Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Cladocera: A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.BrazilSeasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Hantavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Urinary Reservoirs, Continent: Structures which collect and store urine and are emptied by catheterization of a cutaneous stoma or internal diversion to the urethra. The reservoirs are surgically created during procedures for urinary diversion.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.

*  Study shows pigeons are reservoirs of harmful bugs | News Home | Reuters

As a result, pigeons -- often dubbed "rats with wings" by those who suspect them of spreading disease -- can act as living " ... "Animals that live in close contact with humans can be dangerous reservoirs of human pathogens," wrote Fernando Esperon from the ... "reservoirs" for some harmful bugs, the scientists said. " ... that dominate city squares around the world carry two disease- ... using gun-propelled nets from urban areas of Madrid to find out the prevalence of certain bacteria known to cause disease in ...
ca.reuters.com/article/lifestyleMolt/idCATRE65K6ZW20100621

*  Review History for Sylvatic host associations of Triatominae and implications for Chagas disease reservoirs: a review and new...

View the review history for Sylvatic host associations of Triatominae and implications for Chagas disease reservoirs: a review ... Diotaiuti L (2017) Peer Review #2 of 'Sylvatic host associations of Triatominae and implications for Chagas disease reservoirs ... Diotaiuti L (2017) Peer Review #2 of 'Sylvatic host associations of Triatominae and implications for Chagas disease reservoirs ... Sylvatic host associations of Triatominae and implications for Chagas disease reservoirs: a review and new host records based ...
https://peerj.com/articles/3826/reviews/

*  Figure 2 - Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil - Volume 10, Number 12-December 2004 - Emerging Infectious Disease...

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, * National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Office of ... Emerging Infectious Disease journal ISSN: 1080-6059 Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this ... Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil Akemi Suzuki*. , Ivani Bisordi*, Silvana Levis†, Jorge Garcia†, Luiz E. ... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for ...
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/10/12/04-0295-f2

*  PPT - Epidemiology PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 112ca7-NTA5N

Communicable Disease Patterns ... Nosocomial infections -- major sites. Epidemiology of AIDS ... - A free PowerPoint PPT ... Disease Reservoirs*Reservoir -- site in which viable infectious agents remain _______________ and from which infection of ... Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases - Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases , PowerPoint PPT presentation , free to view ... Communicable Disease Patterns 4. Frequency statistics. Total number of cases in population. Prevalence X 100. Total number of ...
powershow.com/view/112ca7-NTA5N/Epidemiology_powerpoint_ppt_presentation

*  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041360/00001

Wildlife, Livestock and Animal Disease Reservoirs. In Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use. Herbert H.T. Prins, Jan Geu ... Two other constraints include limited access to markets and the challenges of livestock diseases such as Foot and Mouth Disease ... each district containing one or more disease control zones (See of animal diseases, the re gulation of imports and exports, the ... 40 on a higher plane than those who did not because it stamped out germs and gave rise to n ational disease freedom, a state ...
ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041360/00001

*  G2340 Biosecurity for Today's Swine Operation | University of Missouri Extension

All dead stock should be taken care of daily, because they may act as disease reservoirs. To use a rendering service, farm ... Biosecurity is often perceived as keeping diseases out of a swine herd. However, excluding disease from a herd is nearly ... Some diseases may cause few or no clinical signs in one age group but may be highly pathogenic to another group. In the ... Flat land without trees or other protection from the wind provides a greater risk for the spread of disease. In Missouri, wind ...
extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPrinterFriendlyPub.aspx?P=G2340

*  Armanda Bastos

disease reservoirs*polymerase chain reaction*viral genes*wild animals*cattle*ornithodoros*domestic animals*amino acid sequence ... foot and mouth disease*foot and mouth disease virus*african swine fever virus*buffaloes*capsid proteins*disease outbreaks* ... Retrospective genetic analysis of SAT-1 type foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in southern Africa. W Vosloo. Exotic Diseases ... Retrospective genetic analysis of SAT-1 type foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in southern Africa. W Vosloo. Exotic Diseases ...
https://labome.org/expert/south/university/bastos/armanda-bastos-234520.html

