Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Communicable DiseasesPublic Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biosurveillance: Monitoring of information sources of potential value in detecting an emerging epidemic, whether naturally occurring or the result of bioterrorism.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Quarantine: Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Swimming PoolsCommunicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Animal DiseasesEpidemiologic Measurements: Statistical calculations on the occurrence of disease or other health-related conditions in defined populations.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Rupicapra: A genus of ruminants in the family Bovidae. The common name chamois usually refers to the species Rupicapra rupicapra. Rupicapra pyrenaica, found in the Pyrenees, is more properly referred to as the Pyrenean chamois.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseSeasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points: A system of safety management (abbreviated HACCP) applied mainly to the food industry. It involves the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards, from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of finished products.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Laboratory Personnel: Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Legionnaires' Disease: An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.United StatesBasic Reproduction Number: The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Patient Isolation: The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Penaeidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.RNA Virus InfectionsBacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Pasteurization: Treatment of food with physical methods such as heat, high pressure, radiation, or electric current to destroy organisms that cause disease or food spoilage.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.White spot syndrome virus 1: A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Respiratory Tract DiseasesVaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Alphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.CaliforniaMeasles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Great BritainDiarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola: A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by EBOLAVIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==List of foodborne illness outbreaks: This is a list of foodborne illness outbreaks. A foodborne illness may be from an infectious disease, heavy metals, chemical contamination, or from natural toxins, such as those found in poisonous mushrooms.Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network: Global Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) is a web-based program for decision support and informatics in the fields of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine. As of 2005, more than 300 generic infectious diseases occur haphazardly in time and space and are challenged by over 250 drugs and vaccines.Essence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Human mortality from H5N1: Human mortality from H5N1 or the human fatality ratio from H5N1 or the case-fatality rate of H5N1 refer to the ratio of the number of confirmed human deaths resulting from confirmed cases of transmission and infection of H5N1 to the number of those confirmed cases. For example, if there are 100 confirmed cases of humans infected with H5N1 and 10 die, then there is a 10% human fatality ratio (or mortality rate).Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Quantico (novel): Quantico is a 2005 science fiction/thriller novel by Greg Bear. The novel concerns a group of FBI agents trying to prevent a massive bioterrorist attack.Aquaculture of sea sponges: Sea sponge aquaculture is the process of farming sea sponges under controlled conditions. It has been conducted in the world's oceans for centuries using a number of aquaculture techniques.BioSense: BioSense is a program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that tracks health problems as they evolve and provides public health officials with the data, information and tools they need to better prepare for and coordinate responses to safeguard and improve the health of the American people.QuarantineSAFE FOODSViral gastroenteritis: Viral gastroenteritis (Gastro-Enter-eye,tiss),http://www.merriam-webster.Grand Harbor Resort and Waterpark: thumbnail|right|300px|The Grand Harbor Hotel, a portion of the Waterpark is visible in the right hand corner of this photo.Plum Island Animal Disease Center: Plum Island Animal Disease Center of New York (PIADCNY) is a United States federal research facility dedicated to the study of animal diseases. It is part of the DHS Directorate for Science and Technology.Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Norovirus: Norovirus, sometimes known as the winter vomiting bug in the UK, is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans. It affects people of all ages.U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: The U.S.Notifiable disease: A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities. The collation of information allows the authorities to monitor the disease, and provides early warning of possible outbreaks.Geographical cluster: A geographical cluster is a localised anomaly, usually an excess of something given the distribution or variation of something else. Often it is considered as an incidence rate that is unusual in that there is more of some variable than might be expected.European Community Reference Laboratory for Fish Diseases: The European Community Reference Laboratory for Fish DiseasesCommunity Reference Laboratory for Fish Diseases is located in Frederiksberg in Denmark at the National Veterinary Institute (a part of Technical University of Denmark).Lovozero Massif: The Lovozero Massif (, Lovozyorskiye Tundry, named after the lake in that area – Lake Lovozero; the region is also known as , Lovozyorye) is a mountain range located in the center of the Kola Peninsula in Russia, between Lovozero and Lake Umbozero, and constitutes a horseshoe-shaped ridge of picturesque hills, that surround the Seydozero Lake. The slopes are covered mainly with spruce and pine.Animal euthanasia: Animal euthanasia (euthanasia from ; "good death") is the act of putting an animal to death or allowing it to die as by withholding extreme medical measures. Reasons for euthanasia include incurable (and especially painful) conditions or diseases,2000 Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia lack of resources to continue supporting the animal, or laboratory test procedures.United States regulation of point source water pollution: Point source water pollution comes from discrete conveyances and alters the chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of water. It is largely regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972.The Complete Stevie Wonder: The Complete Stevie Wonder is a digital compilation featuring the work of Stevie Wonder. Released a week before the physical release of A Time to Love, the set comprises almost all of Wonder's officially released material, including single mixes, extended versions, remixes, and Workout Stevie Workout, a 1963 album which was shelved and replaced by With A Song In My Heart.