Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Communicable DiseasesInsect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Triatominae: A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Germ Theory of Disease: The fundamental tenet of modern medicine that certain diseases are caused by microorganisms. It was confirmed by the work of Pasteur, Lister, and Koch.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Geographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Primate Diseases: Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.VenezuelaInfluenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Housing: Living facilities for humans.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.EcuadorPrions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Wasting Disease, Chronic: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of DEER and elk characterized by chronic weight loss leading to death. It is thought to spread by direct contact between animals or through environmental contamination with the prion protein (PRIONS).Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Phlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).PeruHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Foot-and-Mouth DiseasePopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission: A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.BrazilGenotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.United StatesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia: Solitary or multiple benign cutaneous nodules comprised of immature and mature vascular structures intermingled with endothelial cells and a varied infiltrate of eosinophils, histiocytes, lymphocytes, and mast cells.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Great BritainSynapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Schools: Educational institutions.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Basic Reproduction Number: The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Simuliidae: Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Siphonaptera: An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).AfricaBreast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.

*  Alzheimer's disease transmission may be similar to infectious prion diseases - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
Home Brain and Nerves Alzheimer's disease transmission may be similar to infectious prion diseases ... The brain damage that characterizes Alzheimer's disease may originate in a form similar to that of infectious prion diseases ... We are currently working on whether disease transmission can happen in real life under more natural routes of exposure." ... The results showing a potentially infectious spreading of Alzheimer's disease in animal models were published in the Oct. 4, ...
  https://www.healthcanal.com/brain-nerves/21508-alzheimers-disease-transmission-may-be-similar-to-infectious-prion-diseases.html
*  1991 - Review: Infectious disease transmission in outpatient settings is associated with nonadherence to infection...
The potential for transmission of infectious diseases in the outpatient setting is an increasingly important concern as more ( ... Review: Infectious disease transmission in outpatient settings is associated with nonadherence to infection control procedures ... Transmission of infectious diseases in outpatient health care settings. JAMA. 1991 May 8;265:2377-81. ... Most of the reported transmissions of infectious diseases in outpatient settings were associated with nonadherence to 1 of 3 ...
  http://acpjc.org/Content/115/2/issue/ACPJC-1991-115-2-062.htm
*  Figure 1 - Bacterial Symbiosis in Arthropods and the Control of Disease Transmission - Volume 4, Number 4-December 1998 -...
... and the regulatory concerns that may arise from its use in interrupting disease transmission in humans and animals. ... a second microorganism that is pathogenic for humans and is an alternative approach to the control of arthropod-borne diseases ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, * National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Office of ... Emerging Infectious Disease journal ISSN: 1080-6059 Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this ...
  https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/4/4/98-0408-f1
*  KRISP News: Enabling Infectious Disease Transmission Research
Eduan Wilkinson news from the US: HiPerGator supercomputer is enabling infectious disease transmission research in UF's ... I look at disease patterns of the past in order to understand the global clinical and epidemiological patterns of the disease,' ... news.it.ufl.edu/research/enabling-infectious-disease-transmission-research/. ... By analyzing sequences we can construct relationships between pathogens so we can see what's driving the transmission. We can ...
  http://www.krisp.org.za/news.php?id=186
*  Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection as a Zoonotic Disease: Transmission between Humans and Elephants - Volume 4, Number 2-June...
This investigation indicates transmission of M. tuberculosis between humans and elephants. ... three elephants from an exotic animal farm in Illinois died of pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In October ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, * National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Office of ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection as a Zoonotic Disease: Transmission between Humans and Elephants. Emerging Infectious ...