*  Resistance of Insect Pests and Disease Vectors to Synthetic Pyrethroids

Resistance of vectors and reservoirs of disease to pesticides. Technical Report Series 737. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health ... Citation for this article: Mueller - Beilschmidt, Doria 1990, 'Resistance of insect pests and disease vectors to synthetic ... The disease of development: DDT threatens the Amazon. Greenpeace (November/December): 12-13. ... Malaria In Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors, pp.7-9. Geneva, Switzerland: ...
eap.mcgill.ca/MagRack/JPR/JPR_09.htm

*  Cir 121/FA100: Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems?Part 2: Pathogens

The most important reservoirs are the fish themselves. Fish can act as asymptomatic carriers of disease. In other words, they ... Sick and dead fish are often major reservoirs of disease-causing organisms. For this reason, sick, moribund (dying), and dead ... Pathogen Reservoirs. There are many areas within an aquaculture facility and recirculating system that can act as reservoirs ... Recirculating systems favor the growth of many disease-causing organisms and spread of disease. There are a number of reasons ...
edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fa100

*  Neglected and endemic zoonoses

Caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, with reservoirs in dogs and a range of wild animal hosts, Chagas disease is mainly transmitted by ... e) Chagas disease. Chagas disease is the most important parasitic disease of the Americas and, like other NTDs, is associated ... disease/en/). A glance at the leading causes of burden of disease in the African region shows that the top disease is HIV/AIDS ... malaria and other diseases. These 'other diseases' have come to be known as 'the neglected tropical diseases' (NTDs). This ...
pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2865085/

*  ASMscience | Biofilms as Reservoirs f

In summary, biofilms act as reservoirs of disease in a wide variety of habitats, including natural surface waters, groundwater ... Given the importance of waterborne, nosocomial, and food-borne diseases, the widespread ability of bacteria to form biofilms, ... and the resistance characteristics of biofilms, an attempt has been made to synthesize the prevalence, disease characteristics ... and ability to cause disease. Such microbes include the waterborne pathogens Aeromonas spp., Legionella pneumophila, ...
asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555817718.chap17

*  118 - Massey University

Food-borne diseases, zoonoses and emergence of diseases from animal reservoirs. The application of epidemiological principles ... Advanced aspects of the surgical management of a disease in a species selected by the candidate with a view to developing ... Food-borne diseases. Occupational zoonoses. National and international legislation. Regular assignments and a project report ... Advanced aspects of management and disease in a species selected by the candidate with a view to developing specialised skills ...
massey.ac.nz/massey/about-massey/calendar/prescriptions-and-schedule-of-courses/118.cfm

*  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Modeling the Geographic Distribution of Bacillus anthracis, the...

Because disease control programs rely on vaccination and carcass disposal, and vaccination in wildlife remains untenable, ... understanding the distribution of B. anthracis plays an important role in efforts to prevent/eradicate the disease. Likewise, ... Ecologic niche modeling and potential reservoirs for Chagas disease, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 662-667.. ... CWRU seeks co-director for Center for Global Health and Diseases Full time infectious diseases staff position open at SUNY ...
ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.1103

*  Bird Flu, Foot and Mouth, Zoonoses and UK animal health policy -mirror

International good-will and cooperation is needed to identify, control and eradicate reservoirs of disease. As an example, ... Towards a new, sane, animal disease policy, warmwell goes " from failure to failure with great enthusiasm" (Winston Churchill's ... Meanwhile, Viet Nam plans to import 2 million doses of vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease from China next month. See ... the means to eradicate and control these diseases are now available ... ..." Read in full Warmwell.com Archive ~ Bird Flu pages ...
warmwell.com/archivemay06.html

*  Investigación de largo plazo en el Parque Nacional Bosque Fray Jorge: Veinte años estudiando el rol de los factores bióticos y...

