Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Digestive System Processes: Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Digestive System Fistula: An abnormal passage communicating between any components of the digestive system, or between any part of the digestive system and surrounding organ(s).Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Clemastine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Digestive System Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Diagnostic Techniques, Digestive System: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the digestive system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research for a national program in diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases and nutrition; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases. It was established in 1948.

*  NewYork-Presbyterian/Queens - Gas in the Digestive Tract

An upper GI series is a diagnostic test that examines the organs of the upper part of the digestive system: the esophagus, ... Gas in the Digestive Tract. Click Image to Enlarge. What is gas in the digestive tract?. Gas in the digestive tract is created ... What causes gas in the digestive tract?. Gas in the digestive tract comes from two sources:. *Aerophagia (air swallowing).This ... X-rays are then taken to evaluate the digestive organs.. Treatment for gas in the digestive tract. Specific treatment for gas ...
nyhq.org/diw/Content.asp?PageID=DIW000369&More=DIW&language=Chinese

*  PPT - Digestive Tract: Let's Get to the Bottom of it PowerPoint Presentation - ID:6615082

Digestive Tract: Let's Get to the Bottom of it. By: Diana Blum RN MSN Metropolitan Community College. Primary Role. Extract ... Human Digestive Digestive System - YouTube.flv System -Human digestive digestive system - youtube.flv system. http://vimeo.com/ ... Digestive systems perform four basic digestive processes -1. motility. *muscular contractions within the gut tube and move ... Gold Coast Digestive Health - Professional Naturopath Physician for digestive issues in Gold Coast -Gold coast digestive health ...
slideserve.com/ray-ramsey/digestive-tract-let-s-get-to-the-bottom-of-it

*  Biomin.net - Can Mycotoxins Effect Gastro-Intestinal Tract Function?

2008) observed increased digestive enzyme activities (protease, amylase, chymotrypsin, and trypsin) yet decreased apparent ... the modulation of GIT immune system has been less studied. The study by Watzl et al. (1999) in which no significant effects on ... Mycotoxin-induced disturbance of digestive enzyme and nutrient transporters may lead to intestinal disorders, resulting in ... Previous researchers have noted changes in pancreatic digestive enzyme activities and nutrient digestibility upon AF exposure, ...
biomin.net/en/articles/can-mycotoxins-effect-gastro-intestinal-tract-function/

*  Gentaur Molecular :Alpha Dia \ Newborn Mouse Digestive Tract ReadyBlot Protein Explorer, 1 blot \ MDWB-42

Newborn Mouse Digestive Tract ReadyBlot Protein Explorer, 1 blot \ MDWB-42 for more molecular products just contact us ... WP1624: Bacterial secretion system. WP1625: Base excision repair. WP1644: DNA replication. WP1650: Fluorobenzoate degradation. ... Newborn Mouse Digestive Tract ReadyBlot Protein Explorer, 1 blot mus musculus murine Newborn Mouse Digestive Tract ReadyBlot ... Index / Alpha Dia / Newborn Mouse Digestive Tract ReadyBlot Protein Explorer, 1 blot / Product Detail : MDWB-42 Newborn Mouse ...
antibody-antibodies.com/product_det.php?id=60220&supplier=search&name=Newborn Mouse Digestive Tract ReadyBlot Protein Explorer, 1 blot

*  Digestive System

But the digestive process actually starts even before the food hits your taste buds. ... About the Digestive System. Every morsel of food we eat has to be broken down into nutrients that can be absorbed by the body, ... The digestive system is made up of the alimentary canal and the other abdominal organs that play a part in digestion, such as ... But for the next 20 hours or so, your digestive system is doing its job as the food you ate travels through your body. ...
kidshealth.org/LAWW/en/teens/digestive-system.html

*  Digestive System

Find out more about the digestive system and how our bodies break down and absorb the food we eat. ... The digestive process starts even before the first bite of food. ... Digestive System. What's in this article?. *About the Digestive ... About the Digestive System. Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive system in which food enters the mouth, passes through ... The digestive system is made up of the alimentary canal (also called the digestive tract) and the other abdominal organs that ...
kidshealth.org/MultiCare/en/parents/digestive.html