  https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/4/2/98-0217_article
*  Modeling transmission of infectious diseases in aquaculture | Norsk Regnesentral
Norwegian Computing Center develop stochastic simulation models to describe how infectious diseases are transmitted between ... fish farms, including models for infectious salmon anaemia, pancras disease and sea lice. ... Infectious diseases constitute a constant threat to the Norwegian fish farming industry with major economic implications, in ... Modeling transmission of infectious diseases in aquaculture Modeling transmission of infectious diseases in aquaculture ...
  https://www.nr.no/nb/projects/modeling-transmission-infectious-diseases-aquaculture
*  Impacts of biodiversity on the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases.
... *. [ Not Yet Rated ] [ Discuss This Article ... disease transmission. However, mounting evidence indicates that biodiversity loss frequently increases disease transmission. In ... Here we evaluate evidence that reduced biodiversity affects the transmission of infectious diseases of humans, other animals ... Fibromyalgia Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E. Lyme Disease Natural Wellness Supplement News Forums Our Story ...
  http://www.prohealth.com/library/showarticle.cfm?libid=19868
*  Transmission Of Infectious Disease On Planes Analyzed ( Based on findings of a recent study res...)
Transmission,Of,Infectious,Disease,On,Planes,Analyzed,,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters, ... Transmission Of Infectious Disease On Planes Analyzed Based on findings of a recent study researchers say people aren't the ... ... Reducing HIV Transmission. 2. Drugs said to Reduce HIV Transmission to Baby. 3. Drug Found To Reduce The Transmission Of Herpes ... which has been proven to reduce the transmission of airborne and other infectious diseases be followed by passengers and they ...
  http://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-news/Transmission-Of-Infectious-Disease-On-Planes-Analyzed--3394-1/
*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Congenital Transmission of Chagas Disease in Latin American Immigrants in Switzerland - 17277 |...
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical Latin America Pregnancy Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic Pregnant Women ... Chagas Disease Communicable Diseases, Emerging Congenital Dispatch Emigration And Immigration Endemic Female Humans Infant ... International migration has changed the epidemiologic patterns of Chagas disease. Recently, 2 cases of Chagas disease ... Chagas disease (CD) is endemic to Latin America; its prevalence is highest in Bolivia. CD is sometimes seen in the United ...
  https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/17277
*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Oral Transmission of Chagas Disease by Consumption of Açaí Palm Fruit, Brazil - 17472 | Emerging...
Communicable Diseases, Emerging Disease Outbreaks Dispatch Foodborne Disease Food Parasitology Fruit Humans Oral Transmission ... Acute Chagas Disease Amazon Animals Arecaceae Açaí Palm Fruit Brazil Case-Control Studies Chagas Disease Cohort Studies ... Emerging Chagas disease: trophic network and cycle of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi from palm trees in the Amazon. ... Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main ...
  https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/17472
*  Do warmer temperatures increase dengue transmission? - Infectious Disease Hub
About Infectious Diseases Hub. About Future Science Group. Expert Panel. Submit Your Research. Permissions. ... This suggests weather conditions could have an influence on transmission, with upcoming warm periods a warning system for ... suggesting even a temporary drop in temperature may be enough to reduce the chances of mosquitoes becoming infectious. ...
  https://www.id-hub.com/2017/12/04/warmer-temperatures-increase-dengue-transmission/
*  Search of: HIV transmission AND Treatment of sexually transmitted disease OR prevention of STD OR prevention of STI OR...
Trends in test positivity of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and infectious syphilis) among study ... HIV transmission AND Treatment of sexually transmitted disease OR prevention of STD OR prevention of STI OR treatment of STD OR ... HIV transmission AND Treatment of sexually transmitted disease OR prevention of STD OR prevention of STI OR treatment of STD OR ... 420 Studies found for: HIV transmission AND Treatment of sexually transmitted disease OR prevention of STD OR prevention of STI ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=HIV+transmission+AND+Treatment+of+sexually+transmitted+disease+OR+prevention+of+STD+OR+prevention+of+STI+OR+treatment+of+STD+OR+treatment+of+STI+OR+prevention+of+sexually+transmitted+disease&recr=Open&show_flds=Y
*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Avian Mycoplasma lipofaciens Transmission to Veterinarian - 17166 | Emerging Infectious Diseases
National Center for Infectious Diseases (U.S.), Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases.; Centers for Disease Control and ... National Center for Infectious Diseases (U.S.), Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases.; Centers for Disease Control and ... Psittacosis--also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosiscan cause severe pneumonia and other serious health ... Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control. 2000; 49(RR-8):21-30. ...