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Master StrokeFoot-and-mouth disease: (ILDS B08.820)Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.National Health Council: The National Health Council (NHC) is a nonprofit association of health organizations.U.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Plasmatronics: Plasmatronics is a company, founded by former Air Force Weapons Laboratory (now Phillips Laboratory) scientist Dr. Alan E.Public water systemMordru the Merciless: "Mordru the Merciless" is a story arc that was published by DC Comics, and was presented in Adventure Comics #369-370 (June–July 1968). It was written by Jim Shooter, pencilled by Curt Swan and inked by Jack Abel.Influenza A virus subtype H1N1: Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.CryptosporidiosisPulsenet: PulseNet is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States.http://www.Influenza A virus subtype H5N1: Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is the highly pathogenic causative agent of H5N1 flu, commonly known as avian influenza ("bird flu").List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Basic reproduction number: In epidemiology, the basic reproduction number (sometimes called basic reproductive ratio, or incorrectly basic reproductive rate, and denoted R0, r naught) of an infection can be thought of as the number of cases one case generates on average over the course of its infectious period, in an otherwise uninfected population.Free textSiamenoside IIsolation (health care): In health care facilities, isolation represents one of several measures that can be taken to implement infection control: the prevention of contagious diseases from being spread from a patient to other patients, health care workers, and visitors, or from outsiders to a particular patient (reverse isolation). Various forms of isolation exist, in some of which contact procedures are modified, and others in which the patient is kept away from all others.Natrocarbonatite: Natrocarbonatite is a rare carbonatite lava which erupts from the Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania within the East African Rift of eastern Africa.Strategic National Stockpile: The Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) is the United States' national repository of antibiotics, vaccines, chemical antidotes, antitoxins, and other critical medical equipment and supplies. In the event of a national emergency involving bioterrorism or a natural pandemic, the SNS has the capability to supplement and re-supply local health authorities that may be overwhelmed by the crisis, with response time as little as 12 hours.ESCAIDEInterbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs: The interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs is an ongoing process affecting the population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia. The current population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia is now probably higher than in the past.British Poultry Standard: [Poultry Standard.png|thumb|right|The front cover of the 6th Edition of the British Poultry Standards.Alpha SerpentisWormsgrabenEscherichia coli O121: Escherichia coli O121 is a serotype of Escherichia coli, a species of bacteria that lives in the lower intestines of mammals.http://www.Yellowhead disease: Yellowhead disease (YHD) is a viral infection of shrimp and prawn, in particular of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), one of the two major species of farmed shrimp. The disease is highly lethal and contagious, killing shrimp quickly.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the University of Chicago Press. It publishes research on control and evaluation of the transmission of pathogens in healthcare institutions and on the use of epidemiological principles and methods to evaluate and improve the delivery of care, including infection control practices, surveillance, cost-benefit analyses, resource use, occupational health, and regulatory issues.Colt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.Pasteurization: Pasteurization (American English) or pasteurisation (British English) is a process that kills bacteria in liquid food.Functional gastrointestinal disorder: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and involve visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastrointestinal motility. Heightened mast cell activation is a common factor among all FGIDs that contributes to visceral hypersensitivity as well as epithelial, neuromuscular, and motility dysfunction.Coles PhillipsCarte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.List of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.White band disease: White band disease is a coral disease that affects acroporid corals and is distinguishable by the white band of dead coral tissue that it forms. The disease completely destroys the coral tissue of Caribbean acroporid corals, specifically elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (A.United States Military Academy class ringDitch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Thermal cyclerCollege of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Timeline of the SARS outbreak: The following is a timeline of the 2002–04 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).Legionella pneumophila: Legionella pneumophila is a thin, aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, non-spore forming, Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella. L.Lower respiratory tract infection: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis. Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness, fever, coughing and fatigue.Vibrio campbellii: Vibrio campbellii is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped, marine bacterium closely related to its sister species, Vibrio harveyi. It is an emerging pathogen in aquatic organisms.Mass media impact on spatial perception: Mass media influences spatial perception through journalistic cartography and spatial bias in news coverage.
(1/11802) Tuberculosis outbreaks in prison housing units for HIV-infected inmates--California, 1995-1996.
During 1995-1996, staff from the California departments of corrections and health services and local health departments investigated two outbreaks of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB). The outbreaks occurred in two state correctional institutions with dedicated HIV housing units. In each outbreak, all cases were linked by IS6110-based DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. This report describes the investigations of both outbreaks; the findings indicated that M. tuberculosis can spread rapidly among HIV-infected inmates and be transmitted to their visitors and prison employees, with secondary spread to the community. (+info)
(2/11802) Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries.
Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries. (+info)
nvited commentary: vaccine failure or failure to vaccinate? (+info)
aning of vaccine-induced immunity: is it a problem in Africa? (+info)
(5/11802) Asthma visits to emergency rooms and soybean unloading in the harbors of Valencia and A Coruna, Spain.
