prevention programmes.  (+info)

(6/1021) Evaluation of the epidemic potential of western equine encephalitis virus in the northeastern United States.

The problem of evaluating the epidemic potential of western equine encephalitis in the northeastern United States is presented and possible reasons are discussed for the present lack of human and horse cases of this disease even though increased numbers of isolations of the virus have been obtained in the East during recent years. Epidemiologic factors of vector bionomics and virus strain variations are considered. It is concluded that while this virus strain can no longer be regarded as uncommon in the Northeast, the evidence indicates there is little potential for epidemic expression of this agent in the human and horse population. This appears to be due to differences in the bionomics of the mosquito Culiseta melanura, which serves as the primary enzootic vector in the northeastern United States and in the bionomics of Culex tarsalis that is the vector in the western region of the United States. Other limiting factors in the epidemic potential may be variations between virus strains located in the East and West.  (+info)

(7/1021) Density of sand flies (Diptera: psychodidae) in domestic and wild animal shelters in an area of visceral Leishmaniasis in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

The objective of the present study was to determine the association of sand flies with the presence of domestic and wild animals in the peridomiciliary area. The sand flies were collected using direct aspiration and CDC light traps placed in animal shelters. The results suggest that different sand flies species have different behavioral characteristics in an apparent preference for animal baits and that Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lu. evandroi were the most eclectic species regarding their biotope choice. Lu. longipalpis showed a distinct preference for horses and Lu. evandroi for armadillos.  (+info)

(8/1021) Natural rodent host associations of Guanarito and pirital viruses (Family Arenaviridae) in central Venezuela.

The objective of this study was to elucidate the natural rodent host relationships of Guanarito and Pirital viruses (family Arenaviridae) in the plains of central Venezuela. Ninety-two arenavirus isolates from 607 animals, representing 10 different rodent species, were characterized to the level of serotype. The 92 isolates comprised 19 Guanarito virus strains and 73 Pirital virus strains. The 19 Guanarito virus isolates were from Zygodontomys brevicauda; 72 (98.6%) of the 73 Pirital virus isolates were from Sigmodon alstoni. These results indicate that the natural rodent associations of these 2 sympatric arenaviruses are highly specific and that Z brevicauda and S. alstoni are the principal rodent hosts of Guanarito and Pirital viruses, respectively.  (+info)



Triatoma


  • Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 and T. pseudomaculata Corrêa & Espínola, 1964 are the most important vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi - causative agent of Chagas disease - in the arid caatinga region of Northeastern Brazil. (scielo.br)

importance


  • Our aim in this study, was to compare the two species in terms of various factors that could influence their epidemiological importance as domestic vectors of T. cruzi . (scielo.br)