  https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/17166
*  Table A1 - Fly Transmission of Campylobacter - Volume 11, Number 3-March 2005 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, * National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Office of ... Emerging Infectious Disease journal ISSN: 1080-6059 Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this ... Campylobacter has been isolated from flies, and the low infectious dose required to cause human disease would make this route ... Within-family transmission. (93). Person-to-person transmission can occur.. No obvious reason explains why within-household ...
  https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/11/3/04-0460-ta1
*  IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Mixed Methods Pilot Study of Sharing Behaviors among Waterpipe Smokers of Rural Lao PDR:...
Evidence from studies of manufactured waterpipes raises the possibility of infectious disease transmission due to waterpipe ... the possibility that this behavior provides important and unmeasured social network pathways for the transmission of infectious ... In Figure 2, we highlight some of these transmission pathways. The evidence, thus far, linking infectious disease transmission ... Evidence of Infectious Disease Transmission due to Sharing Among Waterpipe Users. The use and sharing of waterpipes have the ...
  http://mdpi.com/1660-4601/10/6/2120/htm
*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Potential Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus - 27443 | Emerging Infectious Diseases
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (U.S.). Division of Vector-Borne Diseases.; ... Potential Sexual Transmission Of Zika Virus Zika Virus Zika Virus Infection/transmission ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.); National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (U.S ... ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV ...
  https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/27443
*  Nephron Power: Live from the consensus conference on "Optimal Testing of Live Donors to Prevent Transmission of Infectious...
Live from the consensus conference on "Optimal Testing of Live Donors to Prevent Transmission of Infectious Diseases" ... C3 Glomerular Disease or Post infectious GN?. On kidney biopsy, resolving post infectious can be sometimes a common finding and ... How do we tell a recipient that they are at high risk for a transmissible infectious disease when they are accepting a CDC high ... renal infarct reports retinal diseases rheumatology salary satisfaction survey sauna scoring sfLT-1 sickle cell skin disease ...
  http://www.nephronpower.com/2011/07/live-from-consensus-conference-on_6818.html
*  Historical climate controls soil respiration responses to current soil moisture | PNAS
Infectious disease transmission on airplanes. Researchers estimate the risk of infectious disease transmission on board ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/114/24/6322
*  Light-induced dilation in nanosheets of charge-transfer complexes | PNAS
Infectious disease transmission on airplanes. Researchers estimate the risk of infectious disease transmission on board ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/115/15/3776
*  Drinking alcohol has sex-dependent effects on pair bond formation in prairie voles | PNAS
Infectious disease transmission on airplanes. Researchers estimate the risk of infectious disease transmission on board ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/04/02/1320879111
*  Filament rigidity and connectivity tune the deformation modes of active biopolymer networks | PNAS
Infectious disease transmission on airplanes. Researchers estimate the risk of infectious disease transmission on board ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/114/47/E10037
*  Structural and biochemical insights into 2′-O-methylation at the 3′-terminal nucleotide of RNA by Hen1 | PNAS
Infectious disease transmission on airplanes. Researchers estimate the risk of infectious disease transmission on board ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/10/09/0907540106
*  Distinct macrophage lineages contribute to disparate patterns of cardiac recovery and remodeling in the neonatal and adult...
Infectious disease transmission on airplanes. Researchers estimate the risk of infectious disease transmission on board ... 2014) Cardiac macrophages and their role in ischaemic heart disease. Cardiovasc Res doi:10.1093/cvr/cvu025. ... GM-CSF primes cardiac inflammation in a mouse model of Kawasaki disease ... and the Washington University Center for the Investigation of Membrane Excitability Diseases Live Cell Imaging Facility. ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/111/45/16029
*  Patricia Campbell - Mendeley
... with research interests in Modelling of infectious disease transmission, on Mendeley. ... Modelling of infectious disease transmission. View more. Co-authors (32). *Followers (4) ... Whole genome sequencing reveals extensive community-level transmission of group A Streptococcus in remote communities. *Bowen A ...
  https://www.mendeley.com/profiles/patricia-campbell6/

Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network: Global Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) is a web-based program for decision support and informatics in the fields of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine. As of 2005, more than 300 generic infectious diseases occur haphazardly in time and space and are challenged by over 250 drugs and vaccines.Ditch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Dipetalogaster: Dipetalogaster, a genus of Triatominae, the kissing bugs, has only a single species, Dipetalogaster maxima, which is found in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. The blood-sucking Dipetalogaster live in crevices in the rocks and feed on lizards.Contact tracing: In epidemiology, contact tracing is the identification and diagnosis of persons who may have come into contact with an infected person. For sexually transmitted diseases, this is generally limited to sexual partners and can fall under the heading of partner services.Psorophora howardiiChagas: Time to Treat campaign: The Chagas: Time to Treat Campaign is an international campaign started by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative to advocate for increased research and development of treatments for Chagas disease. Chagas is a potentially fatal neglected disease that affects between 8 and 13 million people worldwide.Miasma theoryVon Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Insect sting allergy: Insect sting allergy is the term commonly given to the allergic response of an animal in response to the bite or sting of an insect. Typically, insects which generate allergic responses are either stinging insects (wasps, bees, hornets and ants) or biting insects (mosquitoes, ticks).Triatoma infestansList of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Anopheles culicifacies: Anopheles culicifacies (sensu lato) is one of the major vectors of malaria on the Indian Subcontinent. It has been reported to be a species complex consisting of five sibling species which have been provisionally designated as species A, B, C, D, and E.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Aedes aegyptiRhodnius nasutus: Rhodnius nasutus is a Chagas disease vector native to the northeast of Brazil. It is primarily associated with the Copernicia prunifera palm tree (Carnauba).Roll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Wolverine and the X-Men (toyline): The Wolverine and the X-Men toyline is a 3¾" action figure line manufactured by Hasbro. It is a tie-in to the Wolverine and the X-Men animated series and was released alongside the Marvel Universe toyline and X-Men Origins: Wolverine toyline as part of Hasbro's new 3¾" figure initiative for Marvel Comics characters, although this line has a much more animated style than the other two lines.Lamellar granule: Lamellar granules (otherwise known as membrane-coating granules (MCGs), lamellar bodies, keratinosomes or Odland bodies) are secretory organelles found in type II pneumocytes and keratinocytes. They are oblong structures, appearing about 300-400 nm in width and 100-150 nm in length in transmission electron microscopy images.Interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs: The interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs is an ongoing process affecting the population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia. The current population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia is now probably higher than in the past.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Carte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.Theodor Bilharz Research Institute: The Theodor Bilharz Research Institute is located in Giza, Egypt.Colt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.Trypanosoma: Trypanosoma is a genus of kinetoplastids (class Kinetoplastida), a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa. The name is derived from the Greek trypano- (borer) and soma (body) because of their corkscrew-like motion.Dactylogyrus: Dactylogyrus is a genus of the Dactylogyridae family. They are commonly known as gill flukesSchistosomiasisThe Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Illegal drug trade in Venezuela: Illegal drug trade in Venezuela refers to the practice of illegal drug trade in Venezuela. Historically Venezuela has been a path to the United States for illegal drugs originating in Colombia, through Central America and Mexico and Caribbean countries such as Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico.Influenza A virus subtype H1N1: Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Human mortality from H5N1: Human mortality from H5N1 or the human fatality ratio from H5N1 or the case-fatality rate of H5N1 refer to the ratio of the number of confirmed human deaths resulting from confirmed cases of transmission and infection of H5N1 to the number of those confirmed cases. For example, if there are 100 confirmed cases of humans infected with H5N1 and 10 die, then there is a 10% human fatality ratio (or mortality rate).EcosystemNational Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Milan criteria: In transplantation medicine, the Milan criteria are applied as a basis for selecting patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma for liver transplantation.Smoking in Ecuador: Smoking in Ecuador is more common among men and younger people. More than half of Ecuadorian smokers desire to quit.Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis: Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) is a method for producing inorganic compounds by exothermic reactions, usually involving salts. A variant of this method is known as solid state metathesis (SSM).Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) is an amplification technique (conceptually like PCR but not involving nucleotides) to multiply misfolded prions originally developed by Soto and colleagues.Saborio,G.Deer farm: A deer farm is a fenced piece of land suitable for grazing that is populated with deer such as elk, moose, and even reindeer raised for the purpose of hunting tourism or as livestock. This practice is very different from the way such Arctic communities like the Laplanders migrate in open country with their herds of reindeer.Nemapogon granella: The European Grain Worm or European Grain Moth (Nemapogon granella) is a species of tineoid moth. It belongs to the fungus moth family (Tineidae), and therein to the subfamily Nemapogoninae.Illegal drug trade in Peru: The illegal drug trade in Peru includes the growing of coca and the shipment of cocaine to the United States. In an example of the balloon effect, dramatic falls in coca cultivation in the late 1990s saw cultivation move to Colombia.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Foot-and-mouth disease: (ILDS B08.820)Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Hygiene: Hygiene is a set of practices performed for the preservation of health.Sterilization (microbiology): Sterilization (or sterilisation) is a term referring to any process that eliminates (removes) or kills (deactivates) all forms of life and other biological agents (such as prions, as well as viruses which some do not consider to be alive but are biological pathogens nonetheless), including transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, prions, spore forms, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.High-speed door: High-speed doors are door systems, mainly used in industrial applications. They are technical enhancements of the generally known sectional doors, PVC fabric doors or roller shutters.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentPublic water systemTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingIsolation (health care): In health care facilities, isolation represents one of several measures that can be taken to implement infection control: the prevention of contagious diseases from being spread from a patient to other patients, health care workers, and visitors, or from outsiders to a particular patient (reverse isolation). Various forms of isolation exist, in some of which contact procedures are modified, and others in which the patient is kept away from all others.College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Seroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.Doob decomposition theorem: In the theory of stochastic processes in discrete time, a part of the mathematical theory of probability, the Doob decomposition theorem gives a unique decomposition of every adapted and integrable stochastic process as the sum of a martingale and a predictable process (or "drift") starting at zero. The theorem was proved by and is named for Joseph L.Culex quinquefasciatus: Culex quinquefasciatus (earlier known as Culex fatigans), the southern house mosquito, is a medium-sized mosquito found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is the vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, avian malaria, and arboviruses including St.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Ticks of domestic animals: Ticks of domestic animals directly cause poor health and loss of production to their hosts by many parasitic mechanisms. Ticks also transmit numerous kinds of viruses, bacteria, and protozoa between domestic animals.Andesobia jelskiiDispomix Technology: The Dispomix Technology is used for the homogenization of a chemical sample.Insecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightDengue fever outbreaksPublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.CryptosporidiosisSpatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Wat Chiang ManThermal cycler