Soybean unloading in the harbor of Barcelona, Spain, has been associated with large increases in the numbers of asthma patients treated in emergency departments between 1981 and 1987. In this study, the association between asthma and soybean unloading in two other Spanish cities, Valencia and A Coruna, was assessed. Asthma admissions were retrospectively identified for the period 1993-1995, and harbor activities were investigated in each location. Two approaches were used to assess the association between asthma and soybean unloading: One used unusual asthma days (days with an unusually high number of emergency room asthma visits) as an effect measure, and the other estimated the relative increase in the daily number of emergency room visits by autoregressive Poisson regression, adjusted for meteorologic variables, seasonality, and influenza incidence. No association between unusual asthma days and soya unloading was observed in either Valencia or A Coruna, except for one particular dock in Valencia. When the association between unloaded products and the daily number of emergency asthma visits was studied, a statistically significant association was observed for unloading of soya husk (relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.94) and soybeans (relative risk = 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.59) in A Coruna. In Valencia, a statistical association was found only for the unloading of soybeans at two particular docks. Although these findings support the notion that asthma outbreaks are not a common hidden condition in most harbors where soybeans are unloaded, the weak associations reported are likely to be causal. Therefore, appropriate control measures should be implemented to avoid soybean dust emissions, particularly in harbors with populations living in the vicinity. (+info)
(6/11802) The European mesothelioma epidemic.
Projections for the period 1995-2029 suggest that the number of men dying from mesothelioma in Western Europe each year will almost double over the next 20 years, from 5000 in 1998 to about 9000 around 2018, and then decline, with a total of about a quarter of a million deaths over the next 35 years. The highest risk will be suffered by men born around 1945-50, of whom about 1 in 150 will die of mesothelioma. Asbestos use in Western Europe remained high until 1980, and substantial quantities are still used in several European countries. These projections are based on the fit of a simple age and birth cohort model to male pleural cancer mortality from 1970 to 1989 for six countries (Britain, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands and Switzerland) which together account for three-quarters of the population of Western Europe. The model was tested by comparing observed and predicted numbers of deaths for the period 1990-94. The ratio of mesothelioma to recorded pleural cancer mortality has been 1.6:1 in Britain but was assumed to be 1:1 in other countries. (+info)
(7/11802) A multistate, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. National Hepatitis A Investigation Team.
BACKGROUND: We investigated a large, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A that occurred in February and March 1997 in Michigan and then extended the investigation to determine whether it was related to sporadic cases reported in other states among persons who had consumed frozen strawberries, the food suspected of causing the outbreak. METHODS: The cases of hepatitis A were serologically confirmed. Epidemiologic studies were conducted in the two states with sufficient numbers of cases, Michigan and Maine. Hepatitis A virus RNA detected in clinical specimens was sequenced to determine the relatedness of the virus from outbreak-related cases and other cases. RESULTS: A total of 213 cases of hepatitis A were reported from 23 schools in Michigan and 29 cases from 13 schools in Maine, with the median rate of attack ranging from 0.2 to 14 percent. Hepatitis A was associated with the consumption of frozen strawberries in a case-control study (odds ratio for the disease, 8.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.1 to 33) and a cohort study (relative risk of infection, 7.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 53) in Michigan and in a case-control study in Maine (odds ratio for infection, 3.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 14). The genetic sequences of viruses from 126 patients in Michigan and Maine were identical to one another and to those from 5 patients in Wisconsin and 7 patients in Arizona, all of whom attended schools where frozen strawberries from the same processor had been served, and to those in 2 patients from Louisiana, both of whom had consumed commercially prepared products containing frozen strawberries from the same processor. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a large outbreak of hepatitis A in Michigan that was associated with the consumption of frozen strawberries. We found apparently sporadic cases in other states that could be linked to the same source by viral genetic analysis. (+info)
(8/11802) A community outbreak of invasive and non-invasive group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal disease in a town in South Wales.
An increase in the incidence of invasive and non-invasive infections caused by group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GAS) was noted in and around the town of Glynneath (population approx. 4000) in West Glamorgan, South Wales between 1 January and 30 June 1995. A total of 133 cases was ascertained with 127 (96%) occurring between 1 March and 30 June 1995. Six patients had invasive disease (one died) and all presented at the peak of the outbreak. There were 127 non-invasive cases of whom 7 were hospitalized. The outbreak was investigated to determine its extent and whether it was caused by a single M-serotype of GAS. Serotyping showed that 13 different M-serotypes were involved with the M1 serotype predominating. The overall incidence of GAS invasive disease in West Glamorgan (population 365,000) increased sevenfold from a crude incidence of 0.5/10(5) per year in 1994 to 3.5/10(5) per year in 1995, but fell back to 0.75/10(5) per year in 1996. Eighty-two (80%) out of 102 individuals affected by GAS replied to a health questionnaire; sore throat was the commonest symptom reported (97%). Thirty-nine of these index cases identified at least one other member of their household who had experienced similar symptoms. The interval between the onset of illness in members of a single household was 0-83 days with a mean of 22 days. The mean duration of illness was 13.5 days and 61% of patients were treated with penicillin V for a mean duration of 9.3 days. Twenty-one per cent of GAS isolates were erythromycin-resistant and the M4 and M6 serotypes were especially resistant to erythromycin (87.5 and 100% resistance, respectively). Penicillin V failed to eradicate GAS from the throats of 25% of assessable patients. In this community, an outbreak of non-invasive disease caused by GAS was linked in time and place with an outbreak of serious invasive disease. (+info)