Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Oligo-1,6-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-glucosidic linkages in isomaltose and dextrins produced from starch and glycogen by ALPHA-AMYLASES. EC 184.108.40.206.SucraseStarch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Potassium, Dietary: Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Recommended Dietary Allowances: The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
The bearing of dietary sucrose on the deciduous dentition of pre-schoolchildren in the Traansvaal... Richardson, B. D.; Cleaton- ... The bearing of dietary sucrose on the deciduous dentition of pre-schoolchildren in the Traansvaal. Login ...
HKU Scholars Hub: Modulation of the anti-Candida activity of apo-lactoferrin by dietary sucrose and tunicamycin in vitroArticle: Modulation of the anti-Candida activity of apo-lactoferrin by dietary sucrose and tunicamycin in vitro. *Show simple ... Modulation of the anti-Candida activity of apo-lactoferrin by dietary sucrose and tunicamycin in vitro. en_US. ... These results, when extrapolated in vivo, imply that dietary sucrose may diminish the anticandidal potency of salivary ... These results, when extrapolated in vivo, imply that dietary sucrose may diminish the anticandidal potency of salivary ...
Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiencyn Required for hydrolysis of dietary sucrose. n Catalyzes degradation of sucrose to monosaccharides for intestinal absorption. ... n Dietary restriction. n Elimination of sucrose, glucose polymers, starches in 1st year of life. n After 2-3 years, strict ... n Sucrose glucose + fructose. n Sucrase-isomaltase. n Lactose glucose + galactose. n Lactase. Congenital Sucrase Isomaltase ... n Sucrose (glucose+fructose). n Lactose (glucose+galactose). n Maltose (glucose+glucose). n Starches (polysaccharides). n ...
Endogenous nociceptin modulates diet preference independent of motivation and reward.Dietary Fats. Dietary Sucrose. Drinking Behavior / physiology. Female. Food Deprivation. Food Preferences / physiology*, ... 0/Blood Glucose; 0/Dietary Fats; 0/Dietary Sucrose; 0/Insulin; 0/Leptin; 0/Opioid Peptides; 0/Receptors, Opioid; 0/nociceptin; ... Taste reactivity to sucrose was unchanged in NOP KO mice, though NOP KO mice had altered aversive reactions to quinine ... When presented a choice under food restriction, NOP KO mice displayed reduced preference for high sucrose diet, but lower ...
Plus it1992) Dietary sucrose enhances insulin secretion of aging Fischer 344 rats. J. Nutr. 122:2196-2203. ... 1992) Insulin insensitivity is rapidly reversed in rats by reducing dietary fat from 40 to 30% of energy. J. Nutr. 122:1811- ... dietary nutrients have a profound influence on insulin action, and therefore, may contribute to the development of glucose ... High-sucrose diet-induced increases in glucose-stimulated pancreatic insulin secretion appear to be greater in older (,12 mo) ...
Plus itEffect of dietary sucrose on body weight of handled and nonhandled male rats. Sucrose supplementation began at 50 days of age ... Although body weight, weight gain in response to dietary enrichment with sucrose or lard, or body fat content did not differ in ... Effect of dietary lard on body weight of handled and nonhandled male rats. Dietary lard began at 60 days of age and continued ... Effect of neonatal handling and dietary sucrose on body weight, energy intake, and epididymal fat weight in male rats ...
Determining the relationship between dietary carbohydrate intake and insulin resistance | Nutrition Research Reviews |...Determining the relationship between dietary carbohydrate intake and insulin resistance - Volume 18 Issue 2 - Neville H. ... JP Bantle , JE Swanson , W Thomas & DC Laine (1993) Metabolic effects of dietary sucrose in type II diabetic subjects. Diabetes ... Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. EFSA Journal, Vol. 8, Issue. , p. 1462. ... G Frost , J Wilding & J Beecham (1994) Dietary advice based on the glycaemic index improves dietary profile and metabolic ...
Diabetes CareThe available evidence from clinical studies demonstrates that dietary sucrose does not increase glycemia more than isocaloric ... DIETARY FAT AND DIABETES. Fatty acids and dietary cholesterol. The primary dietary fat goal in persons with diabetes is to ... As sucrose does not increase glycemia to a greater extent than isocaloric amounts of starch, sucrose and sucrose-containing ... Thus, intake of sucrose and sucrose-containing foods by people with diabetes does not need to be restricted because of concern ...