(1/1248) Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV.

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)

(2/1248) Incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi's sarcoma in the Aquitaine Cohort, France, 1988-1996. Groupe d'Epidemiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine.

OBJECTIVE: To assess secular trends of the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) between 1988 and 1996 in the Aquitaine Cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV1)-infected subjects (southwestern France). METHODS: Adults of both sexes of all HIV-transmission categories were included. We distinguished between incident and prevalent KS and in case of multiple acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illnesses between initial or subsequent KS. Only incident KS were considered for annual incidence rate calculation. RESULTS: Overall, 21.2% (356/1678) of homosexuals and 1.9% (58/3030) of the other patients were diagnosed with KS over time. Although there was a sharp decrease in 1996 for initial KS, the annual incidence rate of KS was stable over time in the overall cohort as well as in homosexuals (4.3% per year on the average for KS as an initial AIDS-defining illness and 2.1% per year for subsequent KS in homosexuals). The median CD4+ cell count at the time of diagnosis of KS was 56 per mm3 (78 for initial KS, 14 for subsequent KS), with no significant variation over time. CONCLUSION: In the Aquitaine Cohort, the annual incidence of KS has remained stable between 1988 and 1995 with a recent decline in 1996, only for initial KS, while case management of HIV-infected subjects changed drastically.  (+info)

(3/1248) Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea.

BACKGROUND: Childhood diarrhoea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nicaragua. Amongst the risk factors for its transmission are 'poor' hygiene practices. We investigated the effect of a large number of hygiene practices on diarrhoeal disease in children aged <2 years and validated the technique of direct observation of hygiene behaviour. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was carried out in a rural zone of Nicaragua. From the database of a previously conducted case-control study on water and sanitation 172 families were recruited, half of which had experienced a higher than expected rate of diarrhoea in their children and the other half a lower rate. Hygiene behaviour was observed over two mornings and diarrhoea incidence was recorded with a calendar, filled out by the mother, and collected every week for 5 months. RESULTS: Of 46 'good' practices studied, 39 were associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea, five were unrelated and only for two a higher risk was observed. Washing of hands, domestic cleanliness (kitchen, living room, yard) and the use of a diaper/underclothes by the child had the strongest protective effect. Schooling (>3 years of primary school) and better economic position (possession of a radio) had a positive influence on general hygiene behaviour, education having a slightly stronger effect when a radio was present. Individual hygiene behaviour appeared to be highly variable in contrast with the consistent behaviour of the community as a whole. Feasible and appropriate indicators of hygiene behaviour were found to be domestic cleanliness and the use of a diaper or underclothes by the child. CONCLUSION: A consistent relationship between almost all hygiene practices and diarrhoea was detected, more schooling producing better hygiene behaviour. The high variability of hygiene behaviour at the individual level requires repeated observations (at least two) before and after the hygiene education in the event one wants to measure the impact of the campaign on the individual.  (+info)

(4/1248) Virulence evolution in a virus obeys a trade-off.