2001, 2006a, 2006b), disease vectors, reservoirs, and zoonoses (Epstein 1999, 2000, Epstein & Mills 2005), and the impact of ... MARTÍNEZ DEL RÍO C, A SILVA, M HOURDEQUIN & RG MEDEL (1996) Seed dispersers as disease vectors: Bird transmission of mistletoe ... reservoirs, and transmission agents (Kovats et al. 1999, Epstein 1999, 2000, Epstein & Mills 2005). Finally, another negative ...
scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2010000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en

*  Roger Reeves | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

Mechanisms of innate modulation of SIV reservoirs and opportunistic disease in the oral cavity. Role: Principal Investigator. ... Models of Disease (MoD) Boot Camp Three-week course for clinical fellows starting basic/translational postdoctoral research. ... Modeling HCV disease in animals: virology, immunology and pathogenesis of HCV and GBV-B infections. Front Microbiol. 2014; 5: ... NK cell exhaustion: bad news for chronic disease? Oncotarget. 2015 Sep 08; 6(26):21797-8. PMID: 26392410; PMCID: PMC4673125. ...
https://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Person/29923

*  tularemia | disease | Britannica.com

Acute infectious disease resembling plague, but much less severe. It was described in 1911 among ground squirrels in Tulare ... Certain species are reservoirs for diseases such as plague, murine typhus, scrub typhus, tularemia, rat-bite fever, Rocky ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - Lyme Disease and Other Tick-Borne Diseases ... Viruses, Bacteria, and Diseases. Take this Health Quiz at Enyclopedia Britannica to test your knowledge of various diseases and ...
https://britannica.com/science/tularemia

*  High prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the European red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris in France. - PubMed - NCBI

Disease Reservoirs. *Female. *France/epidemiology. *Geography. *Humans. *Ixodes/microbiology*. *Larva. *Lyme Disease/ ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24446554

*  Epidemiology

Rats are reservoirs for a number of diseases, including plague, enteric salmonellosis, rat bite fever, and trichinosis. They ... 24 9- Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases What is Chronic Disease? Chronic disease can be defined as impairments or deviations ... 26 Control of Chronic Diseases Major Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs):  Cardiovascular diseases  Diabetes  Cancers  Chronic ... diseases: Breaking anyone of the links in the chain will prevent the spread of the disease. 1. Control of the disease source: ...
https://slideshare.net/dinaabdalazim/epidemiology-32552707

*  Lisa J Jameson

disease reservoirs*seoul virus*hantavirus infections*passeriformes*ectoparasitic infestations*ixodidae*tick infestations* ... disease vectors*rodent diseases*animal migration*ticks*bird diseases*geographic information systems*insect vectors*population ... The continued emergence of hantaviruses: isolation of a Seoul virus implicated in human disease, United Kingdom, October 2012. ... The continued emergence of hantaviruses: isolation of a Seoul virus implicated in human disease, United Kingdom, October 2012. ...
https://labome.org/expert/uk/health/jameson/lisa-j-jameson-1719885.html

*  Vinod Sharma

disease reservoirs*incidence*rural health*species specificity*allethrin*delivery of health care ... Sharma, V.P. (1995). Return of parasitic diseases. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 19: 1-3 70. Sharma, V.P. and R.S. Yadav (1995 ... Kumar, A., D. Thavaselvam and V.P. Sharma (1995). Biting behaviour of Disease vectors in Goa. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 19 ... mosquito nets and other materials for personal protection and control of vector borne diseases. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, ...
https://labome.org/expert/sharma/vinod-sharma-1492966.html

*  bird diseases

disease reservoirs*parrots*trematode infections*disease outbreaks*seasons*falconiformes*raptors*animal migration*polymerase ... Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort ... Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and ... Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and ...
https://labome.org/topics/diseases/animal/bird-diseases-8530.html

*  west nile fever

disease outbreaks*horses*horse diseases*seroepidemiologic studies*disease reservoirs*immunoglobulin m*sentinel surveillance* ... Division of Vector Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control ... Division of Vector Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control ... Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and ...
https://labome.org/topics/diseases/virus/arbovirus/arbovirus/west-nile-fever-5080.html

*  Tie Wu Jia

chronic disease*china*schistosomiasis japonica*disease reservoirs*severity of illness index*clinical laboratory techniques* ... Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Shanghai, China. Bull World Health ... National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200025. Zhongguo Ji Sheng ... National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200025. Zhongguo Ji Sheng ...
https://labome.org/expert/china/jia/tie-wu-jia-1988548.html

*  M Adela Valero

sheep diseases*sheep*parasite egg count*wistar rats*feces*cattle*cattle diseases*disease reservoirs*swine*swine diseases* ... Risk of gallstone disease in advanced chronic phase of fascioliasis: an experimental study in a rat model. Maria Adela Valero. ... These findings strongly suggest that the black rat may be one of the wild reservoirs of F. hepatica and may have contributed to ... the large geographical extent of the disease on Corsica.... *. Fluke egg characteristics for the diagnosis of human and animal ...
https://labome.org/expert/spain/university/valero/m-adela-valero-461882.html