Sugar in Western diets increases risk for breast cancer tumors and metastasis - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.comHow dietary sucrose and fructose induces 12-HETE and whether it has a direct or indirect effect remains in question." ... "This study suggests that dietary sucrose or fructose induced 12-LOX and 12-HETE production in breast tumor cells in vivo," said ... The study team believes that the mechanism by which dietary sucrose or fructose affects breast tumor growth and metastasis, ... "We found that sucrose intake in mice comparable to levels of Western diets led to increased tumor growth and metastasis, when ...
Reducing dental plaque formation and caries development : A review of current methods and implications for novel...Dental caries remains one of the most prevalent human diseases due to uncontrolled increase of dietary sucrose consumption in ... Sucrose is metabolized by Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus to acids causing tooth decay. These streptococci ... anaerobically on glass slides inserted vertically in 24-well cell culture plates containing Todd Hewitt broth with sucrose and ... produce glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) for synthesis of sticky glucan polymers from sucrose, which is important for biofilm ...
Increased extracellular adenosine in Drosophila that are deficient in adenosine deaminase activates a release of energy stores...... originating most probably from dietary sucrose) levels high, while lowering glycogen storage. Therefore, there might be an ... At the end, sucrose was added to make 5 or 10% w/v (for the pure yeast diet, no sucrose was added) and briefly boiled. The ... This in turn is expressed as a thick fat body of the rescued larvae on 10% sucrose. The rescue by diets higher in sucrose ... The adoR mutation greatly enhances the survival on both pure yeast diet (0% sucrose) and yeast supplemented with 5% sucrose (P= ...
Reap Benefits of Calorie Restriction without Chronic HungerOsaki S, Kimura T, Sugimoto T, Hizukuri S, Iritani N. L-Arabinose feeding prevents increases due to dietary sucrose in ... Dietary fats, for instance, are broken down by lipase enzymes in the stomach and small intestines. Taking 120 mg of the lipase- ... Dietary restriction in mice beginning at 1 year of age: effect on life span and spontaneous cancer incidence. Science. 1982 Mar ... The harsh reality is that study subjects must reduce their dietary fat intake and take orlistat to lose just 20.5 pounds in one ...
Bombycoidea - WikipediaEN) Sumida, M. & Ueda, H., Dietary sucrose suppresses midgut sucrase activity in germfree, fifth instar larvae of the silkworm ... EN) Sumida, M. & Ueda, H., Dietary sucrose suppresses midgut sucrase activity in germfree, fifth instar larvae of the silkworm ...
Omega 3 fatty acid found to stop liver damage from getting worse... low-sucrose dietary recommendations has historically been poor.". The current medical approach to NASH is based on lifestyle ...
Growth in the presence of sucrose may decrease attachment of some oral bacteria to abiotic surfacesSynthesis of cell-bound glucan from dietary sucrose by oral pathogenic bacteria may influence bacterial cell surface properties ... Additional sucrose also inhibited the attachment of three strains (0.6-1.3 log CFU cm−2) and enhanced that of one strain (0.5- ... Growth in the presence of sucrose may decrease attachment of some oral bacteria to abiotic surfaces. ... The results showed that the additional sucrose reduced the hydrophobicity of three strains (44-62 %) and increased that of one ...
Dental Caries | Pediatrics Clerkship | The University of ChicagoBacteria on the teeth, such as Steptococcus mutans (S. mutans) ferments dietary sucrose which in turn produces acids that ... S. mutans is also able to produce glycans from sucrose. Glycans are adhesive polymers that enable the bacteria to stick to the ...
JCI - Monosaccharide-induced lipogenesis regulates the human hepatic sex hormone-binding globulin geneSucrose, a major dietary disaccharide, is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose prior to absorption. Therefore, to isolate the ... sucrose; TD 98029; Harlan-Teklad) or a semisynthetic diet containing casein as the source of protein and in which sucrose, ... were reduced by feeding a high-sucrose diet. Animals (3 per group) were fed a basal diet (squares) or a high-sucrose diet ( ... A and B) Mice were fed high-sucrose or isocaloric basal diets for 7 days (3 per group), and the diets were then reversed in two ...
Lucas Tafur: 2012... and S.mutans is only pathogenic in the presence of sucrose (17). Dietary sucrose has been shown to increase total viable ... Sucrose alone seem to be more cariogenic than sucrose plus fructose (19, 20). Additionally, sucrose alters the ionic ... Effects of dietary PUFAs on immune cells. It is important to note that, although LCFA (which means they stimulate chylomicron ... If dietary fat were indeed to blame, it can be expected that the higher the fat content, the higher the measures of oxidative ...