*  Answers: Digestive System

Images provided by iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com ...
kidshealth.org/RadyChildrens/en/kids/bfs-dsanswers.html

*  digestive system

The digestive system is the organ system that includes the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and its accessory organs. ... Functions of the digestive system. The digestive system prepares nutrients for utilization by body cells through six activities ... Control of the digestive process. Hormone regulators. The major hormones that control the functions of the digestive system are ... The digestive system is the organ system that includes the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and its accessory organs. The ...
daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/D/digestive_system.html

*  Digestive System - BrainPOP

... you'll learn about the ins and outs of the digestive system! Find out how digestion happens, how long it takes, and what ...
https://brainpop.com/health/bodysystems/digestivesystem/

*  Digestive System stock photo 136199463 | iStock

Download this Digestive System photo now. And search more of the web's best library of royalty-free stock images from iStock. ... Digestive system - Stock image. .... Human Body Part, The Human Body, Abdomen, Analyzing, Anatomy. ...
istockphoto.com/photo/digestive-system-gm136199463-6176273?st=ad9d1e3

*  digestive system disease - Stomach | Britannica.com

... is any or all of the unpleasant symptoms that are associated with the malfunctioning of the digestive system. Indigestion may ... digestive system disease - Stomach: Indigestion, also called dyspepsia, ... drugs (in therapeutics: The gastrointestinal system) (in drug: Digestive system drugs) *viral infection (in virus: Infectious ... is any or all of the unpleasant symptoms that are associated with the malfunctioning of the digestive system. Indigestion may ...
https://britannica.com/science/human-digestive-system-disease/Stomach

*  Digestive System Quiz - By whoa

Can you name the parts of the digestive system? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your ... Science Quiz / Digestive System. Random Science Quiz Can you name the parts of the digestive system?. by whoa ...
https://sporcle.com/games/whoa/digestive_system

*  Smoking and the Digestive System | NIDDK

Describes how smoking affects various parts of the digestive system. ... What is the digestive system?. The digestive system is made up of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract-also called the digestive ... The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are the solid organs of the digestive system. The digestive system helps the body digest ... Digestive Diseases A-Z Smoking and the Digestive System. Smoking affects the entire body, increasing the risk of many life- ...
https://niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/smoking-digestive-system

*  digestive system fistula

... Summary. Summary: An abnormal passage communicating between any components of the digestive system, ... You are here: Research Topics , diseases , digestive system diseases , digestive system fistula ... digestive system surgical procedures*respiratory tract fistula*surgical anastomosis*liver diseases*gastrointestinal agents* ... Unidad de Endoscopia Digestiva, Servicio de Aparato Digestivo, Corporación Parc Taulí, Sabadell, CIBER EHD. Gastroenterol ...
https://labome.org/topics/diseases/digestive/digestive-system-fistula-6275.html

*  Digestive System by Laura Tucker on Prezi

Check out this article to learn more or contact your system administrator. ... Digestive System. Biology 2201 Digestive System by Laura Tucker. on 26 March 2012 ...
https://prezi.com/3sta7x5eexbh/digestive-system/

*  DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal and accesso-ry organs.. The alimentary canal includes the mouth, pharynx ... The organs of the digestive system are covered with the serous coat, the peritoneum. It has the visceral and parietal layers.. ...
https://br.com.ua/referats/Foreign_languages/8068.htm

*  Human Body Systems Digestive System |authorSTREAM

Human Body System: Human Body System Digestive System. Slide 2: And the digestive system will be busy at work on your chewed-up ... It is the first section of the digestive system that is located in the abdomen. ... Small & Large Intestine T he longest part of the digestive tract. It is about 26 to 30 feet (8 to 9 m) long and runs from the ... The part of the digestive tract that is a continuation of the esophagus. It is sometimes thought of as an expansion of the ...
authorstream.com/Presentation/jashaswini-1221390-human-body-systems-digestive/