The evolution of virulence was studied in a virus subjected to alternating episodes of vertical and horizontal transmission. Bacteriophage f1 was used as the parasite because it establishes a debilitating but non-fatal infection that can be transmitted vertically (from a host to its progeny) as well as horizontally (infection of new hosts). Horizontal transmission was required of all phage at specific intervals, but was prevented otherwise. Each episode of horizontal transmission was followed by an interval of obligate vertical transmission, followed by an interval of obligate horizontal transmission etc. The duration of vertical transmission was eight times longer per episode in one treatment than in the other, thus varying the relative intensity of selection against virulence while maintaining selection for some level of virus production. Viral lines with the higher enforced rate of infectious transmission evolved higher virulence and higher rates of virus production. These results support the trade-off model for the evolution of virulence.  (+info)

(5/1248) Dirt and diarrhoea: formative research in hygiene promotion programmes.

Investment in the promotion of better hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoeal diseases and as a component of water and sanitation programmes is increasing. Before designing programmes capable of sustainably modifying hygiene behaviour in large populations, valid answers to a number of basic questions concerning the site and the intended beneficiaries have to be obtained. Such questions include 'what practices favour the transmission of enteric pathogens?', 'what advantages will be perceived by those who adopt safe practices?' and 'what channels of communication are currently employed by the target population?' A study of hygiene and diarrhoea in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, used a mixture of methods to address such questions. This paper draws on that experience to propose a plan of preliminary research using a variety of techniques which could be implemented over a period of a few months by planners of hygiene promotion programmes. The techniques discussed include structured observation, focus group discussions and behavioural trials. Modest investment in such systematic formative research with clear and limited goals is likely to be repaid many times over in the increased effectiveness of hygiene promotion programmes.  (+info)

(6/1248) The quality of immunization data from routine primary health care reports: a case from Nepal.

Reported high immunization coverage achieved in Nepal over the last ten years is expected to reduce child mortality in the country. The present study, carried out in hill district in mid-west Nepal, aimed to assess the quality of immunization data in Nepal. The number of children who received different vaccines during one year was obtained from three sources: 1) the Immunization REgister of three Primary Health Care Service Outlets (PHCSOs) where each immunized child is recorded; 2) monthly PHC Reports, which are based on the Immunization Register; 3) monthly DHO Reports, which are based on the above PHC Reports (the DHO reports are the source of official statistics). The number of children in the PHC Reports was higher than the number in the Immunization REgisters for all vaccines. The number of immunizations in the DHO Reports was higher than the number in the PHC Reports for BCG, DPT, and measles; the number was lower for poliomyelitis. The overall number of immunizations was higher in the DHO Reports than in the Immunization Registers, by 31% for BCG, 44% for DPT, 155% for polio, and 71% for measles. We conclude that the official report overestimates the immunization coverage in the district. The immunization programme, therefore, might not result in the expected reduction of morbidity and mortality despite the investment in the programme and reported high coverage.  (+info)

(7/1248) Evolution and biological characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype E gp120 V3 sequences following horizontal and vertical virus transmission in a single family.

It has been suggested that immune-pressure-mediated positive selection operates to maintain the antigenic polymorphism on the third variable (V3) loop of the gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Here we present evidence, on the basis of sequencing 147 independently cloned env C2/V3 segments from a single family (father, mother, and their child), that the intensity of positive selection is related to the V3 lineage. Phylogenetic analysis and amino acid comparison of env C2/V3 and gag p17/24 regions indicated that a single HIV-1 subtype E source had infected the family. The analyses of unique env C2/V3 clones revealed that two V3 lineage groups had evolved in the parents. Group 1 was maintained with low variation in all three family members regardless of the clinical state or the length of infection, whereas group 2 was only present in symptomatic individuals and was more positively charged and diverse than group 1. Only virus isolates carrying the group 2 V3 sequences infected and induced syncytia in MT2 cells, a transformed CD4(+)-T-cell line. A statistically significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions versus synonymous substitutions was demonstrated only for the group 2 V3 region. The data suggest that HIV-1 variants, possessing the more homogeneous group 1 V3 element and exhibiting the non-syncytium-inducing phenotype, persist in infected individuals independent of clinical status and appear to be more resistant to positive selection pressure.  (+info)

(8/1248) Identification of MaTu-MX agent as a new strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and serological indication of horizontal spread of LCMV in human population.