Dental Plaques: Microbial Community of the Oral Cavity | MedCraveThese bacteria on the tooth surface are capable of fermenting the dietary sucrose resulting in the production of acids which in ... Sugar substitutes instead of dietary sugar are a better option as these cannot be directly broken down by bacteria and this in ... Acid production from the microbial metabolism of dietary sugars and low pH in dental biofilms causes several dire consequences ...
Biology-Online • View topic - How much ATP a person consumes...?4 dietary kCal / g sucrose )( 342.3 grams / 1 mole sucrose) ( 1 mole sucrose / 6.02 x 10^23 molecules) ,--- i don't know where ... 500g of sucrose. 500g sucrose / 342.3g molecular weight of sucrose = 1.4607 moles of sucrose.. 1.4607 moles of sucrose x 6.02 x ... 500g of sucrose. 500g sucrose / 342.3g molecular weight of sucrose = 1.4607 moles of sucrose.. 1.4607 moles of sucrose x 6.02 x ... 500g of sucrose.. 500g sucrose / 342.3g molecular weight of sucrose = 1.4607 moles of sucrose.. 1.4607 moles of sucrose x 6.02 ...
a Recipes for the Specific Carbohydrate Diet: The Grain-Free, Lactose-Free, Sugar-Free Solution to IBD, Celiac Disease, Autism,...DIV,The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) is a strict grain-free, lactose-free, and sucrose-free dietary regimen intended for ... The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) is a strict grain-free, lactose-free, and sucrose-free dietary regimen intended for those ... The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) is a strict grain-free, lactose-free, and sucrose-free dietary regimen intended for those ...
M O Poulterdietary sucrose*paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus*genetic epigenesis*suicide*frontal lobe*major depressive disorder*neuronal ...
Sonja Y Hessdietary sucrose*flour*vitamin a deficiency*zinc*human experimentation*infant food*nutrition disorders*diet surveys*nutritive ... dietary fats*dietary supplements*triticum*socioeconomic factors*intestinal mucosa*citrulline*reference values*intestinal ...
Sara Bleichdietary sucrose*beverages*food labeling*socioeconomic factors*carbonated beverages*counseling*public health*health behavior* ...
K Marshdietary sucrose*malaria vaccines*antigenic variation*anemia*hypovolemia*research*district hospitals*developing countries* ...
Sucrose gap: The sucrose gap technique is used to create a conduction block in nerve or muscle fibers. A high concentration of sucrose is applied to the extracellular space to increase resistance between two groups of cells, which prevents the correct opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Sucrase: Sucrase is the name given to a number of enzymes located in on the brush border of the small intestine that catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose to fructose and glucose. The enzyme invertase, which occurs more commonly in plants, also hydrolyzes sucrose but by a different mechanism.Starch gelatinization: Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water.JejunumAnimal fatProtein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Complete Wheat Bran Flakes: Kellogg's Complete Wheat Bran Flakes is a breakfast cereal containing 100% of the United States' Recommended Dietary Allowance of eleven vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B1, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, E, and Iron, Riboflavin, Folic Acid, and Zinc. One 3/4 cup serving contains 3 grams of protein, 5 grams of dietary fiber and 90 calories, 5 of which come from fat.Dietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.Calcium deficiency (plant disorder): Calcium (Ca) deficiency is a plant disorder that can be caused by insufficient calcium in the growing medium, but is more frequently a product of low transpiration of the whole plant or more commonly the affected tissue. Plants are susceptible to such localized calcium deficiencies in low or nontranspiring tissues because calcium is not transported in the phloem.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Salt and cardiovascular disease: Salt consumption has been intensely studied for its role in human physiology and impact on human health. In particular, excessive dietary salt consumption over an extended period of time has been associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease, in addition to other adverse health effects.Dry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.Sweetness: Sweetness is one of the five basic tastes and is universally regarded as a pleasurable experience, except perhaps in excess. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as sugar are those most commonly associated with sweetness, although there are other natural and artificial compounds that are sweet at much lower concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes.Vegetable juiceBuoyant density ultracentrifugation: Buoyant density centrifugation uses the concept of buoyancy to separate molecules in solution. Usually a caesium chloride (CsCl) solution is used, but in the general case it's usually approximately the same density as the molecules that are to be centrifuged.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Fructose malabsorptionFruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GITaste: Taste, gustatory perception, or gustationAdjectival form: [is the sensory impression of food] or other substances on the tongue and is one of the [[sense|five traditional senses.Heptadecanoic acidInvertase: Invertase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose (table sugar). Alternate names for invertase include , saccharase, glucosucrase, beta-h-fructosidase, beta-fructosidase, invertin, sucrase, maxinvert L 1000, fructosylinvertase, alkaline invertase, acid invertase, and the systematic name: beta-fructofuranosidase.Abscisate beta-glucosyltransferase: Abscisate beta-glucosyltransferase (, ABA-glucosyltransferase, ABA-GTase, AOG) is an enzyme with system name UDP-D-glucose:abscisate beta-D-glucosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionHealthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.CholesterolGeneral Mills monster-themed breakfast cereals
(1/586) Apparent ileal and total-tract nutrient digestion by pigs as affected by dietary nondigestible oligosaccharides.