*  digestive system diagnostic techniques

... Summary. Summary: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction ... digestive system surgical procedures*gastrointestinal tract*abdominal pain*dyspepsia*electric impedance*severity of illness ... Department of Digestive Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Croix Rousse Hospital, Lyon, France. J Am Coll Surg 196:60-7. 2003 ... Department of Digestive and Life style Related Disease, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences. ...
https://labome.org/topics/diagnostic/diagnosis/diagnostic/digestive-system-diagnostic-techniques-16263.html

*  Crazy Facts About the Digestive System - Mindhut - SparkNotes

Crazy Facts About the Digestive System. By Vadim Newquist Jun 27, 2013. Share!. Recommend this on Facebook Share on Tumblr ...
sparknotes.com/mindhut/2013/06/27/crazy-facts-about-the-digestive-system/slide/18

*  Termites' Digestive System Could Act As Biofuel Refinery - Redorbit

Image Caption: Mike Scharf's work with termites has shown that the insects' digestive systems may help break down woody biomass ...
redorbit.com/news/science/2074968/termites_digestive_system_could_act_as_biofuel_refinery/

*  Real Anatomy Digestive System Quiz - By calebt174aic

Can you name the Real Anatomy Digestive System organs Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare ... Tags:Anatomy Quiz, digestive, Digestive System, organ, system. Top Quizzes Today. Top Quizzes Today in Science. *Criteria ... Science Quiz / Real Anatomy Digestive System Quiz. Random Science or Anatomy Quiz ...
https://sporcle.com/games/calebt174aic/real-anatomy-digestive-system-quiz

*  The Digestive System by Tanitia Eggert on Prezi

Transcript of The Digestive System. mouth the opening through which humans take in food. pH is neutral. beginning of the ... pushes food along the digestive tract. begins in the esophagus and continues in all organs of the digestive tract insulin ... then an ulcer forms jejunum ileum ascending colon transverse colon descending colon The Digestive System By: Tanitia Eggert ... secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum. secretes insulin and glucagon to keep the blood glucose levels normal small ...
https://prezi.com/itteuejbfdao/the-digestive-system/

*  The Digestive System by Nathan Potts on Prezi

Check out this article to learn more or contact your system administrator. ... The Digestive System. A class project on the Digestive System by Nathan Potts. on 23 April 2010 ... A class project on the Digestive System ... The Digestive System II. A class project on the Digestive ...
https://prezi.com/b6n9bzut9r_p/the-digestive-system/

*  Biology4Kids.com: Animal Systems: Digestive System

This tutorial introduces the digestive system. Other sections include cells, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. ... The digestive system also works in parallel with your excretory system (kidneys and urination). While the digestive system ... Interacting with Other Systems. The digestive system works very closely with the circulatory system to get the absorbed ... What Does This System Do?. What does the system do? We're going to use you as the basis for our explanation of the digestive ...
biology4kids.com/files/systems_digestive.html

*  Your Digestive System Dictates Whether You're Sick or Not

Eighty percent of your immune system is located in your digestive system, making a healthy gut a major focal point if you want ... But the majority are good, and they work together as helpmates to aid your digestive system and keep you well. Beneficial ... Once you heal and seal your gut lining, and make your digestive system work properly again, disease symptoms will typically ... There is an emerging consensus that most disease originates in your digestive system. This includes both physical and mental ...
https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/01/02/digestive-system-gut-flora.aspx

