Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Parental Notification: Reporting to parents or guardians about care to be provided to a minor (MINORS).Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.
Notifiable disease: A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities. The collation of information allows the authorities to monitor the disease, and provides early warning of possible outbreaks.Contact tracing: In epidemiology, contact tracing is the identification and diagnosis of persons who may have come into contact with an infected person. For sexually transmitted diseases, this is generally limited to sexual partners and can fall under the heading of partner services.
(1/646) Assessing the sensitivity of STD surveillance in the Netherlands: an application of the capture--recapture method.
The capture-recapture method was used to estimate the sensitivity of case finding in two national STD surveillance systems: (1) STD registration at municipal health services (STD-MHS); (2) statutory notification by clinicians (NNS). To identify those cases common to both surveillance systems, cases from 1995 were compared using individual identifiers. Estimated sensitivities for syphilis were: STD-MHS 31% (95% CI: 27-35%), NNS 64% (56-71%); and for gonorrhoea: STD-MHS 15% (14-18%), NNS 22% (19-25%). The combined sensitivity of both systems was 76% for syphilis and 34% for gonorrhoea. Differences in the sensitivity of the systems were significant. The NNS was more sensitive than the STD-MHS, and the identification of cases was significantly more sensitive for syphilis than for gonorrhoea. A stratified analysis showed comparable results for the two sexes. Knowledge on the sensitivity of surveillance systems is useful for public health decisions and essential for international comparisons. (+info)
(2/646) Changing epidemiology of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Thailand.
Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are reportable diseases, the third most common causes for hospitalization of children in Thailand. Data collected from the Ministry of Public Health were analysed for trends. Rates of DHF increased in Thailand until 1987 when the largest epidemic ever, 325/100000 population, was recorded. Whereas the disease used to be confined to large cities, the rate is now higher in rural (102.2 per 100000) than urban areas (95.4 per 100000 in 1997). The age of highest incidence has increased, and the age group most severely affected is now those 5-9 years old (679/100000 in 1997). The case fatality rate has decreased with improved treatment and is now only 0.28%. (+info)
(3/646) The role of private medical practitioners and their interactions with public health services in Asian countries.
This paper aims to review the role of private practitioners and their interactions with public health services in developing countries, focusing largely on the Asian region. Evidence on the distribution of health facilities, manpower, health expenditures and utilization rates shows that private practitioners are significant health care providers in many Asian countries. Limited information has been published on interactions between public and private providers despite their co-existence. Issues related to enforcement of regulations, human resources, patient referrals and disease notifications, are examined. (+info)
(4/646) Managing meningitis in children: audit of notifications, rifampicin chemoprophylaxis, and audiological referrals.
Important aspects of the management of meningitis in children include notification to local officers for control of communicable diseases; chemoprophylaxis for index cases and close contacts in cases of meningococcal or Haemophilus influenzae meningitis; and a formal hearing assessment for all survivors. A retrospective audit of these aspects of management was carried out for children admitted with meningitis in 12 months from 1 September 1990 to 31 August 1991 at the Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children. Only 20 of 36(56%) cases were notified by medical staff. Chemoprophylaxis was arranged for all close family contacts but to only five of the 23(22%) index cases for whom it was indicated. Appointments for audiological testing were arranged for only 19 of the 32(59%) survivors. Subsequently all doctors, including each intake of junior doctors, were given written information on the importance of notification and locally agreed guidelines for chemoprophylaxis and hearing assessments for survivors before discharge. Guidelines were also displayed prominently in each ward. A repeat audit from January 1992 to December 1992 showed significant improvement in these aspects of care. Twenty eight of 32 cases (88%) were notified, chemoprophylaxis was given to 20 of 22(91%) index cases for whom it was indicated, and 25 of 29(86%) survivors had hearing assessments arranged before discharge. Correct management of some aspects of care cannot be assumed, even if statutory (notification), nationally agreed (chemoprophylaxis), or generally agreed good practice (hearing assessments). These aspects of care improved after the first audit but the authors conclude that the notification rate remains below 100% and a repeat audit is necessary. (+info)
(5/646) Investigation of under-ascertainment in epidemiological studies based in general practice.