The effects of two types of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS) were studied on growing and weanling pigs' nutrient digestion. Dietary NDO were included at the expense of purified cellulose. Twenty-five 57-d-old growing pigs, averaging 15.9+/-.6 kg on d 0 of the experiment, were fed a corn-based control diet or the control with 6.8 or 13.5 g of FOS/kg or 4.0 or 8.0 g of TOS/kg (five pigs per diet). Feces were collected on d 28 to 32, and small-intestinal digesta were collected (slaughter technique) on d 42 to 47 of the experiment. Feeds, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, inorganic matter, CP, ether extract, and crude fiber. Dietary NDO did not significantly affect apparent fecal and small intestinal digestion of nutrients in growing pigs. After being fed a NDO-free diet through d 10 after weaning, 38-d-old weanling pigs (n = 20), averaging 10.4+/-.8 kg on d 0 of the experiment, were fed a control diet (based on cornstarch, casein, and oat husk meal) or the control with 10 or 40 g of FOS or TOS/kg (four pigs per diet). Feces and urine were collected on d 13 to 17, and ileal digesta were collected via a postvalve T-cecum cannula on d 33 to 37 of the experiment. Feeds, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, inorganic matter, CP, ether extract, starch, NDF, ADF, ADL, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn. Nonstarch neutral-detergent soluble carbohydrates (NNSC) completed the mass balance for the carbohydrates. Urine was analyzed for N and minerals. The apparent fecal digestion of NNSC increased in the NDO-supplemented diets. The TOS-fed pigs tended (P<.10) to have a higher apparent fecal digestion of CP than the FOS-fed and control pigs but excreted more N via the urine (P<.01). Nitrogen and mineral balances were not affected. The FOS was nearly completely degraded prececally. Mean fiber digestion was lower at the fecal compared with the ileal level, as was the extent of NDO effects. This indicates that fiber digestion requires more than 2 wk to adapt to dietary NDO. Apparent ileal digestion of hemicellulose increased for the NDO-supplemented diets (P<.05), but that of NNSC decreased (P<.001). Thus, under the well-controlled conditions of this experiment, dietary NDO hardly affected nutrient digestion in well-kept growing and weanling pigs. However, digestion of dietary nonstarch carbohydrates may be affected. (+info)
(2/586) Insulin resistance of muscle glucose transport in male and female rats fed a high-sucrose diet.
It has been reported that, unlike high-fat diets, high-sucrose diets cause insulin resistance in the absence of an increase in visceral fat and that the insulin resistance develops only in male rats. This study was done to 1) determine if isolated muscles of rats fed a high-sucrose diet are resistant to stimulation of glucose transport when studied in vitro and 2) obtain information regarding how the effects of high-sucrose and high-fat diets on muscle insulin resistance differ. We found that, compared with rat chow, semipurified high-sucrose and high-starch diets both caused increased visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance of skeletal muscle glucose transport. Insulin responsiveness of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) transport measured in epitrochlearis and soleus muscles in vitro was decreased approximately 40% (P < 0.01) in both male and female rats fed a high-sucrose compared with a chow diet. The high-sucrose diet also caused resistance of muscle glucose transport to stimulation by contractions. There was a highly significant negative correlation between stimulated muscle 2-DG transport and visceral fat mass. In view of these results, the differences in insulin action in vivo observed by others in rats fed isocaloric high-sucrose and high-starch diets must be due to additional, specific effects of sucrose that do not carry over in muscles studied in vitro. We conclude that, compared with rat chow, semipurified high-sucrose and high-cornstarch diets, like high-fat diets, cause increased visceral fat accumulation and severe resistance of skeletal muscle glucose transport to stimulation by insulin and contractions. (+info)
(3/586) Rapidly available glucose in foods: an in vitro measurement that reflects the glycemic response.