Digestive system of gastropods: The digestive system of gastropods (slugs and snails of every kind) has evolved to suit almost every kind of diet and feeding behavior. Gastropods as the largest taxonomic class of the mollusca are very diverse indeed: the group includes carnivores, herbivores, scavengers, filter feeders, and even parasites.Prifinium bromideGastrointestinal physiology: Gastrointestinal physiology is a branch of human physiology addressing the physical function of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The major processes occurring in the GI system are that of motility, secretion, regulation, digestion and circulation.ClemastineEnteric duplication cyst: Enteric duplication cysts, sometimes simply called duplication cysts, are rare congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract. They most frequently occur in the small intestine, particularly the ileum, but can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract.Functional gastrointestinal disorder: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and involve visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastrointestinal motility. Heightened mast cell activation is a common factor among all FGIDs that contributes to visceral hypersensitivity as well as epithelial, neuromuscular, and motility dysfunction.Pancreatic bud: The ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds (or pancreatic diverticula) are outgrowths of the duodenum during human embryogenesis. They join together to form the adult pancreas.Andesobia jelskiiStomach diseaseLayout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Metastatic liver disease: A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply (the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein).Coles PhillipsBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingList of eponymous surgical procedures: Eponymous surgical procedures are generally named after the surgeon or surgeons who performed or reported them first. In some instances they are named after the surgeon who popularised them or refined existing procedures, and occasionally are named after the patient who first underwent the procedure.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Gene polymorphism

(1/2559) The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping.

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

(2/2559) Diverse developing mouse lineages exhibit high-level c-Myb expression in immature cells and loss of expression upon differentiation.

The c-myb gene encodes a sequence specific transactivator that is required for fetal hematopoiesis, but its potential role in other tissues is less clear because of the early fetal demise of mice with targeted deletions of the c-myb gene and incomplete of knowledge about c-myb's expression pattern. In the hematopoietic system, c-Myb protein acts on target genes whose expression is restricted to individual lineages, despite Myb's presence and role in multiple immature lineages. This suggests that c-Myb actions within different cell type-specific contexts are strongly affected by combinatorial interactions. To consider the possibility of similar c-Myb actions could extend into non-hematopoietic systems in other cell and tissue compartments, we characterized c-myb expression in developing and adult mice using in situ hybridization and correlated this with stage-specific differentiation and mitotic activity. Diverse tissues exhibited strong c-myb expression during development, notably tooth buds, the thyroid primordium, developing trachea and proximal branching airway epithelium, hair follicles, hematopoietic cells, and gastrointestinal crypt epithelial cells. The latter three of these all maintained high expression into adulthood, but with characteristic restriction to immature cell lineages prior to their terminal differentiation. In all sites, during fetal and adult stages, loss of c-Myb expression correlated strikingly with the initiation of terminal differentiation, but not the loss of mitotic activity. Based on these data, we hypothesize that c-Myb's function during cellular differentiation is both an activator of immature gene expression and a suppressor of terminal differentiation in diverse lineages.  (+info)

(3/2559) Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency and fluorouracil-related toxicity.

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) catabolism. We report lymphocytic DPD data concerning a group of 53 patients (23 men, 30 women, mean age 58, range 36-73), treated by 5-FU-based chemotherapy in different French institutions and who developed unanticipated 5-FU-related toxicity. Lymphocyte samples (standard collection procedure) were sent to us for DPD determination (biochemical method). Among the whole group of 53 patients, 19 had a significant DPD deficiency (DD; below 150 fmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, i.e. less than 70% of the mean value observed from previous population study). There was a greater majority of women in the DD group (15 out of 19, 79%) compared with the remaining 34 patients (15 out of 34, 44%, P<0.014). Toxicity was often severe, leading to patient death in two cases (both women). The toxicity score (sum of WHO grading, theoretical range 0-20) was twice as high in patients with marked DD (below 100 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, n = 11, mean score = 13.2) compared with patients with moderate DD (between 150 and 100 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, n = 8, mean score = 6.8), P = 0.008. In the DD group, there was a high frequency of neurotoxic syndromes (7 out of 19, 37%). The two deceased patients both had severe neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cardiac toxicity was relatively rare (1 out of 19, 5%). These data suggest that women are particularly prone to DPD deficiency and allow a more precise definition of the DD toxicity profile.  (+info)

(4/2559) The crayfish plasma clotting protein: a vitellogenin-related protein responsible for clot formation in crustacean blood.