Colt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.PhytoplanktonEutrophication: Eutrophication (Greek: eutrophia—healthy, adequate nutrition, development; ) or more precisely hypertrophication, is the ecosystem's response to the addition of artificial or natural nutrients, mainly phosphates, through detergents, fertilizers, or sewage, to an aquatic system.Schindler, David and Vallentyne, John R.MoinaList of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Horseshoe bat: Horseshoe bats make up the bat family Rhinolophidae. In addition to the single living genus, Rhinolophus, one extinct genus, Palaeonycteris, has been recognized.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.University of CampinasFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Peromyscus: The genus Peromyscus contains the animal species commonly referred to as deer mice. This genus of New World mice is only distantly related to the common house mouse and laboratory mouse, Mus musculus.Hydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.Public water systemDitch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Andes virusVpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.

(1/1741) Transmission of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 in rural western Kenya associated with drinking water from Lake Victoria: an environmental reservoir for cholera?

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest reported cholera incidence and mortality rates in the world. In 1997, a cholera epidemic occurred in western Kenya. Between June 1997 and March 1998, 14,275 cholera admissions to hospitals in Nyanza Province in western Kenya were reported. There were 547 deaths (case fatality rate = 4%). Of 31 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates tested, all but one were sensitive to tetracycline. We performed a case-control study among 61 cholera patients and age-, sex-, and clinic-matched controls. Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for cholera were drinking water from Lake Victoria or from a stream, sharing food with a person with watery diarrhea, and attending funeral feasts. Compared with other diarrheal pathogens, cholera was more common among persons living in a village bordering Lake Victoria. Cholera has become an important public health concern in western Kenya, and may become an endemic pathogen in the region.  (+info)

(2/1741) Prevalence of enteric hepatitis A and E viruses in the Mekong River delta region of Vietnam.

A study of antibody prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) was carried out in southwestern Vietnam in an area adjacent to a known focus of epidemic HEV transmission. The purpose of this investigation was first to provide a prevalence measure of hepatitis infections, and second to determine the outbreak potential of HEV as a function of the susceptible population. Blood specimens collected from 646 persons in randomly selected village hamlets were examined by an ELISA for anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG. The prevalences of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG were 9% and 97%, respectively. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in age-specific anti-HEV IgG. A notable increase in anti-HAV IgG prevalence (P < 0.0001) occurred between child populations 0-4 (64%) and 5-9 (95%) years of age. No evidence of familial clustering of anti-HEV IgG-positive individuals was detected, and household crowding was not associated with the spread of HEV. Boiling of water was found to be of protective value against HEV transmission. A relatively low prevalence of anti-HEV indicates considerable HEV outbreak potential, against a background of 1) poor, water-related hygiene/sanitation, 2) dependence on a (likely human/animal waste)-contaminated Mekong riverine system, and 3) periodic river flooding.  (+info)

(3/1741) Serologic evidence for an epizootic dengue virus infecting toque macaques (Macaca sinica) at Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka.

Dengue is one of the most rapidly emerging diseases in the tropics. Humans are the principal reservoir of dengue viruses. It is unclear if nonhuman primates also serve as a reservoir of human dengue viruses under certain conditions. In this study, a cross-sectional serologic survey was carried out to characterize the pattern of transmission of a recently identified dengue virus among toque macaques in Sri Lanka. The results indicated that an epizootic dengue virus was active among the macaques. A single epizootic had taken place between October 1986 and February 1987 during which 94% of the macaques within the 3 km2 study site were exposed to the virus. The epizootic was highly focal in nature because macaques living 5 km from the study population were not exposed to the virus. The transmission of dengue viruses among macaques in the wild may have important public health implications.  (+info)

(4/1741) Comparison of Ehrlichia muris strains isolated from wild mice and ticks and serologic survey of humans and animals with E. muris as antigen.