BACKGROUND: A chemically based classification of dietary carbohydrates that takes into account the likely site, rate, and extent of digestion is presented. The classification divides dietary carbohydrates into sugars, starch fractions, and nonstarch polysaccharides, and groups them into rapidly available glucose (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG) as to the amounts of glucose (from sugar and starch, including maltodextrins) likely to be available for rapid and slow absorption, respectively, in the human small intestine. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that RAG is an important food-related determinant of the glycemic response. DESIGN: The measurement of RAG, SAG, and starch fractions by an in vitro technique is described, based on the measurement by HPLC of the glucose released from a test food during timed incubation with digestive enzymes under standardized conditions. Eight healthy adult subjects consumed 8 separate test meals ranging in RAG content from 11 to 49 g. RESULTS: The correlation between glycemic response and RAG was highly significant (P < 0.0001) and a given percentage increase in RAG was associated with the same percentage increase in glycemic response. After subject variation was accounted for, RAG explained 70% of the remaining variance in glycemic response. CONCLUSIONS: We show the significance of in vitro measurements of RAG in relation to glycemic response in human studies. The simple in vitro measurement of RAG and SAG is of physiologic relevance and could serve as a tool for investigating the importance of the amount, type, and form of dietary carbohydrates for health. (+info)
(4/586) Net postprandial utilization of [15N]-labeled milk protein nitrogen is influenced by diet composition in humans.
The aim of this study was to follow the fate of dietary nitrogen to assess the postprandial utilization of purified milk protein and to determine the acute influence of energy nutrients. For this purpose, a [15N]-labeling dietary protein approach was used. Twenty-five subjects swallowed an ileal tube and ingested [15 N]-milk protein alone or supplemented with either milk fat or sucrose. The absorption and postprandial deamination of dietary protein was monitored for 8 h. Sucrose delayed the absorption of protein longer than fat, but the ileal digestibility did not differ among groups (94.5-94.8%). Sucrose, but not fat, significantly reduced the postprandial transfer of [15N]-milk nitrogen to urea. Consequently, the net postprandial protein utilization (NPPU) of milk protein calculated 8 h after meal ingestion was 80% when ingested either alone or supplemented with fat and was significantly greater with sucrose (NPPU = 85%). This study shows that energy nutrients do not affect the nitrogen absorption but modify the metabolic utilization of dietary protein in the phase of nitrogen gain. Our method provides information concerning the deamination kinetics of dietary amino acids and further allows the detection of differences of dietary protein utilization in acute conditions. The diet composition should be carefully considered, and protein quality must be determined under optimal conditions of utilization. (+info)
(5/586) Sucrase-isomaltase and hexose transporter gene expressions are coordinately enhanced by dietary fructose in rat jejunum.
We previously demonstrated that the levels of mRNAs of both sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and sodium/D-glucose transporter (SGLT1) are modulated by dietary sucrose in the rat jejunum. In the present study, we investigated whether the transcription of the gene coding SI is regulated by certain types of monosaccharides. Force-feeding a fructose and sucrose diet, (40% energy as fructose or sucrose) gave rise to parallel increases in the transcripts of SI and intestinal hexose transporters (SGLT1, GLUT5, and GLUT2) within 12 h. Force-feeding a glycerol-containing diet also caused an enhancement of SI, SGLT1, and GLUT2 mRNA levels. However, feeding the diet containing glucose or alpha-methylglucoside generally did not increase the transcript levels of SI or the intestinal hexose transporters. Nuclear run-on assays revealed that fructose as well as sucrose increased the transcription of both SI and GLUT5 genes and that the transcription rates of these genes were unaffected by glucose. These results suggest that fructose (or a metabolite) is capable of increasing the mRNA levels of SI and hexose transporters in the small intestine and that transcriptional regulation might play a pivotal role in the carbohydrate-induced coordinate enhancement of SI and fructose transporter gene expression (+info)
(6/586) Western-type diets induce insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in LDL receptor-deficient mice but do not increase aortic atherosclerosis compared with normoinsulinemic mice in which similar plasma cholesterol levels are achieved by a fructose-rich diet.