In this study we elucidated the molecular character of MaTu-MX, previously described as an unusual transmissible agent. Amino acid sequencing of peptides generated from a 58-kDa MX-related protein purified from MaTu human carcinoma cells allowed us to identify it as a nucleoprotein (NP) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Northern blot analysis detected LCMV-specific RNAs in MaTu cells. Comparative immunoprecipitations showed cross-reactivity between NP of LCMV strain WE and MX NP. Using RT-PCR, we have cloned MX NP cDNA. According to sequence comparison, MX LCMV is as closely related to both LCMV strains WE and Armstrong as these strains are to one another. Based on this finding we propose that MX is a new strain of LCMV. We also showed that the stability of MX NP in MaTu cells is very high and that the virus is transmissible by cell-to-cell contact or by cell-free extract to human HeLa and monkey Vero cells, but not to human AGS, canine MDCK, mouse NIH 3T3, and hamster CHO cells. Finally, employing MX LCMV NP in immunoprecipitation and solid-phase radioimmunoassay, we found 37.5% prevalence of anti-LCMV antibodies in human sera, suggesting possible horizontal spread of the virus in the human population.  (+info)



  • cholera
  • Among the research underway at the EPI are two studies by graduate students: Taylor Paisie is studying Cholera in Haiti and Fulbright scholar Eduan Wilkinson is analyzing factors generating HIV transmission in South Africa. (krisp.org.za)
  • In addition to researching Cholera, the Salemi Lab also includes Eduan Wilkinson, a postdoc studying HIV transmission in his native South Africa. (krisp.org.za)
  • Longini investigated how infectious diseases such as influenza, cholera, typhoid and dengue could be controlled with vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern environmental engineering began in London in the mid-19th century when Joseph Bazalgette designed the first major sewerage system that reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases such as cholera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centers
  • Articles were identified from a MEDLINE search for the years 1966 to 1989, a hand search of relevant journals for the years 1980 to 1990, and a review of over 2900 epidemiologic field investigations in which the Centers for Disease Control and other agencies participated (1946 to 1989). (acpjc.org)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • The university operates the Winship Cancer Institute, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, and many disease and vaccine research centers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Association of National Public Health Institutes is headquartered at the university and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Cancer Society are national affiliate institutions located adjacent to the campus. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevention
  • In 2017 HIV criminalization laws are no longer based on the official scientific data, as Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) admits that those who are on HIV medication can no longer transmit the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The advances of hygiene, such as that of the automatic soap dispenser, can be considered as one of the more silent victories of public health and continues to be an important disease prevention strategy, even in this "modern" era when the "gospel of germs" has waned in popularity. (wikipedia.org)
  • He designs and analyses vaccine and infectious disease prevention trials and observational studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Another study that examined transmission of SARS during air travel found sitting up to seven rows away could result in infection. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The individual may die, may become immune to future infection by the pathogen, or may live with the disease chronically until it is shed. (wikipedia.org)
  • the "National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States" stated that "the continued existence and enforcement of these types of laws [that criminalize HIV infection] run counter to scientific evidence about routes of HIV transmission and may undermine the public health goals of promoting HIV screening and treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social distancing is a term applied to certain nonpharmaceutical infection control actions that are taken by public health officials to stop or slow down the spread of a highly contagious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of social distancing is to reduce the probability of contact between persons carrying an infection, and others who are not infected, so as to minimize disease transmission, morbidity and ultimately, mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • He has designed, analysed and interpreted vaccine studies for many of these infectious diseases, taking into account the indirect protection that unvaccinated people receive in a population of vaccinated people. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduce
  • Moreover, mosquitoes kept at fluctuating temperatures appeared to possess lower levels of virus compared with those kept at a consistently high temperature, suggesting even a temporary drop in temperature may be enough to reduce the chances of mosquitoes becoming infectious. (id-hub.com)
  • The "elbow bump" and the "Dracula sneeze" are additional measures to reduce direct person-to-person transmission of microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • HOUSTON - The brain damage that characterizes Alzheimer's disease may originate in a form similar to that of infectious prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob, according to newly published research by The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) . (healthcanal.com)
  • The research was funded by The George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Center for Research in Alzheimer's Disease and Related Brain Disorders at UTHealth. (healthcanal.com)
  • Longini began his career with the International Center for Medical Research and Training and the Universidad del Valle in Cali, Colombia, where he worked on tropical infectious disease problems and taught courses in biomathematics. (wikipedia.org)