In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had been isolated. These new isolates were compared with the E. muris type strain. The mouse virulence and ultrastructure of the new isolates were similar to those of the type strain, and all of them were cross-reactive with each other, as well as with the type strain, by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test. The levels of similarity of the base sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of one of the A. speciosus isolates and one of the tick isolates to that of the E. muris type strain were 99.79 and 99.93%, respectively. We suggest that all of these isolates are E. muris; that E. muris is not limited to Eothenomys kageus but infects other species of mice; and that E. muris is present at locations other than Aichi Prefecture. It appears that H. flava is a potential vector of E. muris. Twenty (1%) of 1803 humans from metropolitan Tokyo were found to be seropositive for E. muris antibodies. A serological survey revealed that exposure to E. muris or organisms antigenically cross-reactive to E. muris occurred among dogs, wild mice, monkeys, bears, deer, and wild boars in Gifu Prefecture, nearby prefectures, and Nagoya City, central Japan. However, human beings and Rattus norvegicus rats in this area were seronegative. These results indicate broader geographic distribution of and human and animal species exposure to E. muris or related Ehrlichia spp. in Japan.  (+info)

(5/1741) Antimicrobial susceptibilities and plasmid contents of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from commercial sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: emergence of high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin.

Commercial sex workers (CSWs) serve as the most important reservoir of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including gonorrhea. Periodic monitoring of the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a high-risk population provides essential clues regarding the rapidly changing pattern of antimicrobial susceptibilities. A study concerning the prevalence of gonococcal infection among CSWs was conducted in Bangladesh. The isolates were examined with regards to their antimicrobial susceptibility to, and the MICs of, penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. The total plasmid profile of the isolates was also analyzed. Of the 224 CSWs, 94 (42%) were culture positive for N. gonorrhoeae. There was a good correlation between the results of the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Some 66% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin, and 34% were moderately susceptible to penicillin. Among the resistant isolates, 23.4% were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG). 60.6% of the isolates were resistant and 38.3% were moderately susceptible to tetracycline, 17.5% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae, 11.7% were resistant and 26.6% had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, 2.1% were resistant and 11.7% had reduced susceptibility to cefuroxime, and 1% were resistant to ceftriaxone. All PPNG isolates contained a 3.2-MDa African type of plasmid, and a 24.2-MDa conjugative plasmid was present in 34.1% of the isolates. Since quinolones such as ciprofloxacin are recommended as the first line of therapy for gonorrhea, the emergence of significant resistance to ciprofloxacin will limit the usefulness of this drug for treatment of gonorrhea in Bangladesh.  (+info)

(6/1741) Serological evidence of infection with Ehrlichia spp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Switzerland.

Serum samples from 1,550 red foxes in Switzerland were tested for antibodies to the agents of canine granulocytic and monocytic ehrlichiosis by an indirect immunofluorescent technique. Forty-four (2.8%) of the samples were positive for Ehrlichia phagocytophila, which is an antigen marker for granulocytic ehrlichiosis. In contrast, none of the samples had antibodies specific to Ehrlichia canis, the agent of monocytic ehrlichiosis.  (+info)

(7/1741) Genetic diversity and distribution of Peromyscus-borne hantaviruses in North America.

The 1993 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the southwestern United States was associated with Sin Nombre virus, a rodent-borne hantavirus; The virus' primary reservoir is the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Hantavirus-infected rodents were identified in various regions of North America. An extensive nucleotide sequence database of an 139 bp fragment amplified from virus M genomic segments was generated. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that SNV-like hantaviruses are widely distributed in Peromyscus species rodents throughout North America. Classic SNV is the major cause of HPS in North America, but other Peromyscine-borne hantaviruses, e.g., New York and Monongahela viruses, are also associated with HPS cases. Although genetically diverse, SNV-like viruses have slowly coevolved with their rodent hosts. We show that the genetic relationships of hantaviruses in the Americas are complex, most likely as a result of the rapid radiation and speciation of New World sigmodontine rodents and occasional virus-host switching events.  (+info)

(8/1741) Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods.