The role of insulin resistance (IR) in atherogenesis is poorly understood, in part because of a lack of appropriate animal models. We assumed that fructose-fed LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice might be a model of IR and atherosclerosis because (1) fructose feeding induces hyperinsulinemia and IR in rats; (2) a preliminary experiment showed that fructose feeding markedly increases plasma cholesterol levels in LDLR-/- mice; and (3) hypercholesterolemic LDLR-/- mice develop extensive atherosclerosis. To test whether IR could be induced in LDLR-/- mice, 3 groups of male mice were fed a fructose-rich diet (60% of total calories; n=16), a fat-enriched (Western) diet intended to yield the same plasma cholesterol levels (n=18), or regular chow (n=7) for approximately 5.5 months. The average cholesterol levels of both hypercholesterolemic groups were similar (849+/-268 versus 964+/-234 mg/dL) and much higher than in the chow-fed group (249+/-21 mg/dL). Final body weights in the Western diet group were higher (39+/-6.2 g) than in the fructose- (27.8+/-2.7 g) or chow-fed (26.7+/-3.8 g) groups. Contrary to expectation, IR was induced in mice fed the Western diet, but not in fructose-fed mice. The Western diet group had higher average glucose levels (187+/-16 versus 159+/-12 mg/dL) and 4.5-fold higher plasma insulin levels. Surprisingly, the non-insulin-resistant, fructose-fed mice had significantly more atherosclerosis than the insulin-resistant mice fed Western diet (11.8+/-2.9% versus 7.8+/-2. 5% of aortic surface; P<0.01). These results suggest that (1) fructose-enriched diets do not induce IR in LDLR-/- mice; (2) the Western diets commonly used in LDLR-/- mice may not only induce atherosclerosis, but also IR, potentially complicating the interpretation of results; and (3) IR and hyperinsulinemia do not enhance atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice, at least under conditions of very high plasma cholesterol levels. The fact that various levels of hypercholesterolemia can be induced in LDLR-/- mice by fat-enriched diets and that such diets induce IR and hyperinsulinemia suggest that LDLR-/- mice may be used as models to elucidate the effect of IR on atherosclerosis, eg, by feeding them Western diets with or without insulin-sensitizing agents. (+info)
(7/586) Effect of diet on fat cell size and hormone-sensitive lipase activity.
This study was designed to examine the relationship between diet-induced insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia, fat cell hypertrophy, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) to elucidate whether an attenuated HSL activity leads to obesity. Female Fischer 344 rats were fed either a low-fat, complex-carbohydrate diet or a high-fat, refined-sugar (HFS) diet for 2 wk, 2 mo, or 6 mo. Adipose tissue morphology and HSL activity as well as plasma free fatty acid and glycerol levels were determined at these times. No differences between groups were seen after 2 wk except the previously reported hyperinsulinemia in the HFS animals. At both 2 and 6 mo, the HFS animals demonstrated adipocyte hypertrophy. Basal and stimulated HSL activities and plasma glycerol were significantly elevated in the HFS group. There was a positive correlation between adipocyte size and HSL activity for both basal and stimulated states. These results demonstrate that an attenuated HSL activity is not observed with the onset of insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia and therefore does not play a role in the development of obesity. (+info)
(8/586) Association between preference for sweets and excessive alcohol intake: a review of animal and human studies.
This report reviews a series of studies demonstrating a relationship between the consumption of sweets and alcohol consumption. There is consistent evidence linking the consumption of sweets to alcohol intake in both animals and humans, and there are indications that this relationship may be at least partially genetic in nature. Alcohol-preferring rats have a tendency to consume sucrose and saccharin solutions far beyond the limits of their normal fluid intake and this has been proposed to be a model of the clinical phenomenon known as loss of control. Furthermore, rats and mice, genetically bred to prefer alcohol, tend to choose more concentrated sweet solutions, compared to animals which do not prefer alcohol. Similar tendencies to prefer ultra-sweet solutions have been noted in studies of alcoholic subjects, with most alcoholics preferring sweeter sucrose solutions than do controls. Evidence also exists that those alcoholics who prefer sweeter solutions may represent a familial form of alcoholism. Finally, consumption of sweets and/or sweet solutions may significantly suppress alcohol intake in both animals and in alcoholics. Carbohydrate structure and sweet taste may contribute to this effect through different physiological mechanisms involving serotonergic, opioid, and dopaminergic functions. The possibility that there is concordance between sweet liking and alcohol consumption and/or alcoholism has theoretical, biological, and diagnostic/practical implications. (+info)