Coagulation in crayfish blood is based on the transglutaminase-mediated crosslinking of a specific plasma clotting protein. Here we report the cloning of the subunit of this clotting protein from a crayfish hepatopancreas cDNA library. The ORF encodes a protein of 1,721 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 15 amino acids. Sequence analysis reveals that the clotting protein is homologous to vitellogenins, which are proteins found in vitellogenic females of egg-laying animals. The clotting protein and vitellogenins are all lipoproteins and share a limited sequence similarity to certain other lipoproteins (e.g., mammalian apolipoprotein B and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein) and contain a stretch with similarity to the D domain of mammalian von Willebrand factor. The crayfish clotting protein is present in both sexes, unlike the female-specific vitellogenins. Electron microscopy was used to visualize individual clotting protein molecules and to study the transglutaminase-mediated clotting reaction. In the presence of an endogenous transglutaminase, the purified clotting protein molecules rapidly assemble into long, flexible chains that occasionally branch.  (+info)

(5/2559) Efficacy of recombinant human Hb by 31P-NMR during isovolemic total exchange transfusion.

The ability of recombinant human Hb (rHb1.1), which is being developed as an oxygen therapeutic, to support metabolism was measured by in vivo 31P-NMR surface coil spectroscopy of the rat abdomen in control animals and in animals subjected to isovolemic exchange transfusion to hematocrit of <3% with human serum albumin or 5 g/dl rHb1.1. No significant changes in metabolite levels were observed in control animals for up to 6 h. The albumin-exchange experiments, however, resulted in a more than eightfold increase in Pi and a 50% drop in phosphocreatine and ATP within 40 min. The tissue pH dropped from 7.4 to 6.8. The decrease in high-energy phosphates obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 3% as the hematocrit at which a 50% drop in high-energy phosphates was observed. Exchange transfusion with rHb1.1 resulted in no significant drop in high-energy phosphates, no rise in Pi, and no change in tissue pH from 7.35 +/- 0.15 for up to 5 h after exchange. By these criteria, rHb1.1 at a plasma Hb concentration of approximately 5 g/dl after total exchange transfusion was able to sustain energy metabolism of gut tissue at levels indistinguishable from control rats with a threefold higher total Hb level in erythrocytes.  (+info)

(6/2559) Expression and localization of aquaporins in rat gastrointestinal tract.

A family of water-selective channels, aquaporins (AQP), has been demonstrated in various organs and tissues. However, the localization and expression of the AQP family members in the gastrointestinal tract have not been entirely elucidated. This study aimed to demonstrate the expression and distribution of several types of the AQP family and to speculate on their role in water transport in the rat gastrointestinal tract. By RNase protection assay, expression of AQP1-5 and AQP8 was examined in various portions through the gastrointestinal tract. AQP1 and AQP3 mRNAs were diffusely expressed from esophagus to colon, and their expression was relatively intense in the small intestine and colon. In contrast, AQP4 mRNA was selectively expressed in the stomach and small intestine and AQP8 mRNA in the jejunum and colon. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization demonstrated cellular localization of these AQP in these portions. AQP1 was localized on endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels in the submucosa and lamina propria throughout the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 was detected on the circumferential plasma membranes of stratified squamous epithelial cells in the esophagus and basolateral membranes of cardiac gland epithelia in the lower stomach and of surface columnar epithelia in the colon. However, AQP3 was not apparently detected in the small intestine. AQP4 was present on the basolateral membrane of the parietal cells in the lower stomach and selectively in the basolateral membranes of deep intestinal gland cells in the small intestine. AQP8 mRNA expression was demonstrated in the absorptive columnar epithelial cells of the jejunum and colon by in situ hybridization. These findings may indicate that water crosses the epithelial layer through these water channels, suggesting a possible role of the transcellular route for water intake or outlet in the gastrointestinal tract.  (+info)

(7/2559) Tissue tropism related to vector competence of Frankliniella occidentalis for tomato spotted wilt tospovirus.