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease.  (+info)



biosecurity program


  • The purpose of a biosecurity program is to prevent entry of specific pathogens (disease-causing organisms, i.e., bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi) that may cause significant disease and are not present either in the environment or on the fish in a given facility or system. (ufl.edu)
  • For this reason, it is important to understand where pathogens may be found (reservoirs), and why quarantine, disinfection, and sanitation are important to a good biosecurity program. (ufl.edu)

Centers for Diseas


  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)

pathogens


  • However, excluding disease from a herd is nearly impossible because of the natural presence of pathogens - the endemic pathogen load - in all swine herds. (missouri.edu)
  • The purpose of the sign-in book is to keep a running record of anyone who has been in contact with the herd so that if a disease should break out, it may be possible to determine where the pathogens came from. (missouri.edu)
  • It explains the role of pathogens (potential disease-causing organisms) in these systems. (ufl.edu)
  • These environmental fluctuations often lead to suppressed immune systems and greater susceptibility to pathogens (i.e., disease-causing organisms, such as bacteria, parasites, fungi, and viruses) and disease outbreaks. (ufl.edu)
  • Most pathogens are considered opportunistic, causing disease only in fish with suppressed immune systems. (ufl.edu)
  • However, if pathogens become sufficiently numerous they can also cause disease in healthy fish. (ufl.edu)
  • Adequate control of pathogens in a system, and consequently reduction of disease in these systems, requires an understanding of where pathogens may be found, how they can be transmitted to fish, and how their numbers may be reduced. (ufl.edu)
  • There are many areas within an aquaculture facility and recirculating system that can act as reservoirs for pathogens. (ufl.edu)
  • Given the importance of waterborne, nosocomial, and food-borne diseases, the widespread ability of bacteria to form biofilms, and the resistance characteristics of biofilms, an attempt has been made to synthesize the prevalence, disease characteristics, and biofilm-forming capacity of several important pathogens to present a picture of the present and emerging threat of biofilms to human health. (asmscience.org)

Epidemiology


  • An advanced course that focuses on the application of veterinary pathology, epidemiology and clinical science to the detection and management of disease in wildlife. (massey.ac.nz)

epidemiological


  • The application of epidemiological principles to the investigation, prevention and control of diseases. (massey.ac.nz)
  • Improving diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of clinical disease  Basic Epidemiological information about a disease: 1. (slideshare.net)
  • There are two models widely applied to know the causation of a disease: a) The Epidemiological Triad. (slideshare.net)

Infectious Diseases


  • 2. Jacob John, T., Lalit Dandona, Vinod P Sharma, Manish Kakkar (2011) The Continuing Challenge of Infectious Diseases in India. (labome.org)

zoonoses


  • Public-private partnerships have already provided advocacy for human disease control and could be equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Food-borne diseases, zoonoses and emergence of diseases from animal reservoirs. (massey.ac.nz)

organisms


  • Recirculating systems favor the growth of many disease-causing organisms and spread of disease. (ufl.edu)
  • There is concern that biofilms could act as reservoirs of pathogenic organisms due to the growth advantages and the protection from conventional means for controlling bacterial growth that biofilms provide. (asmscience.org)
  • Researchers selected organisms that have documented prevalence in the environment and in locations that allow ingestion or inhalation, documented ability to form biofilms, and ability to cause disease. (asmscience.org)

vectors


  • This article looks at the development of resistance and secondary pest outbreaks following the use of pyrethroids to control agricultural insect pests and disease vectors. (mcgill.ca)
  • These early outbreaks of resistance were most likely due to cross-resistance conveyed by the widespread use of DDT.6 Of the 50 arthropod vectors (animal species that transmit a disease) recorded, to have resistance to insecticides, 49 have resistance to DDT and 11 of these are important malaria vectors. (mcgill.ca)
  • Only a few species are serious pests or vectors of disease (see house mouse and rat), but it is these rodents. (britannica.com)

asymptomatic


  • Fish can act as asymptomatic carriers of disease. (ufl.edu)

endemic


  • The development of cheap and effective vaccines is no guarantee that these endemic diseases will be eliminated in the near future. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • According to the chief veterinary officer of the FAO, Dr Joseph Domenech, if the disease becomes endemic on the continent, it could re-infect the rest of the world for years to come. (warmwell.com)