- The study also showed that numbers of lung metastases were significantly higher in mice on a sucrose- or a fructose-enriched diet, versus mice on a starch-control diet. (healthcanal.com)
- This study suggests that dietary sucrose or fructose induced 12-LOX and 12-HETE production in breast tumor cells in vivo," said Cohen. (healthcanal.com)
- How dietary sucrose and fructose induces 12-HETE and whether it has a direct or indirect effect remains in question. (healthcanal.com)
- The study team believes that the mechanism by which dietary sucrose or fructose affects breast tumor growth and metastasis, especially through the 12-LOX pathways, warrants further investigation. (healthcanal.com)
- Sucrose has one glucose and one fructose -which can be isomerized into glucose, hence equals two glucoses. (biology-online.org)
- Sucrose consists of Glucose and Fructose. (biology-online.org)
- These streptococci produce glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) for synthesis of sticky glucan polymers from sucrose, which is important for biofilm formation on teeth. (mah.se)
- dietary nutrients have a profound influence on insulin action, and therefore, may contribute to the development of glucose intolerance and type II diabetes ( 10 ). (physiology.org)
- Similarly, variations in the amount of sucrose in diets containing similar total amounts of carbohydrate influenced the magnitude of increase in fasting levels of insulin, glucose, and triglycerides in humans ( 21 , 32 ) and the tissue distribution of insulin resistance in rats ( 26 ). (physiology.org)
- Despite inherent limitations associated with techniques used to measure insulin resistance and dietary assessment, most intervention studies reveal an increase in glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity with high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. (cambridge.org)
- Dietary fats, for instance, are broken down by lipase enzymes in the stomach and small intestines. (prohealth.com)
- Dietary fats (usually 18 to 20 carbons) contain approximately 8 dietary calories per gram. (biology-online.org)
- If you read the last sentence of the first paragraph it says 'Dietary fats (usually 18 to 20 carbons) contain approximately 9 dietary calories per gram. (biology-online.org)
- I'm pretty sure that we need to include the dietary fats (or he is just trying to trick us). (biology-online.org)
- Synthesis of cell-bound glucan from dietary sucrose by oral pathogenic bacteria may influence bacterial cell surface properties and colonization of surfaces. (edu.au)
- When presented a choice under food restriction, NOP KO mice displayed reduced preference for high sucrose diet, but lower intake of high fat diet under no-choice conditions. (biomedsearch.com)
- We found that sucrose intake in mice comparable to levels of Western diets led to increased tumor growth and metastasis, when compared to a non-sugar starch diet," said Peiying Yang, Ph.D. , assistant professor of Palliative, Rehabilitation, and Integrative Medicine . (healthcanal.com)
- Previous epidemiological studies have shown that dietary sugar intake has an impact on breast cancer development, with inflammation thought to play a role. (healthcanal.com)
- The harsh reality is that study subjects must reduce their dietary fat intake and take orlistat to lose just 20.5 pounds in one year. (prohealth.com)
- There are a little less than 4 dietary calories (kCal) in a gram of sucrose (table sugar). (biology-online.org)
- 2,000 KCal for our diet / 4 KCal in a gram of sucrose = 500g of sucrose. (biology-online.org)
- However, this is assuming that all we eat throughout the day is 2,000 KCal or 500g of pure sucrose (table sugar). (biology-online.org)
- 2010. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre . (cambridge.org)
- It also appears that the duration of exposure to either a high-fat ( 19 ) or high-sucrose ( 27 ) diet will influence the tissue distribution of insulin resistance. (physiology.org)
- Nutritional recommendations for insulin resistance remain an area of controversy, particularly the quantity and types of dietary carbohydrate. (cambridge.org)
- The present review gives an overview of insulin resistance, its relationship to impaired insulin secretion and the metabolic syndrome, research methodologies used to measure insulin action and the epidemiological and intervention studies on the relationship between dietary carbohydrate and insulin resistance. (cambridge.org)
- Dental caries remains one of the most prevalent human diseases due to uncontrolled increase of dietary sucrose consumption in modern society. (mah.se)
- At six months of age, 30 percent of mice on a starch-control diet had measurable tumors, whereas 50 to 58 percent of the mice on sucrose-enriched diets had developed mammary tumors. (healthcanal.com)
- Epidemiological studies provide little evidence to suggest that total dietary carbohydrate predicts risk of type 2 diabetes, and high-carbohydrate, high-fibre diets with low-glycaemic index (GI) may even contribute to diabetes prevention. (cambridge.org)
- Taste reactivity to sucrose was unchanged in NOP KO mice, though NOP KO mice had altered aversive reactions to quinine solutions under ad libitum feeding, suggesting minor differences in the affective impact of palatable and unpalatable tastants. (biomedsearch.com)