The development of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) infection in the midgut and salivary glands of transmitting and non-transmitting thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, was studied to elucidate tissue tropism and the virus pathway within the body of this vector. Immunohistological techniques used in this study showed that the midgut, foregut and salivary glands were the only organs in which virus accumulated. The first signals of infection, observed as randomly distributed fluorescent granular spots, were found in the epithelial cells of the midgut, mainly restricted to the anterior region. The virus subsequently spread to the circular and longitudinal midgut muscle tissues, a process which occurred late in the larval stage. In the adult stage, the infection occurred in the visceral muscle tissues, covering the whole midgut and foregut, and was abolished in the midgut epithelium. The infection of the salivary glands was first observed 72 h post-acquisition, and simultaneously in the ligaments connecting the midgut with these glands. The salivary glands of transmitting individuals appeared heavily or completely infected, while no or only a low level of infection was found in the glands of non-transmitting individuals. Moreover, the development of an age-dependent midgut barrier against virus infection was observed in second instar larvae and adults. The results show that the establishment of TSWV infection in the various tissues and the potential of transmission seems to be regulated by different barriers and processes related to the metamorphosis of thrips.  (+info)

(8/2559) Endogenous nitric oxide in the maintenance of rat microvascular integrity against widespread plasma leakage following abdominal laparotomy.

1. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the maintenance of microvascular integrity during minor surgical manipulation has been evaluated in the rat. 2. The NO synthase inhibitors, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg kg(-1), s.c.) and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 50 mg kg(-1), s.c.) had no effect on microvascular leakage of radiolabelled albumin over 1 h in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, colon, lung and kidney in the un-operated conscious or pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rat. 3. In contrast, in anaesthetized rats with a midline abdominal laparotomy (5 cm), L-NAME (1-5 mg kg(-1), s.c.) or L-NMMA (12.5-50 mg kg(-1), s.c.) dose-dependently increased gastrointestinal, renal and pulmonary vascular leakage, effects reversed by L-arginine pretreatment (300 mg kg(-1), s.c., 15 min). These actions were not observed in anaesthetized rats that had only received a midline abdominal skin incision (5 cm). 4. Pretreatment with a rabbit anti-rat neutrophil serum (0.4 ml kg(-1), i.p.), 4 h before laparotomy, abolished the plasma leakage induced by L-NAME in all the organs investigated. 5. These results indicate that the following abdominal laparotomy, inhibition of constitutive NO synthase provokes vascular leakage in the general microcirculation, by a process that may involve neutrophils. Such effects could thus confound studies on the microvascular actions of NO synthase inhibitors using acute surgically prepared in vivo models. The findings thus suggest that constitutively-formed NO has a crucial role in the maintenance of acute microvascular integrity following abdominal surgical intervention.  (+info)



Diseases


  • The information obtained will allow for the evaluation of standard treatments of the studied digestive diseases. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Most widely held works about National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (U.S. (worldcat.org)

disorders


  • Some research studies focus on digestive disorders, such as nutritional, gastrointestinal, and liver disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Researchers want to examine and treat people with digestive disorders in order to learn more about these disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • They also want to study how digestive disorders run in some families. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To do so, they will provide standard care to people with digestive disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • They will also look at relatives of people with digestive disorders, such as parents, children, and siblings. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To examine and treat people with digestive disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate people with digestive disorders for research studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Individuals of any age who have digestive disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Individuals at least 2 years of age who are first-degree relatives of the people with digestive disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants with digestive disorders may be able to receive treatment through this study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Evaluating and treating participants will allow digestive care specialists to maintain their expertise and gain additional knowledge of the course of various digestive disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The protocol will also allow for trainees to receive training in the management of digestive disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Study Population: The number of participants for this evaluation and treatment protocol will be set to 500 patients with digestive disorders and their unaffected first-degree relatives. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Design: This is a natural history evaluation and treatment protocol of the progression and physiology of multiple digestive disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This page contains links to other Internet sites with information about digestive disorders. (nyhq.org)

stomach


  • Anorexia and nausea seem to be mediated through the central nervous system, with reflex input from nerve endings in the stomach and duodenum. (britannica.com)