  • incidence
  • Barbecue use on its own is unlikely a big enough, or seasonal enough, driver of disease to account for seasonal changes in incidence. (cdc.gov)
  • interventions
  • During the 1918 flu pandemic, authorities in the US implemented school closures, bans on public gatherings, and other social distancing interventions in Philadelphia and in St. Louis, but in Philadelphia the delay of five days in initiating these measures allowed transmission rates to double three to five times, whereas a more immediate response in St. Louis was significant in reducing transmission there. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreaks
  • The 6 outbreaks reported from alternative care settings (acupuncture, chiropractic, nutrition therapy, immunotherapy and weight-reduction clinics) were all caused by common-source transmission and included 3 outbreaks of hepatitis B transmission through contaminated equipment. (acpjc.org)
  • This suggests weather conditions could have an influence on transmission, with upcoming warm periods a warning system for outbreaks. (id-hub.com)
  • agents
  • 23 reports studied transmission in office, clinic, or emergency department settings, and 13 reports documented episodes of common-source transmission, 10 of which resulted from contaminated disinfectants, antiseptic agents, medications, or vaccines. (acpjc.org)
  • treatment
  • The introduction of drinking water treatment and sewage treatment in industrialized countries reduced waterborne diseases from leading causes of death to rarities. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • Results suggest sitting within two rows of a contagious individual during a flight lasting longer than eight hours places passengers at risk of getting the disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • How do we tell a recipient that they are at high risk for a transmissible infectious disease when they are accepting a CDC high Risk Kidney? (nephronpower.com)
  • 2008) note that not all nodes are equal in weight within the community's structure, and therefore their level of risk for both reception and transmission may vary heavily. (wikipedia.org)
  • It argued that such laws contribute to stigmatization and discrimination that inhibit diagnosis and result in "harsh sentencing for behaviors that pose little to no risk of HIV transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • be based on scientifically accurate information regarding HIV transmission routes and risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was the first piece of federal legislation to address HIV criminalization and provided incentives for states to reconsider laws and practices that target people with HIV for consensual sexual activity and conduct that poses no risk of HIV transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV education, HIV testing, condom use, and safer-sex negotiation greatly decreases the risk to the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • spread
  • Historically, leper colonies and lazarettos were established as a means of preventing the spread of leprosy and other contagious diseases through social distancing, until transmission was understood and effective treatments were invented. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients
  • Further, information about the numbers and types of patients who did not develop the diseases being studied is not reported. (acpjc.org)
  • factors
  • Some states treat the transmission of HIV, depending upon a variety of factors, as a felony and others as a misdemeanor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the episodes of facial swelling and/or abdominal pain, it also predisposes to autoimmune diseases, most markedly lupus erythematosus, due to its consumptive effect on complement factors 3 and 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Researchers injected the brain tissue of a confirmed Alzheimer's patient into mice and compared the results to those from injected tissue of a control without the disease. (healthcanal.com)
  • None of the mice injected with the control showed signs of Alzheimer's, whereas all of those injected with Alzheimer's brain extracts developed plaques and other brain alterations typical of the disease. (healthcanal.com)
  • individual
  • Here, the father (individual A) with a mutated gene for HAE, has the disease while his wife (individual B) with 2 non-mutated copies of the C1 inhibitor gene and does not have the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • The results showing a potentially infectious spreading of Alzheimer's disease in animal models were published in the Oct. 4, 2011 online issue of Molecular Psychiatry , part of the Nature Publishing Group. (healthcanal.com)
  • public health
  • In October 2012, the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) called for the repeal of statutes that criminalize HIV-related behavior, writing: "Policies and laws that create HIV-specific crimes or that impose penalties for persons who are HIV-infected are unjust and harmful to public health around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • Little evidence exists that the seasonal differences in Campylobacter in chickens are sufficient to drive the seasonality of human disease ( 29 - 34 ). (cdc.gov)
  • No evidence shows that the seasonality of human disease is largely due to unpasteurized milk because this product is not commonly consumed. (cdc.gov)
  • can be etiologically and temporally related to some of these diseases, the causal evidence (e.g., temporal sequence, consistency, biologic plausibility) is consistent with the hypothesis that personal hygiene is one other factor that helped to determine the decline. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Human disease with M. bovis is well described and historically was a common cause of tuberculosis (TB) transmitted by infected dairy products. (cdc.gov)
  • HAE is generally referred to as a "dominant" condition because it only takes a mutation in one of the two C1-INH genes in a carrier to cause the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • likely
  • Because hereditary angioedema is an autosomal inheritable disease, there is no gender difference in transmission and both sexes are equally likely to receive the mutated gene from their parent(s). (wikipedia.org)