- Sucrose is metabolized by Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus to acids causing tooth decay. (mah.se)
- Bacteria on the teeth, such as Steptococcus mutans ( S. mutans ) ferments dietary sucrose which in turn produces acids that promote demineralization & eventually tooth decay. (uchicago.edu)
- I haven't gotten that far yet in the book to understand how much ATP dietary fat produces. (biology-online.org)
- Mixed culture of S. mutans and S. sobrinus bacteria were grown anaerobically on glass slides inserted vertically in 24-well cell culture plates containing Todd Hewitt broth with sucrose and sterile saliva under exposure to antisense or missense PS-ODNs at final concentration of 10 microM. (mah.se)
- The ability of dietary nutrients to influence insulin action is dependent on a number of factors including the amount of the nutrient in the diet, the duration of exposure to the nutrient, and other lifestyle factors (e.g., physical activity). (physiology.org)
- Known apo-LF-sensitive isolates of both C. albicans and C. krusei demonstrated significantly increased resistance to apo-LF when preincubated in sucrose-supplemented media, but such preincubation had no effect on an apo-LF-resistant isolate of C. albicans, irrespective of the sugar concentration in the medium. (hku.hk)
- Body weight gain was not significantly different among dietary groups within a given age. (physiology.org)
- These data suggest that dietary nutrient-induced changes in insulin secretion, triglyceride concentration, and, potentially, insulin action may be significantly influenced by the age at which a given dietary nutrient is provided. (physiology.org)
- The high amounts of dietary sugar in the typical Western diet may increase the risk of breast cancer and metastasis to the lungs, according to a study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center . (healthcanal.com)
- 4 ) demonstrated that a high-sucrose diet (70% by weight) increased serum triglycerides in older (body wt 500 g at start of dietary period) compared with weanling rats. (physiology.org)
- This difference in the triglyceride response to a high-sucrose diet at different points in the life span may have implications for sucrose-induced changes in insulin action ( 27 , 33 ). (physiology.org)
- Toward this end, the effects of a high-starch (control diet), high-sucrose diet (HSD), and high-fat diet (HFD) on whole body and tissue-specific insulin action were determined in rats at four different points in the life span. (physiology.org)
- This study investigated the effects of the addition of 2 % sucrose to culture medium on cell surface properties (hydrophobicity, charge, and auto-aggregation) and colonization activities (attachment and biofilm formation) on three abiotic surfaces (hydroxyapatite, glass, and stainless steel) of two Streptococcus mutans strains, one Streptococcus salivarius strain, one Streptococcus mitis strain, and one Actinomyces naeslundii strain. (edu.au)
- Cohen added that the data suggested that dietary sugar induces 12-LOX signaling to increase risks for breast cancer development and metastasis. (healthcanal.com)
- The current study investigated the impact of dietary sugar on mammary gland tumor development in multiple mouse models, along with mechanisms that may be involved," said co-author Lorenzo Cohen, Ph.D. , professor of Palliative, Rehabilitation, and Integrative Medicine. (healthcanal.com)
- Referring to the use of DHA supplementation to address problems with NASH, the researchers said in their study that "this scenario will likely be used clinically since patient compliance to low-fat, low-sucrose dietary recommendations has historically been poor. (yahoo.com)
- Although body weight, weight gain in response to dietary enrichment with sucrose or lard, or body fat content did not differ in handled and nonhandled animals, handled rats displayed heavier abdominal fat depots than nonhandled animals, implying a difference in body fat distribution. (physiology.org)
- The sensitivity to apo-lactoferrin (apo-LF) of two oral isolates each of Candida albicans and C. krusei preincubated in either sucrose- or tunicamycin-supplemented media was investigated. (hku.hk)
- For example, Harris and Kor ( 12 ) demonstrated that a reduction in dietary fat from 40 to 30% of total energy produced rapid improvement in insulin action in rats. (physiology.org)
- From the above evidence, researchers thought they had found the link between dietary fat and inflammation. (blogspot.com)
- We might see this dietary fatty acid profile as a "natural" one. (blogspot.com)
- These results, when extrapolated in vivo, imply that dietary sucrose may diminish the anticandidal potency of salivary lactoferrin. (hku.hk)
- In addition, it is currently unclear if age can modify the ability of dietary nutrients to influence insulin action. (physiology.org)
- The findings, published in the Jan. 1 online issue of Cancer Research, demonstrated dietary sugar's effect on an enzymatic signaling pathway known as 12-LOX (12-lipoxygenase). (healthcanal.com)
- 31 In other words, even when dietary fatabsorption is reduced by 30%, we still take in too many fat calories. (prohealth.com)