BACKGROUND: One of the aims of the Study of Infectious Intestinal Disease (IID) in England is to estimate the incidence of IID presenting to general practice. This sub-study aims to estimate and correct the degree of under-ascertainment in the national study. METHODS: Cases of presumed IID which presented to general practice in the national study had been ascertained by their GP. In 26 general practices, cases with computerized diagnoses suggestive of IID were identified retrospectively. Cases which fulfilled the case definition of IID and should have been ascertained to the coordinating centre but were not, represented the under-ascertainment. Logistic regression modelling was used to identify independent factors which influenced under-ascertainment. RESULTS: The records of 2021 patients were examined, 1514 were eligible and should have been ascertained but only 974 (64%) were. There was variation in ascertainment between the practices (30% to 93%). Patient-related factors independently associated with ascertainment were: i) vomiting only as opposed to diarrhoea with and without vomiting (OR 0.37) and ii) consultation in the surgery as opposed to at home (OR 2.18). Practice-related factors independently associated with ascertainment were: i) participation in the enumeration study component (OR 1.78), ii) a larger number of partners (OR 0.3 for 7-8 partners); iii) rural location (OR 2.27) and iv) previous research experience (OR 1.92). Predicted ascertainment percentages were calculated according to practice characteristics. CONCLUSION: Under-ascertainment of IID was substantial (36%) and non-random and had to be corrected. Practice characteristics influencing variation in ascertainment were identified and a multivariate model developed to identify adjustment factors which could be applied to individual practices. Researchers need to be aware of factors which influence ascertainment in acute epidemiological studies based in general practice. (+info)
(6/646) Reporting race and ethnicity data--National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance, 1994-1997.
Reporting accurate and complete race and ethnicity data in public health surveillance systems provides critical information to target and evaluate public health interventions, particularly for minority populations. A national health objective for 2000 is to improve data collection on race and ethnicity in public health surveillance and data systems. To determine progress toward meeting this goal in CDC's National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS), the percentage of case reports of selected nationally notifiable diseases reported through NETSS with information regarding a patient's race and ethnicity was calculated for 1994-1997. The findings of this study indicate these data were received for approximately half of the cases, and the completeness of reporting of race and ethnicity data to NETSS had not improved. (+info)
(7/646) Hidden mortality attributable to Rocky Mountain spotted fever: immunohistochemical detection of fatal, serologically unconfirmed disease.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is the most severe tickborne infection in the United States and is a nationally notifiable disease. Since 1981, the annual case-fatality ratio for RMSF has been determined from laboratory-confirmed cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Herein, a description is given of patients with fatal, serologically unconfirmed RMSF for whom a diagnosis of RMSF was established by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tissues obtained at autopsy. During 1996-1997, acute-phase serum and tissue samples from patients with fatal disease compatible with RMSF were tested at the CDC. As determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay, no patient serum demonstrated IgG or IgM antibodies reactive with Rickettsia rickettsii at a diagnostic titer (i.e., >/=64); however, IHC staining confirmed diagnosis of RMSF in all patients. Polymerase chain reaction validated the IHC findings for 2 patients for whom appropriate samples were available for testing. These findings suggest that dependence on serologic assays and limited use of IHC staining for confirmation of fatal RMSF results in underestimates of mortality and of case-fatality ratios for this disease. (+info)
(8/646) Social factors associated with increases in tuberculosis notifications.
This study assessed the contribution of immigration and deprivation to the changes in tuberculosis notifications in Liverpool over the last 20 yrs. Ethnic origin was retrospectively assigned to all named cases from 1974 to 1995. Average tuberculosis rates were calculated for the 33 council wards in Liverpool for 1981-1985 and 1991-1995. Multiple regression was used to determine the independent effects of socioeconomic and population measures from the 1981 and 1991 censuses in explaining these ward-based rates. Since 1974, there has been a steady increase in the percentage of non-Caucasian cases of tuberculosis, from 8.7% in 1975-1977, 15.1% in 1981-1983, 17.5% in 1987-1989 to 28.0% in 1993-1995. Multiple regression analysis showed that in 1981 only unemployment had a significant independent relationship with tuberculosis rates, but in 1991 two indices of deprivation and ethnicity had a significant influence. The increasing proportion of non-Caucasian tuberculosis cases, both while the number of notifications was declining before 1987 and increasing afterwards, is not necessarily consistent with the concept that immigration has influenced the recent increase. However, the fact that ethnicity now independently explains some of the council ward variations but did not in the early 1980s suggests that immigration does influence the distribution of disease within the city. (+info)