Mortality


  • High reproductive performance can be achieved with a decrease of costly factors such as embryonic loss or preweaning mortality due to disease. (missouri.edu)

swine


  • Disease control is one of the most challenging areas for producers and veterinarians in swine production. (missouri.edu)
  • Biosecurity is often perceived as keeping diseases out of a swine herd. (missouri.edu)

eradicate


  • Because disease control programs rely on vaccination and carcass disposal, and vaccination in wildlife remains untenable, understanding the distribution of B. anthracis plays an important role in efforts to prevent/eradicate the disease. (ajtmh.org)

carriers


acute


  • Tularemia , acute infectious disease resembling plague , but much less severe. (britannica.com)

interventions


  • To date US $11.3 billion has been committed for the fund to support interventions against these 'big three' diseases. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

control


  • May 31 2006 ~ Wild bird role in flu 'unclear' and "an impassioned plea for the use of vaccines to control the disease in domestic poultry. (warmwell.com)
  • The scientists also heard an impassioned plea for the use of vaccines to control the disease in domestic poultry. (warmwell.com)

occurs


  • Animals (Zoonosis -- a disease which occurs primarily in animals but which can be transmitted to humans) rabies, bovine tuberculosis, malaria, etc. (powershow.com)
  • called direct transmission of disease and occurs only if the fly, interrupted during a meal, finds a new victim before the microorganisms die. (britannica.com)

detection


  • Detection and treatment at any stage can alter the natural history of a disease, but the effects of treatment can only be determined if the natural history of the disease in the absence of treatment is known. (slideshare.net)

vaccines


  • To anyone who is not sure about the latest Directive , or about the effectiveness of modern vaccines, the Intervet website www.foot-and-mouth-disease.com gives details of the development of new marker vaccines and test kits allowing for the differentiation of vaccinated and infected animals. (warmwell.com)

characteristics


  • Prognostic factors are characteristics associated with outcome in patients with the disease in question. (slideshare.net)

AIDS


  • The Global Fund ( http://www.theglobalfund.org ) was created to finance the fight against AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria, diseases estimated to kill over six million people each year. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, one unintended consequence of providing such enormous sums to combat the big three has been to effectively erase the latter part of the pledge contained in MDG number six: to combat HIV and AIDS, malaria and other diseases. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

important


  • The most important reservoirs are the fish themselves. (ufl.edu)
  • In the United States the rabbit , especially the cottontail ( Sylvilagus ), is an important source of human infection, but other mammals, birds, and insects also spread the disease. (britannica.com)

clinical


  • The clinical phase: The stage when the disease is clinically obvious and may be subject to remission, relapse or progress to death. (slideshare.net)

animal


  • Tularemia can be spread to humans by the bite of an infected animal, by contact with blood or fine dust from the animal's body during skinning or similar operations, by the ingestion of infected animal products that have not been properly cooked, or by the bite of an insect, most commonly a deerfly , Chrysops discalis (the human disease is also called deerfly fever). (britannica.com)

human


  • An enrichment program for PhD students on the fundamentals of human biology & disease. (harvard.edu)

found


  • F. tularensis has been found in some natural water sources, causing incidences of the disease in humans and animals. (britannica.com)
  • One contagious disease that might be spread this way is tularemia, caused by a bacterium found in wild rodents. (britannica.com)

spread of dise


  • Flat land without trees or other protection from the wind provides a greater risk for the spread of disease. (missouri.edu)

wide


  • In summary, biofilms act as reservoirs of disease in a wide variety of habitats, including natural surface waters, groundwater, drinking water systems, food surfaces, and food industry surfaces. (asmscience.org)

themselves


  • Water quality fluctuations, such as temporary increases in ammonia or nitrite, can, by themselves, result in disease or significant losses. (ufl.edu)
  • Trappers who cut themselves while skinning animals can contract the disease. (britannica.com)

Agent


  • Prusiner's idea does not fulfil the classic criteria formulated by Robert Koch in 1884 to link an agent to a disease, says Prof Manuelidis. (warmwell.com)

cases


  • Approximately 200 cases of the disease are reported each year in the United States, and the disease has been encountered in all parts of the country except Hawaii, although it is most common in the south-central or western states. (britannica.com)

natural


  • Disease Therapy and testing new Treatments Progression or Natural History Patterns of Occurrence (Distribution) ) Etiology (Causation) 2. (slideshare.net)

known


  • These 'other diseases' have come to be known as 'the neglected tropical diseases' (NTDs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

course


  • Prognosis: is the prediction of the course of a disease and is expressed as the probability that a particular event will occur in the future. (slideshare.net)